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Full text of "New York World's Fair cook book: the American kitchen"

NTfF IIC. 122 



CROSBY GAIGE 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR 
COOK BOOK 



NEW YORK 
WORLD'S FAI 

COOK BOOK 

THE AMERICAN KITCHEN 

By 
CROSBY GAIGE 




OFFICIALLY APPROVED BY THE NEW YORK WORLD S FAIR I939 

DOUBLEDAY, DORAN & COMPANY, INC. 
NEW YORK 1939 



printed AT the Country Life Press, garden city, n. y., u. s. a. 



cl 

COPYRIGHT, I939 

BY CROSBY GAIGE 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 

FIRST EDITION 



This book is dedicated to the home econo- 
mists of the United States of America — 
those fine and intelligent women whose un- 
tiring efforts have been the preponderant 
factor in elevating the cause of good living 
in America. Their generous contributions 
towards the accomplishment of this book 
constitute a unique and important chapter in 
our culinary lore. 

CROSBY GAIGE 



New York, March 2J , 193Q 



Preface 



The association of good food and fairs is traditional in America, its 
roots going back to the very beginnings of the country to the first live- 
stock fairs held in agricultural communities. At these gatherings of the 
farming and village gentry there was a seemly display of American food 
on the hoof, in the raw so to speak. Fine hogs, little lambs that went 
baa-a, handsome cattle, proud and dignified, chickens, ducks, geese and 
turkeys, prize pumpkins, rosy apples, superb cabbages — shown, to be 
sure, not so much as prospective edibles to the admiring throng gath- 
ered around them, but as examples of what the well-stocked farm 
should have as starters. Progenitors of a nation's food supply were these 
displays. Incidentally some of the best things ever eaten by man were 
carried to these fairs in the basket lunches of the farm wives and vil- 
lagers of the day. 

From crossroads fairs we progressed to county and state fairs, and 
now in 1939 comes the greatest fair the land has ever known — an inter- 
national exhibition representative of every industry and art in our broad 
continent and reflecting at the same time the arts and industries of 
nearly every country of the rest of the world. 

Now since the character of our fairs has been expanded so widely 
there, nevertheless, is still an occasion for food to be discussed in rela- 
tion to such an event. I doubt if there will be many basket lunches 
carried to the New York World's Fair of 1939. Certainly there will 
be no need for such burdens, no matter how savory the contents, be- 
cause to feed the hungry thousands who will attend there are distin- 
guished restaurants set up, staffed and operated by foreign exhibitors, 
with their native dishes superbly cooked by native chefs. And of course, 
in addition, there will be many American restaurants on the grounds of 
the New York fair, not to mention the several thousands of tearooms, 
restaurants, hotel dining rooms and cafes of Manhattan which always 
function and which will be especially on their toes to appeal to the vis- 
itors of the fair. Basket luncheons indeed! 

Just the same, this occasion calls to mind those old-time baskets over- 
flowing with the delicious simples of our early kitchens. And to those 



Vlll 



PREFACE 



good housewives of bygone days whose arts of the kitchen were the 
forerunners of our modern cookery, I present my gratitude. No attempt 
has been made in this collection to present a uniform cook book in the 
pattern of the standard volumes usually prepared. This is a selection 
of recipes from the six geographical sections of the United States ; count- 
less delicious dishes had to be omitted from each section, for one reason 
or another, but it is hoped that the most typical and characteristic dishes 
of each are included. Or if they are so similar to famous dishes of 
another state, as is often the case, then to avoid repetition they are 
omitted and other local favorites stressed. 

Here is American cookery from coast to coast, and here, too, are 
some of the dishes you will eat when you visit the World of Tomorrow 
as it is depicted by the imagination and engineering and skill of those 
who planned the New York World's Fair of 1939. 




March I, 1939. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT TO THE FIRST 
NATIVE AMERICAN COOKERY 



Corn, and its influence on the cookery which developed on this conti- 
nent, appears like a leitmotiv in American culinary lore. The Indians, 
from those living in New England and the others down the east coast 
to Florida, and some of their cousins in the Southwest and the North- 
west, used corn as one of the staples of their diet. Modified by Pilgrim, 
Swedish, Dutch, French, Spanish and Negro variations, the Indian 
mush and hoecakes gradually appeared, and variously, in early American 
kitchens. They have remained in our dietary, some modified anew with 
the years to meet with the demands of our present-day more sophisti- 
cated palates. 

The cooks of America ought to raise their best stirring spoons in 
salute to this friendly stand-by, our gift from the first Americans. 
Thank you, Oquagas, Narragansetts, Penobscots, Senecas, Seminoles, 
Choctaws, Algonquins, Iroquois, Shoshones, Navahos, Cherokees and 
all the others! 



Contents 



AUTHOR'S PREFACE 



ACKNOWLEDGMENT TO THE FIRST 
NATIVE AMERICAN COOKERY . 



vn 



IX 



I. FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 
ASSORTED AND RHODE ISLAND . . . 



II DELICIOUS ODDITIES FOUND 

IN NEW YORK AND PENNSYLVANIA . 



27 



III THE SOUTH (assorted) 41 



Maryland 
Kentucky 
Virginia . 
The Carolinas 
Alabama . 



41 Georgia 71 

51 Florida 74 

57 Famous Dishes of Creole 

67 Cooks 78 

69 "Just Dixie" .... 90 



IV THE MIDDLE WEST 103 



Ohio 106 

Indiana 109 

Illinois in 

Michigan 113 

Wisconsin 116 



Minnesota 120 

Nebraska 127 

Iowa 131 

Missouri 133 

Oklahoma 138 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 

Pacific Coast States 



140 
153 



xii 












CONTENTS 










VI STATES' EVIDENCE 170 


Alabama 170 Nebraska 








232 


Alaska 










176. Nevada . 








233 


Arizona . 










178 New Hampshire 








234 


Arkansas 










180 New Jersey . 








236 


California 










184 New Mexico 








237 


Colorado 










185 New York . 








238 


Connecticut 










186 North Carolina 








239 


Delaware 










187 North Dakota 








240 


Florida . 










188 Ohio . . . 








244 


Georgia 












189 Oklahoma 








245 


Hawaii 












191 Oregon 








246 


Idaho 












197 Pennsylvania 








248 


Illinois 












201 Puerto Rico . 








253 


Indiana 












201 Rhode Island 








262 


Iowa . 












202 South Carolina 








263 


Kansas 












204 South Dakota 








264 


Kentucky 










208 Tennessee 








266 


Louisiana 










210 Texas 








268 


Maine 










218 Utah . . . 








269 


Maryland 










218 Vermont 








270 


Massachusetts 










220 Virginia . 








271 


Michigan 










224 Washington . 








272 


Minnesota 










225 West Virginia 








274 


Mississippi 










227 Wisconsin 








276 


Missouri . 










228 Wyoming 








278 


Montana 










229 


VII COFFEE AND TEA IN AMERICA 280 


VIII THE SPICE SHELF TODAY 284 


IX TEMPERATURES AND COOKERY . . . . .294 


I> 


IDI 


:x 
















297 



All measurements 
are level for the standard 
measuring cup and spoons. 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR 
COOK BOOK 



CHAPTER I 

From Early New England Kitchens 



No man could compile a cook book which would satisfy all the house- 
wives of his country, for like the other arts cookery is so highly indi- 
vidualized that anything so rigid as standard or uniform formulae is out 
of the question — except in hospital diet kitchens. I mean that you 
undoubtedly will discover in this volume a dish by another name which 
is your Aunt Emma's Floating Island or Grandmother Bolander's 
Shoofly Cake. So it is with quaking knees but a stout heart that I set 
down these recipes in these first pages and put the label of New England 
on them. My knees quake because a good cook in Idaho or California 
or Michigan or some other inland state is going to write me a letter 
and say: "New England! Humph! I grew up on that dish right here 
in Twin Falls, only we called it so and so." That's just the point about 
a good bit of American cookery. It traveled westward from the Pilgrim 
shores and the Dutch settlements and in the journey was modified or 
renamed, or both. Be patient, my friends, and be generous when you 
discover herein such dishes, which are sisters under the skin but which 
after considerable historical research I have definitely located in one 
spot or another. 

Let me begin then. Here is a chowder of New England, from way 
up on the Maine coast to be exact: 



NEW ENGLAND FISH CHOWDER 

4 pounds fresh cod or 2 tablespoons butter 

haddock 2 tablespoons flour 

4 medium-sized potatoes 2 cups milk 

2 slices fat salt pork salt, pepper 

1 onion crackers 

Discard skin and bones and cut the fish into small chunks. Pare and 
slice the potatoes, covering them with water. Slice the fat pork and try 



2 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

out in the frying pan. Slice the onion and fry in the fat. In a chowder 
kettle place a layer of fish. Season with salt and pepper. Add a layer 
of potatoes, then the onion and drippings, and so on until all is used. 
Cover with three cups of cold water or more if necessary. Simmer until 
potatoes are soft. Blend the butter, flour and milk, and stir in. Season 
to taste. Add crackers and serve very hot. 



CLAM CHOWDER 

I quart clams 3 tablespoons butter 

clam juice 3 tablespoons flour 

1 slice fat salt pork 3 cups scalded milk 

1 onion, sliced 1 teaspoon salt 

2 cups potatoes, pared }i teaspoon pepper 

and diced 

Pour two cups of cold water over the clams to cleanse them. Double 
a piece of cheesecloth and strain both water and clam juice through it. 
Chop hard portions of clams. Cut the pork into bits and try out. Cook the 
onion in the fat until yellowed and soft but not dark colored. Add water 
and strained clam juice to this and let simmer ten minutes. Parboil the 
potatoes five minutes. Rinse in cold water and drain. Strain the onion 
water and drippings over the potatoes. Add the chopped clams. Cook all 
together until potatoes are tender. Then add soft parts of the clams and 
cook three minutes more. Mix the blended butter and flour with the 
milk and stir in. Combine all. Season to taste and serve. 

Just as typical of all coastal New England are the various codfish 
dishes. Especially good are these from Massachusetts : 

CODFISH CAKES 

3 medium-sized potatoes salt, pepper 

2 cups shredded codfish 1 egg, beaten 

3 tablespoons butter strips of bacon 

The fish cakes are best when mixed the night before and allowed to 
stand until time to fry them for breakfast. Boil the potatoes until soft. 
Moisten codfish in cold water. Drain well and pick out all bones. Add 
butter, salt and pepper to taste, then the egg, and beat all together until 
very light and fluffy. This mixture should stand overnight, covered. 
Pan-broil bacon strips for each person to be served. When crisp, remove 
bacon and keep the fat hot. Mold the fish mixture very lightly into 
round flat cakes and fry on both sides in this hot fat. 

The deep-fat codfish balls are found in the kitchens on the same shores 
and all the way down to New York. This recipe is from an old one 
long used on the Cape : 



FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 



CODFISH BALLS 

1 cup dried codfish 2 tablespoons butter 

2 cups potatoes i egg 

salt, pepper 

Soak the fish several hours until softened. Boil the potatoes and beat 
up with the butter until light and smooth. A fork is best for this. Pick 
out all the bones from the fish. Break the fish into small pieces and add 
to the potatoes. Beat the egg well and add. Season with salt and pepper. 
Beat again with the fork. Flour the hands and roll the mixture into tiny 
balls. Drop these, a few at a time, into deep hot fat for one minute or 
just long enough to brown well. Tomato ketchup or old-fashioned chili 
sauce is delicious with these. 

Every New England housewife knows how to make fish broth for 
poaching. This specialty is from Maine, but Connecticut fishermen 
claim they have always known it — from their English grandmas: 

BROTH FOR POACHING FISH 

2 quarts water 2 sliced carrots 

2 tablespoons vinegar 4 whole cloves 

2 sliced onions 2 sprigs parsley 

2 tablespoons salt I or 2 bay leaves 

3 stalks diced celery 

Simmer all ingredients together in an agate kettle for twenty minutes 
to half an hour. Then simmer or poach cod or other cleaned fish in it. 
It gives a most delicious flavor to what would otherwise be a flat-tasting 
boiled fish. 

Any extra bouillon may be strained through a cheesecloth and kept 
in the refrigerator for future use. 

BAKED BUZZARDS BAY BLUEFISH 

1 Buzzards Bay bluefish y^ teaspoon mixed poul- 
salt, pepper try dressing or 

2 cups bread crumbs sage 
2 tablespoons melted bouillon 

butter 4 or 5 slices fat salt 

i tablespoon minced pork 

onion flour 

Use freshly caught fish, cleaned and prepared for baking. Wipe with 
wet cloth. Dry well. Rub inside and out with salt and pepper mixed. 
Make a fish stuffing of crumbs, butter, onion and seasonings, adding 



4 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

enough bouillon to make pliable but not wet. Stuff fish and sew up. Lay 
several slices of salt pork in a greased and heated baking pan. Put in the 
fish. Dredge with flour, salt and pepper. Lay two slices of the salt pork 
over the fish. Bake in moderately hot oven (300 F.), allowing fifteen 
minutes to each pound of fish. Baste often with drippings in pan. 

Boston fish wharves are responsible for much of the halibut eaten in 
this country. But all New England follows this truly British recipe, and 
it is also a favorite in New York City. 

BOILED HALIBUT WITH EGG SAUCE 

2 or more pounds of fish, \y 2 tablespoons flour 

cut for boiling 1 cup hot milk 

2 tablespoons melted 2 hard-boiled eggs 

butter salt, pepper 

To boil, cover the prepared fish with hot broth (see Broth for Poach- 
ing Fish) and simmer very gently until the flesh begins to separate from 
the bones. Never boil fish hard. Allow six to ten minutes for each pound 
for boiling, depending on the thickness of the fish. A large fish should 
be cut into fillets of a size for serving, before boiling. 

Make a sauce of the butter, flour and milk. When well blended add 
the seasonings and the eggs cut into slices. Serve very hot, poured over 
the fish. 

Beloved of Maine and Massachusetts cooks, the shad is also a favorite 
of New York and New Jersey chefs. This is a Jersey dish, as given, but 
much like the Southern way too: 

BAKED SHAD 

1 large shad lemon juice 

2 cups bread crumbs 1 tablespoon melted 
1 egg yolk, beaten butter 

1 tablespoon minced slices of fat salt pork 

onion salt, pepper, flour 

Remove the scales from the fish and clean it. Make a dressing of the 
bread crumbs, egg yolk, butter, onion and seasonings. Stuff and sew up 
the fish. As shad is inclined to be dry, cover the fish with slices of salt 
pork when you lay it in the greased baking pan. Dredge the fish with 
flour, salt and pepper. Add a cup of boiling water or bouillon to the pan. 
Use a moderate oven (350 F.). Baste with this every ten minutes 
during the baking. When the fish is tender remove it with the pork 
scraps and make a gravy of the sauce in the pan. Brown one or two 
tablespoons of flour in a pan and add gradually the liquid in the fish pan. 
Stir and cook until well combined. 

In baking shad, allow one hour for each two and one half pounds 



FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 5 

of fish. Put into a hot oven (400 F. to 450 F.) at first, then reduce 
heat to 350 F. after the first fifteen minutes. 

I like to add chopped almonds to the stuffing; or peanuts; or I add 
the nuts to the sauce. Also I garnish the platter with thin lemon slices 
sprinkled with paprika. 

And the fried roe is known in every coastal state on the Eastern sea- 
board : 

FRIED SHAD ROE 

shad roe 2 cups water 

1 teaspoon salt salt, pepper 

1 tablespoon vinegar flour 

Pour the water over the shad roe (more if necessary, as the water 
must cover the roe), then add salt and vinegar. Boil for twenty minutes. 
Drain, then add enough cold water to cover and let stand for five min- 
utes. Drain again, sprinkle with salt and pepper and dip in flour, and 
fry in deep hot fat until a light brown. 

Rhode Island, Long Island, Massachusetts and up along Maine, pro- 
duce this dish, from time to time described as Italian! Actually is Italian 
in origin, but known to all fishermen wherever scallops are caught. Add 
garlic for pep! 

BUTTERED SCALLOPS 

1 or 2 cups small 2 slices onion 

scallops minced parsley, salt, 

2 tablespoons butter pepper 

slices of toasted bread 

Parboil the scallops, drain and dry well. Melt the butter in a sauce- 
pan, add the onion and cook until yellow. Remove the onion. Put in the 
scallops. Cover with the melted butter and let brown on all sides. Season 
well and serve on hot toast. Tartare sauce is an excellent sauce with 
these. 

New Englanders will not agree, but the southern part of our Eastern 
shore is responsible for this particular recipe, although it has been made 
for so long in the North that it is claimed by New Englanders too : 

DEVILED CRABS 

2 cups crab meat salt, pepper 

1 tablespoon butter dash of nutmeg 

1 tablespoon flour 2 eggs, well beaten 

1 cup cream crab shells 

grated onion bread crumbs 

melted butter 



6 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Cook the butter, flour and cream in the upper part of a double boiler 
until thick and smooth. Add the seasonings, crab meat and beaten eggs, 
and keep over hot water. Stir until thickened, then remove from fire. 
When somewhat cooled fill the crab shells, sprinkle thickly with fine 
bread crumbs, brush over with melted butter and brown in a hot oven 
(450 F.). A tart sauce, ketchup or chili sauce, is called for with these. 

Maine! Yes, but every other coastal state has this delicacy on its 
native list. New York and New Jersey claim it and Long Islanders fight 
for their reputation with it: 

BROILED LIVE LOBSTER 

The lobster loses nothing in flavor and is far more easily handled by 
being boiled a short time before being split in two down the back. Dis- 
card the stomach and intestines. Remove the coral and green substance, 
which is the liver. Spread upon an oiled broiler and rub over with 
melted butter or oil. Have the shell side toward the flame for about 
fifteen minutes, then turn the flesh side and cook five minutes more. Lift 
broiler from time to time to prevent scorching. Melt half a cup of butter 
and stir the liver into it. Mince the coral and use with the butter as a 
sauce poured over the lobster when serving. 

LOBSTER COCKTAIL 

cold boiled lobster meat 1 teaspoon lemon juice 

2 tablespoons chili sauce 1 tablespoon sherry 

1 tablespoon tomato onion juice 

ketchup paprika 

Break the lobster into inch pieces and chill. When ready to serve place 
five or six pieces in each small chilled cocktail glass and cover with the 
sauce, made by mixing together the ingredients as given. 

Inland states know this dish well. So does the South, but New Eng- 
land housewives, probably as early as their Southern sisters, were serving 
this dish on Sunday night : 

ESCALLOPED OYSTERS 

1 pint oysters y 2 cup milk 

I cup cracker crumbs oyster juice, strained 

butter, salt, pepper 

Butter a shallow baking dish. Roll crackers into crumbled pieces and 
place a layer of these on the bottom of the dish. Dot over with bits of 
butter. Place a layer of oysters on this, adding salt, pepper and more bits 



FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 7 

of butter. Mix the milk and oyster juice and pour over all. Place crumbs 
and dabs of butter on top. Use the butter unsparingly, if you would 
have the best results. Hot oven (450 F.), until well browned. 



BAKED OYSTERS IN THE SHELL 

Open oysters, remove beards and dip them in beaten eggs or mayon- 
naise, then in finely grated bread crumbs. Place the oysters in the lower 
shell, top with a small piece of butter and bake ten minutes in a hot 
oven (425 F.). Serve garnished with a slice of onion. 



BOSTON BAKED OYSTERS 

(Also called Alexander, and Casino) 

Open six large oysters, keep in half shell. Place in a roasting pan and 
cover with this sauce : mix two tablespoons of chili sauce, one tablespoon 
of horse-radish, one tablespoon French mustard, a dash of Worcester- 
shire, finely chopped chives, salt and pepper. 

Be sure to entirely cover the oysters with the sauce, then cover all 
thickly with bread crumbs. Bake in hot oven (425 F.) for ten minutes. 
At the Parker House in Boston the oysters are heaped with the sauce and 
crumbs and set in shallow baking dishes filled with rock salt, then into 
the hot oven. Dish and all is served the guest. 

Also more Southern than New England, but certainly not to be left 
out of this Northern category: 



OYSTER PIE 

1 cup flour 5 tablespoons water 

y 2 teaspoon salt 1 or 2 cups oysters 

1 teaspoon baking salt, pepper, onion juice 

powder minced parsley 

4 tablespoons butter 1 cup thick white sauce 

Make a pastry for the pie by sifting the flour, salt and baking powder 
together. Rub in the butter and mix to a dough with the cold water. 
Divide into halves. Roll one half to one quarter inch in thickness. Fit it 
into a deep pie plate. 

Clean and look over the oysters, using from one to two cups accord- 
ing to the depth of the plate. Place a layer on the under crust. Season 
with salt, pepper, onion juice and parsley. Continue with layers of 
oysters until all are used. Pour the white sauce over all. Cut the re- 
mainder of the pastry into strips three quarters inch wide and arrange 
them in a close lattice fashion over the top of the pie. Brush over the 



8 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

top of this with cold milk. Bake forty-five minutes in a hot oven (425' 
F. to 450 F.). Serve hot. 



PICKLED OYSTERS 

1 quart oysters 1 teaspoon mace 

1 quart oyster liquor £4 teaspoon whole 
1% teaspoons salt cloves 

y 2 teaspoon allspice 1 cup vinegar, hot 

Wash and clean the oysters. Bring the liquor to boiling and skim. Add 
the oysters and seasonings and cook until oysters are plump and edges 
curl. Add the hot vinegar, pour into sterilized jars and seal. Allow to 
stand at least twenty-four hours before serving. 

A superb dish from down Boston way! 



CHICKEN AND OYSTER CASSEROLE 

1 broiler, split down the 1 cup cream 

back 2 tablespoons butter 

J4 cup flour 2 cups oysters 

salt, pepper hot biscuits 

1 cup boiling water 

Dredge chicken with flour, salt and pepper and place in a buttered 
casserole. Pour the boiling water over it, cover baking dish and bake in 
a moderate oven (350 F.) until tender (about one hour). Remove 
from oven, add the cream, butter and oysters. Cover, return to the oven 
and cook about ten minutes longer or until the edges of oysters curl. 
Serve at once with hot biscuits. 

And this one really came down from Gloucester to the Southern 
climes : 

BAKED HADDOCK 
WITH OYSTER STUFFING 

2 haddock fillets juice of 1 lemon 
y 2 pint oysters y 2 teaspoon salt 
1 cup cracker crumbs pepper 

1 tablespoon butter 

Lay one fillet in a greased baking dish and sprinkle with salt and pep- 
per. Dip the oysters, which have been washed and cleaned, in the cracker 
crumbs, then cover the fillet with them. Cover oysters with remaining 



FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 9 

haddock fillet and hold in place with skewers or toothpicks. Sprinkle with 
crumbs, lemon juice and dots of butter. Bake in a moderate oven (350 
F.) for one hour. 

These clam dishes are as much Long Island and Rhode Island as they 
are Massachusetts and Maine. Also the whole Middle Eastern shore line 
claims them: 

CLAM PIE 

2 cups hard clams 1 cup milk 

4 crackers, rolled % teaspoon poultry 
1 egg seasoning or thyme 

1 tablespoon melted salt and pepper 
butter 

Chop the clams, or run them with the crackers through a food chop- 
per. Beat the egg slightly. Combine the ingredients. Bake in moderate 
oven (350 F.) between two rich pie crusts in a deep plate. Serve hot. 



CLAMS DUXBERRY 

25 clams, chopped fine; cook in a saucepan until tender, which is 
three to five minutes. 

I teaspoon prepared 5 tablespoons cream 

mustard salt, pepper 

3 tablespoons butter 

Mix these, then mix with the cooked clams ; have the clam shells clean 
and warm, fill, place in a shallow baking pan and brown quickly in hot 
oven. Serve six to a person. 

This recipe is varied according to locality; chopped onion, parsley, 
eggs and a dash of nutmeg go into the mixture according to some. The 
old Claremont restaurant, Riverside Drive, in New York, in its heyday 
baked and served these clams on hot salt. 



STEAMED CLAMS 

clams in the shell, 2 onions, sliced 

freshly dug melted butter 

y 2 teaspoon white 
pepper 

Wash and scrub the clams thoroughly to remove all sand. Heat a 
large kettle. Put in the clams. Sprinkle over them the sliced onions and 
the pepper. Cover and steam twenty minutes. Take from the kettle and 



10 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

serve piping hot with individual dishes of melted butter. Strain the broth 
from the kettle and serve very hot in cups. 

CLAM BAKE 

No two New Englanders agree on the best way, the one perfect way, 
of doing a clam bake; but considering the various New England clam 
bake centers a resume of the procedure is something like this: 

Procure the clams the day before the bake, allowing about a bushel 
for each twenty persons to be fed. Wash many times in salt water to 
remove all sand, then leave overnight in a wire basket or net bag and 
make secure in the surf, allowing the tide to continue the washing proc- 
ess overnight. 

Next morning, early, start a large fire on a bed of stones on the beach. 
Be prepared with an ample supply of big stones and of wood ; driftwood 
is good if you can collect enough. When the fire is big and hot dump 
three buckets of stones into the blaze, then pile on more wood and more 
stones. Continue alternating wood and stones, and heat the stones for 
about an hour until they are crackling hot. While the stones are heating 
dig a deep hole in the beach and sink in it, to within three inches of the 
top, a large wooden-hooped barrel, or other barrel covered with burlap. 
Pour a half inch of sea water into the bottom of the barrel and dump 
in about five or six buckets of hot stones from the fire, with a pitchfork 
and shovel. Put in about a three-inch layer of salt hay from salt meadows 
or marshes, then pour in the clams. Add another layer of salt hay, then 
live lobsters, allowing one for each person if the lobsters are small. Add 
more hay and then put in potatoes, onions and green corn left in its inner 
husks. Quickly pack in more hay until the barrel is filled. Spread a large 
canvas or tarpaulin over the top of the barrel and tie it down securely. 
Smother the entire barrel with sand and let the clams and their accom- 
paniments steam for an hour and a half. Melt the butter for the clams 
on the remains of the fire. When the feast is finished steaming, open the 
barrel, taking great care to keep the sand out. 

Fishermen's supper! But the ones who originated it never heard of a 
double boiler: 

KEDGEREE 



2 cups freshly cooked 


}i teaspoon pepper 


rice 


2 tablespoons minced 


2 cups cold flaked fish 


parsley 


4 hard-boiled eggs, 


y 2 cup cream 


chopped 


i teaspoon salt 



Mix the rest of the ingredients with the hot rice and reheat for a few 
minutes in the top of a double boiler. Serve at once. 



FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 11 



BOSTON MACKEREL 

Split large mackerel for broiling, leaving on skin. Sprinkle with salt 
and pepper and rub with melted butter. Lay on well-greased broiling 
rack with the skin side down, and on each side of fish place strips of salt 
bacon. Broil for ten minutes, then turn with skin side to flame and broil 
from fifteen to twenty-five minutes, until skin is brown and crisp. Pour 
drippings over fish when serving and garnish with lemon and parsley. 

WILD DUCKS, NEW ENGLAND 

The best tasting of the wild ducks are the canvasback, redhead, black 
ducks and mallards, as they are broad-billed grass-eating birds, living 
mostly on wild celery and natural grasses. 

To prepare them for cooking, clean, singe and take out the viscera, 
then wipe out the insides with a damp cloth. Brush generously with but- 
ter, inside and outside, sprinkle with salt and put in roasting pan. Roast 
twelve to fifteen minutes to the pound (twenty minutes to the pound 
for a large duck) in a hot oven (440 F.), basting every five minutes 
with a quarter cup of melted butter and a half cup of boiling water. 
Cut in half and serve one breast to a portion. Serve with boiled wild 
rice, seasoned with butter and cayenne pepper. Chambertin wine goes 
very well with this delicious dish. 

GREEN MOUNTAIN VENISON 

Broil small steaks one and a half inches thick, or venison chops, by 
covering with butter and searing quickly in the broiler for a moment 
or two on each side. Reduce heat and turn often until cooked as much 
as desired, from twelve minutes for a rare steak to thirty minutes for 
one well done. Serve with a sauce made by creaming four tablespoons 
of melted butter, half a teaspoon salt, an eighth teaspoon pepper, finely 
chopped parsley and a teaspoon of lemon juice. A little sherry or 
Madeira wine (about three tablespoons) or currant jelly added makes 
a sauce most worthy of the venison. 

NEW ENGLAND BOILED DINNER 

4 pounds corned beef 2 small turnips 

1 small cabbage 6 potatoes 

3 carrots 6 small parsnips 

6 medium-sized onions 

Wash the beef in cold water and if very salty soak in cold water for 
a half-hour. Drain. Put meat in boiling water and cook from three to 
four hours or until tender. An hour and a half before serving add the 
quartered cabbage and carrots, and the turnips. Half an hour before 



12 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

serving add the onions, parsnips and potatoes. Serve very hot on a large 
platter. Some cooks serve boiled beef and chicken on the same platter. 

CORNED BEEF HASH 

2 cups cold boiled pota- % cup cream 

toes, diced 3 tablespoons butter 

1 2^ cups corned beef, salt, pepper, paprika 

chopped 6 eggs 

one small onion, minced 

Mix together the potatoes, corned beef, onion, a quarter cup of the 
cream, one tablespoon of the butter, melted, and seasonings to taste. Put 
mixture in a well-buttered baking dish. With the bottom of a custard 
cup make six indentations on the hash and dot each with bits of butter, 
using one tablespoonful. Bake in a hot oven (450 F.) for fifteen min- 
utes. Remove from the oven and into each indentation break one egg. 
Season and cover with a teaspoon of cream to each egg and dot with 
remaining butter. Bake in a moderate oven (350 F.) until the eggs 
are set. 

Said to be more Southern than New England. But again the Down- 
Easters will claim it as their very own: 

CASSEROLE OF TRIPE WITH ONIONS 

2 pounds fresh tripe 1 carrot, chopped fine 

(honeycomb is best) salt, pepper 

2 tablespoons butter 2 tablespoons flour 

2 onions 2 cups hot water 

1 tablespoon minced y 2 teaspoon Worcester- 
green pepper shire sauce 

Wash tripe well in cold water. Dry and cut in two-inch strips. Melt 
butter and add onion and green pepper, and cook until soft. Add tripe 
and cook for five minutes. Pour into a casserole and add carrot and salt 
and pepper to taste. Sprinkle with flour and add the hot water. Bake 
in a moderately slow oven (300 F.) for one and a half hours. Before 
serving add the Worcestershire sauce. 

The Maine fishermen's favorite: 

RED FLANNEL HASH 

4 medium potatoes, salt, pepper 

cooked 3 tablespoons butter 

6 medium beets, cooked 1 tablespoon cream 

1 cup chopped hamburger 



FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 13 

Chop the potatoes and the beets, mix with the hamburger and season 
with salt and pepper. Place two tablespoons of butter in a frying pan, 
add the mixture and moisten with a little hot water. Cook slowly in a 
covered pan. When nearly ready to serve add the cream mixed with a 
tablespoon of melted butter. Brown quickly and serve. 

JAGASEE 

8 cups dry lima beans J4 CU P ketchup 

Y^ pound salt pork i cup celery, chopped 

2 onions, sliced I green pepper, minced 

3 cups rice 

Soak beans overnight. In the morning wash and cover with fresh 
water and boil for one and a half hours. Brown the salt pork in a heavy 
skillet, turning frequently for more thorough browning. Add onions and 
cook until they brown. Pour this mixture into the beans and add the 
ketchup, celery and green pepper. Wash the rice in several waters and 
pour over bean mixture. Place over a low flame and let simmer seven 
hours. 

RINKTUM TIDDY 

I tablespoon butter % teaspoon pepper 

1 small onion, chopped 2 teaspoons sugar 

fine Y2 pound grated Ameri- 

2 cups canned tomatoes can cheese 
I teaspoon salt I egg, beaten 

Melt the butter and cook the onion in it without browning. Add the 
tomatoes, salt, pepper and sugar and heat thoroughly. Add the cheese 
and cook until melted, stirring constantly. Then add egg. Cook one 
minute over very low heat, taking care to keep the egg from curdling. 
Serve on buttered toast. 

BOSTON BAKED BEANS 

I quart navy or pea boiling water 

beans 3 tablespoons brown 

y$ pound fat bacon or sugar 

salt pork J4 teaspoon dry mustard 

i tablespoon salt l /z cup molasses 

Soak picked-over beans in cold water overnight. In the morning drain 
and cover with fresh water. Cook slowly, simmering from ten to fifteen 
minutes. Drain and rinse the beans in cold water. Scald and scrape the 
pork and cut it into thin slices. Pour the beans into the pot and place a 



14 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

layer of pork every half inch, using the beans to bury the pork. Mix the 
salt, sugar, mustard, molasses and cup of boiling water and pour over the 
beans, adding enough additional boiling water to cover the beans. Cover 
the pot and bake steadily for six hours in a slow oven (250 F.). Un- 
cover during the last half-hour of baking to brown. Add water as 
needed. 

BEAN SOUP 



I pint black beans 


2 quarts soup stock 


2 tablespoons chopped 


1 hard-cooked egg yolk 


onion 


y$ teaspoon pepper 


2 stalks celery 


y 2 teaspoon dry mustard 


2 whole cloves 


1 tablespoon flour 


2 teaspoons salt 


1 tablespoon butter 



Soak the beans overnight. Drain and rinse thoroughly in cold water. 
Add the onion, celery and cloves, salt and cover with soup stock. Boil 
slowly until beans are soft. Rub through a strainer. Add sufficient stock 
or water to make the consistency of thick cream. Mash the egg yolk 
with pepper and mustard and stir into soup mixture. Cream flour into 
butter and cook until a golden brown ; thin with a little stock and stir 
in the soup. Cook for five minutes, reducing the thickness with water 
if necessary. A teaspoon of sherry may be added to each bowl just before 
serving. 

Go inland and New England offers her amazing apples, berries and 
maple sugar for treats not found elsewhere: 

VERMONT BAKED APPLES 

6 medium-sized tart yi cup maple syrup or 

apples brown sugar 

2 tablespoons butter y 2 cup water 

Core the apples and pare one fourth of the way down. Put the apples 
in a baking dish. In each core put a teaspoon of butter and the sugar 
or maple syrup. Surround the apples with the water and bake in a hot 
oven (400 F.) until soft (about a half-hour) basting every five min- 
utes. Serve with heavy cream. 



BLUEBERRY 


MUFFINS 


2y 2 cups flour 

y 2 cup sugar 

3 teaspoons baking 

powder 
]/ 2 teaspoon salt 


Ij4 cups blueberries 

2 eggs, well beaten 

3 tablespoons butter, 

melted 
1 cup milk 



FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 15 

Sift flour, sugar, baking powder and salt together. Mix berries with 
a quarter of this mixture. Beat eggs and add with melted butter. Add 
the flour alternately with milk. Stir in the blueberries lightly. Bake in 
well-buttered tins in a hot oven (450 F.) for twenty-five minutes. 

BOSTON BROWN BREAD 

1 cup yellow corn meal 1 teaspoon soda 

1 cup graham flour 1 teaspoon salt 

1 cup rye flour % CU P molasses 

1^2 cups sour milk 

Mix and sift dry ingredients, mix soda and molasses and add alter- 
nately with sour milk to the dry ingredients. Put rounds of greased 
paper in bottom of one-pound baking-powder tins. Grease the sides of 
the tins and fill two thirds full. Steam two and one half hours. To 
steam, place the tins on a rack inside a kettle. Add warm water to half 
the height of the molds. Cover kettle and let water come to boiling. 
Boil gently from one to two hours or until well done. More water may 
have to be added to the kettle from time to time. 

BISHOP'S BREAD 

4 eggs, separated 2 teaspoons baking 

1 cup sugar powder 

1 teaspoon vanilla 1 cup raisins 

1 cup flour 1 cup almonds, blanched 

y$ teaspoon salt and chopped 

powdered sugar 

Beat yolks of eggs until light and lemon-colored ; then add sugar, and 
cream well. Add the vanilla. Sift the flour, baking powder and salt to- 
gether and stir into the egg mixture. Add the raisins and nuts. Fold in 
the stiffly beaten egg whites. Pour into an oblong buttered pan and bake 
in a moderate oven (350 F.) for twenty minutes. While cake is still 
hot, cut into squares and cover with powdered sugar. 

HUCKLEBERRY PANCAKES 

2 l / 2 cups flour 1 egg, well beaten 

1 teaspoon soda 2 cups sour milk 

l / 2 teaspoon salt 1J/2 tablespoons butter, 

i l / 2 tablespoons sugar melted 

2 cups huckleberries 

Sift the dry ingredients together. Combine the egg and milk and add 
slowly to the dry ingredients, beating the mixture until smooth. Stir in 



16 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

the butter and then the berries. Pour by tablespoonfuls on a hot greased 
griddle. Bake on both sides until brown. Serve with powdered sugar. 

Claimed by the South and other districts, buckwheat cakes are ac- 
tually favorites right across the continent. But probably New England 
farm homes saw their origin: 

BUCKWHEAT CAKES 

2 cups milk y 2 teaspoon soda 

2 cups boiling water I teaspoon salt 

1 yeast cake I tablespoon molasses 
4 cups buckwheat flour i cup hot water 

Scald the milk and add the boiling water. Cool to lukewarm and 
dissolve the yeast cake in the mixture. Sift in enough flour (using more 
than four cups if necessary) to make a batter thin enough to pour. Let 
rise overnight in an earthen crock. In the morning add the soda, salt and 
molasses dissolved in the hot water. Bake on a hot greased griddle. Keep 
about half a cup of this batter as a sponge for the following day. Keep 
in a cool place until night and then add enough flour to make a stiff 
batter. In the morning proceed as usual, adding the molasses, salt and 
soda dissolved in a cup of hot water. 

CONNECTICUT CRULLERS 

2 tablespoons butter 2>Y 2 teaspoons baking 

1 cup sugar powder 

2 eggs, well beaten I teaspoon salt 

4 cups flour Yz teaspoon grated nut- 

meg 
2 cups milk 

Cream the butter and sugar together; sift the dry ingredients to- 
gether. Mix all ingredients together thoroughly. Place the dough on a 
well-floured board and pat lightly with the hands until just stiff enough 
to cut out the crullers with a cruller cutter, or cut in thin strips and 
shape into a circle with a hole in the center, pressing the ends together 
and shaping round. Fry in deep hot fat until brown and drain on absor- 
bent paper. Roll in confectioners' sugar. 

VERMONT MAPLE FRITTERS 

4 cups flour i tablespoon sweet 

y 2 teaspoon salt cream 

2 teaspoons baking 3 eggs, well beaten 

powder powdered sugar 

2 cups sweet milk maple syrup pudding 

sauce 



FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 17 

Sift the flour, salt and baking powder together and add to the milk 
and cream. Slowly add the well-beaten eggs, stirring constantly. Drop 
by spoonfuls into deep hot fat and fry until well puffed and browned. 
Sprinkle with powdered sugar and serve hot with warm maple syrup pud- 
ding sauce. 

MAPLE SYRUP PUDDING SAUCE 

Y± cup maple syrup 2 whites of eggs 

% cup water y 2 cup cream 

I teaspoon lemon juice 

Boil maple syrup and water until it will spin a thread. Pour it slowly 
onto the stiffly beaten whites of eggs mixed with cream and lemon 
juice, beating constantly with an egg beater. 



MAPLE SUGAR COOKIES 

24 cup maple sugar, 2 eggs, well beaten 

crushed 2 tablespoons water 

I cup granulated sugar 4 cups flour 

1 cup butter 2 teaspoons baking 

powder 

Cream the butter and sugars together until well blended. Add the 
eggs and water. Sift the flour and baking powder together and add to 
the first mixture. Add more flour if needed. The dough should be soft 
enough to handle. Chill about ten minutes. Roll out thin on floured 
board and cut with cookie cutter. Bake in a quick oven (450 F.) for 
ten minutes. 



MAPLE SUGAR PIE 

3 eggs Y% teaspoon nutmeg 

3 tablespoons soft maple l / 2 teaspoon salt 

sugar y 2 teaspoon vanilla 

2 cups milk 1 deep pie shell 

Beat the eggs lightly and add the maple sugar. Heat milk in a double 
boiler, add the nutmeg and salt, and pour slowly on the eggs and sugar. 
Strain. Add the vanilla. Prepare a rich deep pie shell, keeping the edge 
of the dough well above the rim. Fill with the above filling and bake in 
hot oven (400 F.) until the edge of the crust is lightly browned. Then 
reduce the heat of the oven to moderately hot (350 F.) and bake until 
a knife inserted in the filling comes out clean. 



18 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



BOSTON CREAM PIE 



}4 cup butter 

1 cup sugar 

2 eggs, well beaten 
I J4 CU P S fl° ur 



2 teaspoons baking 

powder 
J4 teaspoon salt 
- cup milk 



I teaspoon vanilla 

Cream the butter and add sugar gradually. Add eggs and beat well. 
Sift the dry ingredients and add to creamed mixture alternately with 
the milk, beating after each addition. Add vanilla. Pour mixture into 
two well-buttered layer-cake tins and bake in a moderate oven (350 F.) 
thirty minutes. When cool put layers together with cream filling and 
sprinkle top with powdered sugar. 



CREAM FILLING 



5 tablespoons flour 
54 cup sugar 
% teaspoon salt 



2 cups milk, scalded 

2 eggs 

1 teaspoon vanilla 



Mix the dry ingredients together in a double boiler and gradually add 
the milk, stirring constantly to prevent lumps. Cook until the mixture 
thickens. Pour a small amount over the eggs and mix thoroughly. Add 
egg mixture to the balance of first mixture and cook two minutes. Re- 
move from fire and cool. Add flavoring. 



SQUASH 

I cup squash, steamed 
1 cup sugar 
1 teaspoon cinnamon 
1 teaspoon nutmeg 
^4 teaspoon ginger 



PIE 

J4 teaspoon mace 
54 teaspoon salt 
3 eggs, beaten 
1 cup heavy cream 
pie pastry- 



Strain the squash and set aside to cool. Add the sugar, spices and salt 
and mix thoroughly, then add the eggs and cream and mix with the 
squash. Pour into a deep pastry-lined pan and bake in a hot oven 
(450 F.) for ten minutes, then reduce the heat to moderate (350 F.) 
and bake for forty minutes. 



FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 



19 



BUTTERNUT 



y 2 cup butter 
y 2 cup sugar 

1 cup maple syrup 

2 eggs, well beaten 
2^2 cups flour 



CAKE 

y 2 teaspoon soda 
y 2 teaspoon ginger 
y 2 cup hot water 
y 2 cup chopped butter- 
nut meats 
maple sugar frosting 



2 teaspoons baking 
powder 

Cream butter and sugar thoroughly. Add the maple syrup and blend 
well. Add eggs and beat. Sift the flour, baking powder, soda and ginger 
together and add alternately with the hot water, beating after each 
addition. Stir in the nuts and pour into a well-buttered loaf pan. Bake 
in a moderate oven (350 F.) for forty-five minutes. Let cool and then 
spread with frosting. 



MAPLE SUGAR FROSTING 

2 cups maple sugar 1 cup cream or milk 

pinch of salt y 2 cup butternut meats, 

chopped 

Boil sugar, salt and cream together until a little forms a soft ball 
when tried in cold water. Add nuts and beat until cool and creamy. 

MAPLE SUGAR GINGERBREAD 



1 cup maple syrup 
1 cup sour cream 
1 egg, well beaten 
iy$ cups flour 



1 % teaspoons soda 
\y 2 teaspoons ginger 
y 2 teaspoon salt 
4 tablespoons melted 
butter 



Combine maple syrup, cream and egg. Sift the dry ingredients and 
stir into the liquid, beating well. Add butter and beat thoroughly. Pour 
into a well-buttered oblong baking pan and bake in a moderate oven 
(350 F.) for thirty minutes. 



SKILLET OR SPIDER CORNCAKE 



1 Y\ cups cornmeal 
J4 cup flour 
Y\ cup sugar 
1 teaspoon salt 



2 eggs, well beaten 
2 cups sour milk 
1 teaspoon soda 
\y 2 tablespoons butter 
1 cup sweet milk 



20 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Sift the cornmeal, flour, sugar and salt together. Add the beaten eggs 
to the sour milk in which the soda has been dissolved. Mix thoroughly. 
Melt the butter in an iron skillet or spider, which has been thoroughly 
heated. Pour in the batter and pour the sweet milk over it. Place in a 
moderate oven (350 F.) and bake for fifty minutes. 

English settlers brought this to the Pilgrim country and to the South 
as well : 



YORKSHIRE PUDDING 

1 cup flour 2 eggs, well beaten 

J4 teaspoon salt 1 cup milk 

beef drippings 

Sift the flour and salt together. Add eggs, mixing well. Slowly add 
the milk and beat with egg beater for two minutes. Heat thoroughly an 
oblong pan and grease well with the beef drippings. Pour in the batter 
about half an inch deep. Bake in a hot oven (450 F.) for twenty 
minutes. Reduce the heat to moderate (400 F.) and bake twenty 
minutes longer. Serve on the roast-beef platter, moistened with hot beef- 
juice gravy from the roasting pan. 

STEAMED BLUEBERRY PUDDING 



I cup flour 


y 2 cup dry bread crumbs 


y 2 teaspoon salt 


y 2 cup sugar 


1 J/2 teaspoons baking 


i}^> cups blueberries 


powder 


1 cgg^ well beaten 


Yz cup butter 


2 /z cup milk 



Combine the flour, salt and baking powder and sift together. Cut in 
the shortening and add the bread crumbs and sugar. Mix in the blue- 
berries and add the egg and milk. Pour into a mold, cover closely and 
steam for two hours. Serve with hard sauce or any sweet pudding sauce. 



BAKED INDIAN PUDDING 

1 tablespoon butter Yz cup molasses 

1 pint milk J /\. teaspoon cinnamon 

% teaspoon salt % CU P raisins 

J4 cup cornmeal 1 egg, well beaten 

Combine the butter, milk and salt, and scald. Slowly stir the corn- 
meal into the milk and cook in a double boiler for about twenty min- 
utes, until thickened. Add the molasses, cinnamon, raisins and egg and 



FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 21 

bake in a buttered baking dish in a moderate oven (350 F.) for about 
two hours. Serve hot or cold with cream or with vanilla ice cream. 

English in origin and found everywhere in this country where British 
emigres came to make a new home : 

BERRY FLUMMERY 

2 cups blackberries 34 teaspoon salt 

2 cups water 4 tablespoons cornstarch 

1 cup sugar 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

Cook the berries and water together in an agate pan until nearly soft. 
Mix the sugar, salt and cornstarch and add slowly to the berries, stirring 
constantly. Bring to the boiling point and cook five minutes. Remove 
from fire and add the lemon juice. Serve hot with sugar and cream. 

And more of the English influence : 

FRUIT SLUMP 

1 quart fruit or berries i]/ 2 cups flour 

2 cups sugar I 1 /* teaspoons baking 

3 cups water powder 

l / 2 cup milk yi teaspoon salt 

Combine the berries or fruit with the sugar and water and boil until 
soft. There must be plenty of juice left in the fruit mixture; if necessary 
add more water. Sift the dry ingredients and add the milk, using more 
if necessary to make a soft dough. Pour over the berries and cover the 
saucepan with a tight-fitting lid. Cook on top of stove for fifteen 
minutes. Serve immediately on a hot platter with the following pudding 
sauce : 

HYANNIS PUDDING SAUCE 

2 eggs, separated 1 cup sugar 

1 teaspoon brandy 

Beat the yolks until thick and lemon-colored. Add sugar and mix 
well. Fold in the stiffly beaten egg whites, and blend. Add flavoring. 

NEW ENGLAND NUTMEG SAUCE 

1 cup sugar 1 tablespoon butter 

1 tablespoon flour 2 cups boiling water 

34 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon nutmeg, 

grated 



22 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Mix the sugar, flour and salt; add boiling water gradually, stirring 
continuously; add the butter and cook for five minutes. Remove from 
the fire and stir in the nutmeg. Serve hot on apple dumplings, or fruit or 
berry puddings that have been made with a biscuit dough. 

NEW ENGLAND SAUCE 
FOR COLD MEATS 

J4 cup red currant jelly grated rind of I orange 
iy 2 tablespoons lemon y 2 teaspoon ginger 

juice y 2 teaspoon dry mustard 

2 tablespoons orange juice 

Mix all the ingredients, in the order given, in a double boiler and 
cook over hot water until the jelly has melted, stirring frequently. Chill 
before serving. 

WINE SAUCE FOR GAME 

y$ cup currant jelly 2 tablespoons lemon 

2 tablespoons butter juice 

y 2 cup port wine 
i tablespoon grated orange rind 

Melt the jelly and butter in a double boiler. Add all of the ingredients 
but the wine and cook for two minutes. Add wine and serve. 



CAPER SAUCE 

2 tablespoons butter I teaspoon lemon juice 

\y 2 tablespoons flour y 2 teaspoon salt 

2 cups stock or bouillon % teaspoon pepper 

y 2 cup capers 

Melt the butter and blend with flour. Slowly add the stock or 
bouillon and mix well, stirring constantly until mixture thickens. Re- 
move from fire. Add lemon juice, seasonings and capers. Pour over fish 
and serve, or serve with boiled lamb or mutton. 

COCKTAIL SAUCE 

Y$ cup tomato ketchup 2 tablespoons lemon juice 
J4 cup grated horse- 8 drops tabasco sauce 

radish *4 teaspoon salt 

I tablespoon Worcestershire sauce 



FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 



23 



Mix the ingredients and stir thoroughly. Chill before serving. Use 
with crab meat, lobster or shrimp. 



HOT SLAW DRESSING 



I tablespoon butter 
I tablespoon flour 
I tablespoon sugar 
Y$ teaspoon dry mustard 



}i teaspoon salt 
34 cup thin cream 
2 tablespoons vinegar 
I egg yolk 



Mix the dry ingredients with butter and cook in an enameled sauce- 
pan over a low fire, stirring to a paste. Add cream and stir until it boils. 
When very thick add slowly the vinegar, stirring constantly. When the 
mixture boils stir in rapidly the well-beaten egg yolk. For a hot slaw, one 
pint of finely chopped cabbage should be added and mixed so that the 
cabbage is thoroughly coated with dressing. This dressing may also be 
used hot with a coleslaw. 



KENNEBUNK PICKLE 



2 pounds green tomatoes 
2 pounds red tomatoes 
i small head cabbage 
2 sweet red peppers 
2 green peppers 
Y^ quart of onions 

I teaspoon 



I bunch celery 
6 tablespoons salt 
I quart white vinegar 
3 cups brown sugar 
I 3-inch stick cinnamon 
I teaspoon whole cloves 
dry mustard 



Chop the vegetables very fine. Add the salt and let stand overnight. 
Drain. Add the vinegar and brown sugar. Combine the cinnamon, cloves 
and mustard and tie in a small cheesecloth sack. Boil everything to- 
gether in an agate kettle for about thirty minutes. Remove the spice bag. 
Pour into sterilized jars and seal. 



SPICED CURRANTS 



2 tablespoons cinnamon 

3 teaspoons allspice 
3 teaspoons cloves 



5 pounds ripe currants 
4 pounds sugar 
2 cups vinegar 

Wash and stem the currants and cook with the sugar and vinegar in 
an agate or enameled kettle over a low flame for one hour. Add the 
spices and continue cooking thirty minutes. Pour into sterilized glasses 
and seal. 



24 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



MINCEMEAT 

2 pounds beef suet grated peel of i lemon 

4 pounds beef I nutmeg, grated 

2 pounds sugar I tablespoon ground 
2 pounds seedless raisins, cloves 

chopped I tablespoon cinnamon 

2 pounds currants I teaspoon salt 

4 pounds apples, chopped y 2 cup orange juice 

fine y 2 cup lemon juice 

Yl pound citron, minced 4 cups whisky 

y 2 pound candied lemon 2 cups sherry 

peel, minced 

grated peel of 2 oranges 

Boil the suet and meat together until tender. When cold, put through 
a food chopper. Mix all the remaining ingredients, with the exception of 
the wine and whisky, and cook for one and one half hours. Add the 
liquor and pour into sterilized jars and seal. 



FROM RHODE ISLAND 

These Down-East dishes are from old Rhode Island kitchens. 

INDIAN MEAL BANNOCK 

1 quart milk 1 tablespoon butter 

2 cups corn meal 4 eggs, beaten separately 

y 2 teaspoon salt 

Scald the milk and pour over the corn meal which has been mixed 
with the butter. Stir till the batter is quite smooth, then add the well- 
beaten egg yolks and lastly the well-beaten egg whites, stirring them in 
while the batter is hot, and bake at once. Speed is essential to the success 
of these cakes. 

THIRDED BREAD 

2 cups water 1 teaspoon lard 

Indian meal (about y 2 y$ cup molasses 

cup) y 2 yeast cake 

y 2 cup milk J4 cu P r Y e meal 

y 2 teaspoon salt flour 



FROM EARLY NEW ENGLAND KITCHENS 25 

Boil the water and stir in the Indian meal, enough to make a thick 
batter, then stir in the milk and salt. Cool, add the lard, molasses, yeast 
and the rye meal, then mold as usual with flour. Yield: biscuits and a 
small loaf. 

A standby: 

RICE AND MEAL PUDDING 

y 2 cup boiled rice 2 eggs, beaten 

1 cup meal 2 tablespoons sugar 

3 cups milk salt 

butter 

While the rice is still hot, stir in the meal, milk, eggs, sugar and salt. 
Put in buttered baking dish with dabs of butter on top and bake two 
hours or more in a slow oven. 

This used to be baked beside the kitchen fireplace: 

COB APPLE PIE 

Line a deep iron piepan with pie crust and fill with layers of apple 
alternating with molasses, cinnamon and small bits of butter, and pour 
molasses over the top, using about a cup in all. Cover with a top crust 
and bake in a very slow oven (250 F.) for about two hours. Turn out 
in a dish and serve upside down. 

CORN AND BEANS 

Combine green corn, freshly cut from the cob, and lima beans, "in the 
proportion of three corns to a bean." Cover with water, add a generous 
piece of salt pork and boil slowly until most of the liquid is taken up. 
Serve seasoned with butter, pepper and salt. 

CORN SCALLOP 

4 ears green corn j£ CU P butter 
10 crackers, crumbled milk 

fine 1 egg, beaten 

salt, pepper, celery salt 

1 tablespoon minced onion (optional) 

Cut the corn from the cobs. Butter a baking dish and alternate layers 
of cracker crumbs with the corn, seasoning each layer of corn with salt, 
pepper, celery salt and dabs of butter. (If using onion, add with other 
seasonings.) Before adding the top layer of cracker crumbs pour milk to 



26 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

moisten over all and the beaten egg; add the remaining cracker crumbs 
and a little more milk, with small pieces of butter all over the top. Bake 
covered for an hour in a slow oven (250 F.), then uncover and con- 
tinue baking an additional fifteen minutes to brown. 

One of the best concoctions ever invented : 



CHOPPED QUINCE 

1 quart quinces, chopped 3 cups sugar 

]/ 2 cup water 

Cook ingredients together slowly, until quinces are soft and liquid 
jellies when tried in a saucer. Do not cook till jelly is too thick or it will 
be sugary, and the jelly thickens after standing. Pour in sterilized glasses 
and seal. 

PICKLED NASTURTIUM SEEDS 

2 cups nasturtium seeds J4 CU P sa lt 

2 cups vinegar 

The seeds should be gathered green. Combine ingredients. No other 
preparation is necessary, and the seeds will keep a year with nothing 
more than sufficient cold vinegar to cover them. These may be used in 
place of capers. 



CHAPTER II 



Delicious Oddities Found in New York 
and P ennsylvania 



New york city probably offers more kinds of cookery than any other 
one city in the world ; its melting-pot reputation applies to the cookery 
pots of the population. From the West Indian and American-South 
cookery in Harlem to the Syrian dishes on Washington Street at the 
Battery, and in the many cross streets between, there are restaurants 
typical of every country on the globe, if you have the time and patience 
and the stomach to discover them and sample their wares. 

Manhattan also has a well-deserved reputation for superb American 
cookery, notably the sea-food dishes which are native to the North 
Atlantic seaboard, and its good everyday home fare, made possible by the 
amazing marketing facilities of the city. 

But outside the city, the State of New York boasts a culinary history 
which is well known to the country's gourmets but, because it is not so 
romantically sung as are the southern sections of the country, the New 
York State dishes are less widely known. Dutch, English, Swedish, 
Indian, Scotch and, to a lesser degree, Polish and Italian culinary lore 
has been drawn upon in the evolution of the state's cookery, its richness 
and versatility further enhanced by the famed farm, orchard and garden 
products native to the rich soil. 

Good Shaker housewives as early as 1889 were sufficiently proud of 
their cookery that they immortalized their dishes in a book, and Lebanon 
Valley cookery deserves to be remembered for such recipes as the fried 
Kooks, or Koecks, given here. But it is impossible to do more than 
present a few examples of the dishes which are long-time favorites in 
the state. Countless others sustain its reputation, a fame made not so 
much by the rural hotels (although a few of these have excellent 
kitchens) but by home cookery. Fortunately, native New Yorkers are 
hospitable and so their reputation for culinary achievement has not been 
kept under a bushel. 

Here is an old Shaker recipe, peculiar to this state : 

27 



28 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



OLE KOOKS 

One pound sugar, one half pound butter, one quart milk, six eggs, 
one whole yeast cake and a small piece of another. Dried fruit, as much 
as you please. As much flour as will make a soft roll (as little flour as 
can be put into the Kooks the better they are). The evening before the 
Kooks are to be cooked, set as you would bread. Butter should be 
warmed in the milk ; yolks of eggs and sugar beaten together, the whites 
separately. Mix all together, add yeast, then flour. Put in a warm place 
for the night. In the morning, if not light enough to make up, put in a 
warmer place. It may be placed over a pot of boiling water, but care 
should be taken not to leave it too long. When ready to make up, a 
piece of dough the size of a small egg is large enough for one Kook, in 
which put the fruit. Raisins should be seeded, citron cut fine; enough 
milk to soften them and a grated nutmeg used. Let stand for a time, 
pouring off the milk before putting the fruit in the dough. Mix, then 
fry in deep fat (about the same heat as for croquettes) ten or twelve 
minutes. 

From the same source: 

SALT-RISING BREAD 

Over two teaspoons of corn meal, turn three tablespoons boiling milk. 
Let stand in a warm place overnight. Then to one pint of water (just 
cool enough not to burn the fingers) add one half teaspoon salt and 
flour to make a little thicker than pancake batter. Stir in the milk and 
meal mixture and let stand, to rise, in a kettle of hot water. Keep the 
water at a temperature that can be borne by the hand. Mix to a sponge 
with one quart of water. Let stand until it just begins to rise. Then 
shape in loaves. Use as little flour as possible. The longer the loaves are 
worked, the finer will be the bread. Make loaves to fill pans about half 
full. Let stand until pans are full. Bake. (The secret of good salt-rising 
bread is to keep the bread, from beginning to finish, as hot as possible 
without scalding or baking.) 

Both of these trace their ancestry to Scotch-English settlements. The 
recipes are modern versions of very old ones: 

SCOTCH SHORTBREAD 

3 1/5 cups flour 5 tablespoons sugar 

1 tablespoon rice flour \]/\ cups butter 

\y 2 teaspoons baking powder 

Knead together as for pastry. Roll out and cut or mold into cakes. 
Decorate with fork. Bake */£ hour in moderate oven (325 F.), or until 
golden brown. 



ODDITIES IN NEW YORK AND PENNSYLVANIA 29 



SCONES 

2 cups flour 2 tablespoons sugar 

3 teaspoons baking 2 tablespoons shortening 

powder 2 eggs, well beaten 

i teaspoon salt ]/$ cup milk 

Sift dry ingredients together. Cut in shortening. Add eggs and milk 
and mix well. Roll out a half inch thick. Cut into pieces three inches 
square. Fold once diagonally making a three-cornered shape. Brush with 
milk and sprinkle sugar on top. Bake in hot oven (400 F.) twenty-five 
minutes. 



NEW YORK BAKED APPLE BUNS 



2 cups flour 


milk (about 1 cup) 


4 teaspoons baking 


2 tablespoons melted 


powder 


butter 


y 2 teaspoon salt 


1 quart chopped apples 


Y\ cup shortening 


1 Y\ cups brown sugar 



1 teaspoon cinnamon 

Sift together the flour, baking powder and salt. Add shortening and 
rub in or cut in lightly. Add enough milk to make a smooth dough. Roll 
out in oblong sheet a quarter inch thick, brush with butter and cover 
with apples. Sprinkle with one cup of the brown sugar and dust with the 
cinnamon. Rub edges with cold water and roll as jelly roll. Cut in 
13/2-inch pieces. Cover bottom of buttered baking dish with the re- 
mainder of the sugar and fill dish with buns. Bake twenty minutes in a 
moderate oven (375 F.). Then put asbestos sheet under pan and bake 
twenty-five to thirty minutes longer. Sprinkle top with granulated sugar. 
Remove from pan at once. 



BREAD CRUMB BATTER CAKES 

\y 2 cups hot milk y 2 cup flour (scant) 

1 cup bread crumbs 4 teaspoons baking 
3 eggs, well beaten powder 

2 tablespoons melted 24 teaspoon salt 

butter i l / 2 tablespoons sugar 

Pour the milk over the bread crumbs. Add the eggs, butter and dry 
ingredients, sifted together. Beat thoroughly with egg beater. Bake on 
hot griddle. 



30 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



BLETY KUCHEN 

y 2 pound butter (i cup) grated rind of y 2 lemon 
y 2 pound sugar (i% i cup chopped nuts 

cups) i tablespoon sugar 

4 eggs, beaten separately i tablespoon cinnamon 
y 2 pound flour (about i^ cups) 

Mix sugar and the half pound of butter, add yolks of eggs, then sifted 
flour and grated lemon rind. Spread mixture very thin with knife in 
well-buttered pans. Sprinkle the chopped nuts, sugar and cinnamon over 
the top and bake in a moderate oven (375 F.) to a light brown. Im- 
mediately upon taking out of oven, cut in squares. 

LUMBERMAN'S TOAST 

2 cups milk 2 tablespoons butter 

1 teaspoon flour 1 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons cold water dash cayenne pepper 
2 ounces grated cheese 1 egg, well beaten 

2 tablespoons cold milk 

Heat the two cups of milk in a double boiler. When hot, stir in the 
flour mixed with the cold water. As the milk gets hotter add slowly the 
cheese, butter, seasonings and the well-beaten egg mixed with two table- 
spoons cold milk. Simmer five minutes and serve hot on buttered toast. 

ALBANY CORN FRITTERS 

y 2 cup milk 2 teaspoons baking 

2 cups cooked corn powder 

iy 2 cups flour 1 tablespoon melted 

1 teaspoon salt butter 

y$ teaspoon pepper 2 eggs, well beaten 

Mix the milk with the corn and add the dry ingredients sifted to- 
gether. Add shortening and eggs and beat well. Fry by spoonfuls on hot 
greased griddle or in a frying pan. If fried in deep fat, make batter 
stiffer by adding another half cup flour and an additional half teaspoon 
of baking powder. 

APPLE AND SWEET POTATO SCALLOP 

Peel and slice cooked sweet potatoes. Form a layer of the sliced 
potatoes in the bottom of a buttered baking dish. Sprinkle with brown 



ODDITIES IN NEW YORK AND PENNSYLVANIA 31 

or maple sugar and a grating of nutmeg and dot with bits of butter. 
Cover with a layer of applesauce. Repeat until dish is full, having top 
layer potatoes. Cover this generously with sugar and buttered crumbs. 
Bake in a moderate oven (375 F.) for one hour. 



HUDSON APPLE TRIFLE 

apples sugar 

y 2 lemon rind, grated 1 cup cream 

fine 1 egg yolk 

whipped cream 

Scald, pulp and press through sieve enough apples to make a thick 
layer in a dish. Add the lemon rind and sugar to taste. Combine the 
cream and egg yolk and scald in a double boiler, taking care that the 
mixture does not boil. Add a little sugar and cool. When cold, lay the 
custard mixture over the apple with a spoon. Serve chilled, covered with 
whipped cream. 

I don't know where pandowdy came from, but it's a good idea in any 
language. This is the New York version : 



EMPIRE STATE PANDOWDY 

Pare and core enough sour apples to fill a deep baking dish. Cover 
with a crust of bread dough, raised with yeast. Bake in a moderate oven 
(350 F.) until apples are soft and crust is brown, then remove crust 
and sweeten the apples with brown sugar and season with one table- 
spoon each of ground cinnamon and nutmeg. Break the crust in small 
pieces and stir into the apples and add bits of butter. Return to a slow 
oven (250 F.) and bake slowly for another two hours or until the pan- 
dowdy is a dark rich brown. Serve hot or cold with hard sauce or with 
cream. 

ROCK ARBOUR PIE 

2 cups strained apple- y 2 cup seeded raisins 

sauce 1 tablespoon flour, sifted 

1 cup sugar 2 eggs, separately beaten 

grated rind and juice of pastry for 1 crust 
1 lemon 

Reserve the egg whites for meringue and mix the other ingredients. 
Fill pastry shell. Bake in a moderate oven (350 F.), adding the 
meringue when the pastry shell is brown. Lower heat to slow oven 
(200 F.) and set meringue until delicately golden. 



32 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



NEW YORK GRAPE CONSERVE 

4 pounds black grapes J4 pound walnut meats 

2 oranges 2 pounds sugar (or more 

I pound raisins to taste) 

Put the pulp of grapes in saucepan, separating seeds. Peel oranges 
and cut up very small. Cut raisins and nut meats. Pour juice from pulp 
of grapes over all and boil until skins are tender. Seal in sterilized 
glasses. 

EMPIRE SWEET PICKLED PLUMS 

4 pounds plums 2 pounds sugar 

cloves, cinnamon I quart vinegar 

Prick the plums with needle in two or three places. Put them into 
glass jars, alternating layers of plums with layers of cloves and cinna- 
mon. Make a syrup of the sugar and vinegar in an agate kettle and 
while hot, pour it over the plums. Next day, pour off the syrup, reboil 
and pour again over the fruit. Cover the jars. This improves by keeping 
for some weeks before using. 

NEW YORK SHORE DINNER 

This epicurean treat found up and down the Long Island, New 
Jersey, New York and Connecticut coasts varies according to the origin 
of the chef or restaurateur serving it. Some New Englanders in these 
seaside inns insist that clam broth, steamed clams, broiled live lobster 
and sweet corn on the cob and great cups of steaming coffee make up 
the only shore dinner fit to bear the name. In the more refined atmos- 
phere of the tearooms and restaurants with tablecloths, mine host will 
serve shrimp in . a cocktail sauce, crabmeat in a chilled mayonnaise 
flavored with green relish, a broiled shad and its roe, the new corn or 
succotash, a crisp salad, apple pie, so help me, and coffee. So fish freshly 
caught, scallops maybe, oysters perhaps, or one of the above combina- 
tions may be served you if you ask for a shore dinner. But our shores 
near by to New York City are justly famed for fresh sea delicacies just 
caught, and if you're lucky, cooked to a king's taste. Here's good hunt- 
ing! 



Cross over the line into Pennsylvania and culinary treats, which I am 
glad to say have been praised in song and far and wide, await the hungry 



ODDITIES IN NEW YORK AND PENNSYLVANIA 33 

traveler. Once more it is impossible to give but a suggestive few of the 
dishes. Pennsylvania Dutch housewives (actually of German, Dutch 
and Swedish ancestry) delight in the quality and number of their 
famous foods which they can set before family and guests. These they 
have made from traditional recipes which originally came from Middle 
and Northern Europe. But these dishes have been modified by time and 
influenced by the abundance of the rich farming produce found in 
eastern Pennsylvania. 

No dish is more characteristic of these rich farm homes than : 



SCHNITZ UN KNEPP 



1 quart dried apples 

3 pounds ham 

2 tablespoons brown 

sugar 
2 cups flour 

4 teaspoons baking 

powder 



i teaspoon salt 
Y\ teaspoon pepper 
i egg, well beaten 
milk 

3 tablespoons melted 
butter 



Wash apples and soak overnight in water to cover. In the morning, 
cover the ham with cold water and boil for three hours. Add the apples 
and water in which they have been soaked and continue to boil for an- 
other hour. Add sugar. Make dumpling batter by sifting together the 
remaining dry ingredients and stirring in the egg, milk and shortening. 
Drop the batter by spoonfuls into the hot liquid with the ham and 
apples. Cover kettle closely and cook dumplings for fifteen minutes. 
Serve very hot on large platter. 

Another favorite: 



SAUERBRATEN 



4 pounds beef (round, 

chuck or rump) 
salt, pepper 
i pint vinegar 
water 
4 bay leaves 



12 peppercorns 

4 whole cloves 

i bunch carrots, cut in 

strips 
6 onions, sliced 
i tablespoon sugar 
12 gingersnaps 

Season meat with salt and pepper, place in an earthen dish and add 
vinegar and water to cover. Add the spices and let stand for five days in 
a cool place, tightly covered. Put meat in a Dutch oven, brown well on 
both sides, add carrots, onions and one cup of the spiced vinegar. Cover 



34 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

and cook over low flame about three hours or until meat is tender. Then 
add the sugar and crumbled gingersnaps and cook for ten minutes. More 
of the spiced vinegar may be added if necessary. This makes an excellent 
gravy. (If you do not have a heavy iron pot, use an agate kettle.) 

Beloved in any farming community but famous in Pennsylvania: 



BAKED SAUERKRAUT AND SPARERIBS 

spareribs I teaspoon baking 

sauerkraut powder 

2 cups flour I cup milk 

i egg, well beaten 

Cut spareribs into portions and place in the bottom of a roasting pan. 
Place the sauerkraut over these pieces, cover the pan and bake in a 
moderate oven (350 F.) for one and a half hours. Make dumplings by- 
combining the dry ingredients, milk and egg. Drop from the end of a 
spoon onto the sauerkraut. Cover the pan tightly and finish baking in 
moderate oven (350 F.) for thirty minutes. 



PENNSYLVANIA SCRAPPLE 

Clean a pig's head and boil until the flesh comes off bones. When cold, 
chop meat fine and weigh. Skim grease from liquid in which head was 
cooked, strain the liquid and return to fire. When it boils, add cornmeal 
in the proportion of two pounds meal to three pounds meat. Cook to a 
mush. Put in the meat and add two teaspoons salt, one quarter teaspoon 
pepper and one teaspoon sage for each pound of meat. Bring to boiling 
point, cook slowly twenty minutes, stirring constantly. Then simmer 
thirty to forty minutes longer in a double boiler. Turn into pans to cool. 
When firm, slice and fry. This is especially good when fried and served 
with sausage. 



STUFFED LIVER 

1 calf's liver salt, pepper, flour 

bread stuffing 3 strips salt pork 

Wash the liver in cold salted water and dry well. Make an incision 
in the thickest part and fill with bread stuffing. Season well with salt 
and pepper and dredge with flour. Put in a roasting pan and lay strips 
of salt pork or bacon on top. Add a little water and roast in a hot oven 
(450 F.) for fifteen minutes. Reduce the heat to moderate (350 F.) 
and cook for an additional forty-five minutes. 



ODDITIES IN NEW YORK AND PENNSYLVANIA 35 

BREAD STUFFING 

I loaf dry bread i teaspoon chopped pars- 

I teaspoon salt ley 

y 8 teaspoon black pepper J / 2 teaspoon onion, 
J4 teaspoon poultry sea- chopped fine 

soning 2 tablespoons melted fat 

i egg 

Soak bread in water and squeeze dry. Add seasonings and melted fat 
and mix thoroughly. Beat egg lightly and combine with mixture. 

PHILADELPHIA PEPPER POT 



2 pounds honeycomb 

tripe 
2 pounds plain tripe 


4 medium-sized potatoes 
i bunch pot herbs 
salt 


water 

i knuckle of veal 

I bay leaf 

I large onion, chopped 


cayenne pepper 

1 cup beef suet, chopped 

fine 

2 cups flour 



minced parsley 

Wash the tripe thoroughly and boil with water to cover eight hours 
(the day before using). Remove the tripe and when cooled, cut into 
half-inch squares. The next day wash the veal knuckle, cover with three 
quarts of cold water and simmer for about three hours, removing scum 
as it rises. Remove the meat from the bones and cut into small pieces. 
Strain the broth and return to kettle. Add the bay leaf and onion and 
simmer another hour. Dice the potatoes and add with the pot herbs, 
meat, tripe and salt and cayenne pepper to taste. Make dumplings by 
combining the suet, flour, a little salt and enough water to permit rolling 
the dough into dumplings about the size of marbles. Flour well to pre- 
vent sticking and drop into the hot soup. Cook about ten minutes. Serve 
at once, garnished with parsley. 

NOODLE RING WITH CHEESE SAUCE 

I cup egg noodles ]/ 2 teaspoon salt 

3 cups boiling salted y 2 teaspoon paprika 

water i l / 2 cups milk 

3 tablespoons butter l /± to y 2 pound dry 

3 tablespoons flour American cheese 

2 eggs, well beaten 

Boil the noodles in the salted water for about ten minutes. Drain and 
put into a well-greased ring mold. Melt the butter, stir in the flour, 



36 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

then the milk, cooking and stirring constantly until the mixture thickens. 
Add the seasonings and grated cheese, and continue cooking until cheese 
melts. Reserve half of the sauce to use later. To the remaining sauce add 
the eggs and mix well. Pour over the noodles. Place mold in pan con- 
taining hot water and bake in moderate oven (350 F.) about forty- 
five minutes. Unmold on large platter, pour over it the remaining hot 
cheese sauce and fill center with any desired vegetable. 

SMIERKASE 

1 quart sour milk 3 quarts warm water 

salt, pepper, cream 

Heat the sour milk to lukewarm and pour into a cheesecloth bag. Pour 
one quart of the warm water over curds, and after allowing to drain 
repeat twice with the remaining warm water. Tie bag and let drip until 
the "whey is all." Serve with either sweet or sour cream and seasoning 
to taste. Grated nutmeg on top is preferred by some. 

BREAKFAST SCHNECKEN 

1 yeast cake 2 eggs, well beaten 

1 cup warm water y 2 cup melted butter 
5 tablespoons sugar flour 

y 2 teaspoon salt 4 tablespoons butter 

2 cups warm milk \y 2 teaspoons cinnamon 

Dissolve the yeast cake in the warm water and add one tablespoon of 
the sugar, the salt and enough flour to stiffen to a sponge. Let rise for 
one hour, then add the milk, eggs, melted butter and enough sifted flour 
to make a soft sponge. Let rise again, then roll out dough on a floured 
board and cover with a mixture of the remaining sugar, butter and 
cinnamon. Roll like a jelly roll and cut in two-inch pieces. Place on well- 
greased pans and let rise for a third time, then bake in a hot oven 
(400 F.) for twenty minutes. Delicious for breakfast or afternoon 
coffee. 

These buns may be made elsewhere in this country by equally famous 
recipes but the Pennsylvania cinnamon bun is, to a vast majority, the 
best: 

FAMOUS CINNAMON BUNS 

y 2 yeast cake butter 

J4 cup warm water y 2 cup chopped raisins 

1 cup scalded milk 2 tablespoons currants 

brown sugar 2 tablespoons chopped 
y 2 teaspoon salt citron 

3 cups flour 1 teaspoon cinnamon 



ODDITIES IN NEW YORK AND PENNSYLVANIA 37 

Dissolve yeast in warm water and add to milk which has been cooled 
to lukewarm. Add about three tablespoons sugar, the salt and flour, 
and knead thoroughly until it becomes a soft dough. Put the dough in a 
buttered bowl and butter the top of the dough. Cover bowl and put in 
a warm place. Let it stand until the dough triples in bulk. Roll to fourth 
of an inch in thickness, brush with butter and spread with the raisins, 
currants, citron, cinnamon and brown sugar. Roll as a jelly roll and cut 
into three-quarter-inch slices, place in buttered pans, spread generously 
with brown sugar and bake in a hot oven (400 F.) for twenty minutes. 

KAFFEE KUCHEN 

2 cups milk, scalded 6 y 2 cups flour 

1 cup sugar 1 yeast cake 

y 2 cup butter Yz cup lukewarm water 

1 egg, separated brown sugar or "rivels" 

melted butter 

Set the scalded milk aside to cool. Cream the sugar, butter and egg 
yolk. Add to this the lukewarm milk, alternately with the flour and the 
yeast cake dissolved in the lukewarm water. Beat lightly and add the 
stiffly beaten egg white. Allow this mixture to rise overnight. Flour a 
board and roll spoonfuls of the dough, mixed with just enough flour to 
permit rolling into flat cakes. Place on well-greased pans and when light 
(about an hour and a half) brush melted butter over the top and spread 
generously with brown sugar or "rivels." Bake in a hot oven (400 F.) 
about twenty minutes. 

"Rivels" are made by combining a half cup of sugar, a half cup of 
flour and two tablespoons of butter, and crumbling together. 

PENNSYLVANIA APFELSTRUDEL 

i]/2 cups flour 5 cups sliced apples 

1 teaspoon salt 1 cup brown sugar 

2 tablespoons shortening y 2 cup seedless raisins 
2 eggs, slightly beaten J^ CU P chopped nuts 
y 2 cup warm water y 2 teaspoon cinnamon 
grated rind of 1 lemon 3 tablespoons melted 

butter 

Sift the flour and salt together. Cut in the shortening and add the 
eggs and water. Knead well, then throw or beat dough against board 
until it blisters. Stand it in a warm place under a cloth for twenty 
minutes. Cover the kitchen table with a small white cloth and flour it. 
Put dough on it. Pull out with hands very carefully to the thickness of 
tissue paper. Spread with a mixture made of the remaining ingredients. 
Fold in outer edges and roll about four inches wide. Bake in a very hot 
oven (450 F.) for ten minutes, reduce the heat to moderately hot oven 



38 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

(375° F.) and continue to bake about twenty minutes. Let cool. Cut in 
slices about two inches wide. 

PENNSYLVANIA RAISIN CRUMB PIE 

1 pound seeded raisins 2 eggs, well beaten 
i l / 2 cups cold water I cup milk 

2 cups flour 2 teaspoons baking 

3 cups sugar powder 
J4 cup shortening rich pastry 

Wash and clean raisins and add the cold water and half of the sugar. 
Cook until raisins are tender and plump. Set aside to cool. Mix the 
flour, the remaining sugar and the shortening, crumbling well with the 
finger tips. Reserve one cup of these crumbs. To the remaining crumb 
mixture add the eggs and milk and mix well. Stir in the baking powder. 
Line two large piepans with rich pastry, fill with the cooked raisins, pour 
the batter over this and sprinkle top with the cup of reserved crumbs. 
Bake in a hot oven (440 F.) for ten minutes, reduce heat to moderate 
(350 F.) and finish baking about thirty-five minutes. 

One of the most famous Pennsylvania pies: 

COUNTRY MOLASSES PIE 

% cup flour % cup molasses 

y 2 cup sugar 34 CU P boiling water 

1 tablespoon butter % teaspoon soda 

pastry to line a deep piepan 

Mix the flour, sugar and butter together, working and pinching with 
the fingers until very fine. Add the water to the molasses and soda and 
beat until foamy and rising. Pour the molasses mixture into a deep pie- 
pan lined with pastry, and mix the pastry crumbs by the spoonful into 
the molasses filling. Bake in a moderate oven (325 F.) for thirty 
minutes. 

SHOO-FLY CAKE 

24 cup flour J4 teaspoon salt 

J / 2 cup brown sugar 2 tablespoons shortening 

}i teaspoon nutmeg ]/ 2 cup molasses 

}i teaspoon ginger 1 egg yolk, well beaten 

Y& teaspoon cloves J / 2 tablespoon soda 

y 2 teaspoon cinnamon % cup boiling water 
pastry for one-crust pie 

Combine the flour, sugar, spices and salt and work in the shortening, 
pinching with the fingers into crumbs. Dissolve the soda in the boiling 



ODDITIES IN NEW YORK AND PENNSYLVANIA 39 

water and mix with the molasses and egg yolk. Line a piepan with the 
pastry and make alternate layers of crumbs and liquid, topping with 
crumbs. Bake in a hot oven (450 F.) until crust edges start to brown. 
Reduce heat to moderate oven (350 F.) and bake until firm, about 
twenty minutes. 

Below is a most unusual but memorable recipe from Pennsylvania 
prize cooks. Follow directions carefully and you'll live to rejoice with 
the guests who sample the cake. 

MOSS ROSE CAKE 

2 cups sugar y 2 teaspoon almond 

4 eggs (unbeaten) flavoring 

1 cup milk, scalded 2 cups sifted cake flour 

Break eggs over sugar and beat twelve minutes. Heat milk to boiling 
point, add almond flavoring and let stand. Stir the flour into the egg and 
sugar mixture and then add the warm milk slowly. Beat until *well 
mixed (about three minutes). Bake in a moderate oven (375° F.) in 
two layers about twenty-five minutes. Top with the following frosting: 

COCONUT-ORANGE FROSTING 

1^2 cups sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla ex- 

y 2 cup water tract 

2 egg whites 2 cups grated coconut 

2 tablespoons sugar 
1 orange 

Add water to sugar and boil until it spins a thread. Pour slowly over 
the stiffly beaten egg whites and continue to beat until it is thick enough 
to spread. Add vanilla and spread on the cooled cake. But do not put 
the layers together. 

When partly dry but not hard, add the mixture made by combining 
the sweetened coconut mixed with the grated rind, pulp and juice of an 
orange. Freshly grated coconut is best, but the canned moist coconut is a 
very good substitute. 

Four words of warning as to boiled frosting dangers: I. Be sure you 
boil the syrup long enough. 2. Do not pour it onto the white of egg while 
still bubbling. 3. Beat it long enough. 4. Cool the cake before frosting it. 

These are the pride of Pennsylvania Dutch housewives : 

DUTCH BLACK WALNUT COOKIES 

2 cups brown sugar y 2 -> teaspoon baking 

4 eggs, well beaten powder 

]/ 2 cup flour y 2 teaspoon salt 

1 pound black walnut meats, chopped 



40 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Mix the sugar and eggs thoroughly and add the sifted dry ingredients. 
Stir in the nuts. Drop by teaspoonfuls on a greased cooky sheet and bake 
in a moderate oven (375 F.) about twelve minutes. 

FASTNACHT KUCKA 

1 ]/ 2 quarts milk y 2 cup warm water 
4 quarts flour 1 cup butter 

2 cakes yeast 4 eggs, beaten 

6 tablespoons molasses or honey 

Scald milk, then cool to lukewarm; mix half of the flour with it, 
making a smooth batter, and add the yeast dissolved in the water. Beat 
together well and allow to stand overnight. Cream the butter and eggs 
together, add the honey or molasses and a little of the remaining flour. 
Beat well and combine with the batter. Reserve enough flour to dust a 
breadboard and add the remainder. Allow time for full rise and then 
roll and cut in form of doughnuts. Let rise again and fry in hot cooking 
oil or fat. 

PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH INDIA RELISH 

y 2 peck ripe tomatoes ]/ 2 ounce whole cloves 

6 sweet yellow peppers y 2 ounce stick cinnamon 

2 large onions 3 bay leaves 

y 2 ounce mustard seed 1 quart vinegar 

y 2 ounce celery seed 5 tablespoons salt 

y 2 ounce whole allspice \y 2 cups brown sugar 

Put the vegetables through a food chopper. Place all spices in a cheese- 
cloth bag and boil in the vinegar with, the salt and sugar for fifteen 
minutes. Add the chopped vegetables and cook for twenty minutes. Pour 
into sterilized jars and seal. 



CHAPTER III 

The South 



What is Southern cookery? The answer could fill several chunky 
volumes instead of these few pages, for those dishes which fall undeni- 
ably into the classification of Southern are not only so diversified and so 
gorgeously good but so numerous, as well, that the subject of the cookery 
of the South has now become a noble one, meriting the consideration of 
scholars and the praise of the whole people. Let us not tarry with 
quarrels as to where on the map Southern cookery begins, nor wrestle 
with arguments as to which part of the South stands forth in highest 
glory for the products of its kitchen. We may approach it from the sea, 
simply as a beginning, and loiter in Maryland a while. 

I 

MARYLAND 

Small black boys used to gather these for "de Big House," and Missy 
supervised their cooking: 

SOFT CRABS 

12 small crabs black pepper 

l / 2 pound butter salt, flour 

Clean crabs thoroughly, wash and wipe dry. Salt and season highly 
with pepper, then dust with flour. Have butter at boiling point, put 
crabs in pan and turn frequently until nicely browned. Serve at once, 
garnished with parsley and tartare sauce. 

Everyone around this bay, Negro and white, knows this delicious 
concoction : 

CRAB CHESAPEAKE 

2 pounds crab flakes 8 mushrooms, sauted 

1 cup cream lightly in butter 
1 6 freshly boiled shrimp l / 2 teaspoon salt 

2 green peppers, chopped ]/ 2 teaspoon paprika 
2 tablespoons butter I glass sherry 

41 



42 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



Cook crab flakes in cream and add other ingredients, the sherry last. 
Perfect for a chafing dish on Sunday night. Thin dry toast is needed 
for it; a green salad after; fruit or a fruit tart, and coffee. 

And as an appetizer to any Maryland dinner: Fresh crab flakes, very 
cold, marinated in olive oil, lemon juice and salt and pepper for hours 
in the refrigerator. Just before serving, dress with mayonnaise in which 
chopped sweet pickle, capers, a few chives and a little chopped sweet 
green pepper are blended. 

Some of the fine Baltimore homes, and the Negro chefs in the best 
hotels and restaurants in Maryland's most famous city, declare this dish 
the most typical of quality dining in all Maryland: 

CRAB IMPERIAL 



2 crabs 

y 2 onion, chopped 
butter 

salt, cayenne pepper 
2 cups thick cream sauce 
Worcestershire sauce 
I teaspoon English 
mustard 



chopped chives 
2 egg yolks 

green and Spanish pep- 
pers, chopped fine 
French mustard 
bread crumbs 
lemon slices 



Simmer the flakes of two crabs and the onion in butter. Season with 
salt and pepper; add cream sauce, Worcestershire, English mustard and 
a little of the chives, and bring to boiling, then bind with the egg yolks. 
Add a little of the green and Spanish peppers chopped fine. Mix, then 
fill crab shells, spread a little French mustard on top and a sprinkle of 
bread crumbs. Place a small piece of butter on each and bake in the oven 
until brown. Garnish with remaining chives and lemon slices. 

This is more of a home dish: 



BALTIMORE CRAB CAKES 



i pound crab meat 
\y 2 teaspoons salt 

1 teaspoon white pepper 
i teaspoon English dry 

mustard 

2 teaspoons Worcester- 

shire sauce 



1 egg yolk 

2 teaspoons cream sauce 

or mayonnaise 
flour 

beaten eggs 
bread crumbs 
I teaspoon chopped 

parsley 



Put crab meat into mixing bowl ; add mustard, Worcestershire sauce, 
egg yolk, cream sauce or mayonnaise, and chopped parsley. Mix well, 



THE SOUTH 43 

making four crab cakes; press together, dip into flour, then into beaten 
eggs, then into bread crumbs. Fry the cakes in a hot greased pan. 

Another of the shore favorites in Maryland : 

BAKED CRAB 

4 tablespoons butter minced parsley 

2 tablespoons flour salt 

2 cups milk paprika 

i egg, beaten 2 pounds crab flakes 

I egg, hard-boiled bread crumbs 

Cream together butter and flour in the top of a double boiler, add 
milk and cook until creamy, stirring constantly. Remove from fire and 
stir in well-beaten egg. Mash hard-boiled egg and add to sauce with 
parsley, salt and paprika. Add crab flakes, put in baking dish, cover with 
bread crumbs and bake until brown. Delicious too when baked in in- 
dividual casseroles as a luncheon entree. 

Cooks in every Southern state, and in New England as well, claim to 
have originated this way of cooking oysters. It's good under any state's 
constitution : 

OYSTER LOAF 

I Vienna loaf of bread i tablespoon chopped 

butter parsley 

i quart raw oysters y 2 cup cream 

(about) pepper, salt 

2 drops tabasco sauce 

Cut an oblong slice from the upper crust of the loaf of bread. Scoop 
out the crumbs from inside, spread all sides of this cavity with butter 
and fill with oysters. Add parsley, cream, plenty of butter, pepper, salt 
and tabasco sauce. Put on the upper crust. Set in a baking dish and pour 
oyster liquor over it. Cover and bake twenty minutes, basting often with 
the liquor. Slice and serve hot. 

A man's dish, but I've seen the girls go for it in a big way in Balti- 
more: 

BALTIMORE GRILLED OYSTERS 

i dozen large oysters 2 pieces toast 

pepper 2 thin slices broiled 

drawn butter smoked ham 

bread crumbs lemon, parsley 

Light cream sauce cooked with chopped celery 



44 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Dry oysters on a towel, sprinkle with pepper, dip in drawn butter and 
fresh bread crumbs and broil quickly to a light golden color. Cover 
toast with ham, place half of oysters on each piece of ham, garnish top 
with slice of lemon and sprig of parsley and pour around it the cream 
sauce. 

One Maryland cook added equal parts of oysters and lobster for her 
stew but this is the simplest version : 

MARYLAND OYSTER STEW 

1 quart oysters 2 tablespoons flour 

y 2 cup milk a little chopped celery 

cream with tops 

2 tablespoons butter salt, pepper, celery salt 

Drain oysters through a colander for an hour or more, saving the 
liquor. Then hold colander under cold-water spigot and run the water, 
washing the oysters in the hands. Drain for a few minutes so that they 
will be free of water. Put the oysters in a saucepan and add the clear 
liquor that has been drained from the oysters. Heat with milk, salt, 
pepper and celery until the oysters' gills curl, then add butter and flour 
which has been mixed by melting the butter and stirring the flour in it. 
Lastly add cream, the more added the richer this stew. 

This is a dish Negro cooks made famous. It is so cheap and easily pre- 
pared, but so good too, that great houses like it down Maryland way: 

SMOTHERED ROCKFISH 

I rockfish (3 pounds or 3^ CU P chopped onion 

more) y 2 cup melted butter 

salt, pepper Yi cup hot water 

Scale and clean the fish but do not remove its head. Place in roaster. 
Sprinkle with salt and pepper, in cavity and on both sides ; spread over it 
the chopped onion. Pour over it the melted butter and hot water. Bake, 
covered, in a hot oven, basting frequently. It will take about a half-hour 
to cook and is done when a carving fork can pierce it easily. 

Game in Maryland is as traditional for the fine table as is fish. If any- 
thing, the eccentricities of its preparation are more pronounced than else- 
where. One old "colonel" serves it so rare that the duck gives his final 
quack when the broiler door opens to let him out for the table. 

CANVASBACK DUCK 

Soak the ducks twenty-four hours in salted water and then lay them 
in fresh water for two hours. Season with salt and pepper to taste and 



THE SOUTH 45 

place in a baking pan. When half-done take them out and pour a little 
brandy and wine in them. Mix a little flour with enough water to make 
a paste and stir into the gravy. Put back into oven and cook until nearly 
done, then take out and pour more brandy and wine in the ducks and 
baste them well with the gravy until thoroughly cooked and well 
browned. 

PARTRIDGE 

Let the partridges stand overnight in salted water after the birds have 
been cleaned, singed and split down the back. When ready to bake place 
them in the oven, seasoned to taste with salt, pepper and butter. Cook 
until well done. Add a little flour and water to the drippings to make a 
gravy, and shortly before serving stir into the gravy about two table- 
spoons of wine. 

You need an agile small black boy to help get this dish together. He 
catches the frogs : 

FROG LEGS 

Frogs should be fresh killed shortly before preparing to serve. After 
cleaning, every part of the frog but the head is used. Sprinkle flour and 
seasonings lightly on both sides of the frog, place in skillet with one-inch- 
deep sizzling hot cooking fat. Fry until brown. 

O controversy, I love you! The crimes committed in the name of 
Maryland Fried Chicken are legion. But this is the way a good many 
real Maryland cooks make it : 

MARYLAND FRIED CHICKEN 



2 young chickens 


y 2 teaspoon salt 


2 cups flour 


pepper 


3 teaspoons baking 


2 eggs, well beaten 


powder 


y 2 cup milk 



Cut chickens into pieces. Make a batter of the sifted dry ingredients 
and the combined eggs and milk, adding more milk if necessary. Dip the 
pieces of chicken, one piece at a time, in the batter, drop into deep hot 
fat and fry. 

And this is the other way : 

OLD-FASHIONED FRIED CHICKEN 
MARYLAND 

2 tablespoons butter 2j/^ pounds chicken 

4 slices lean salt pork i cup light cream sauce 

flour, milk, cream chopped chives 

chopped parsley 



46 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Dip the salt pork in flour and fry in the butter until a golden color, 
then take out and fry the disjointed chicken, dipped in milk and flour, 
in the hot butter and pork grease. When cooked remove the chicken, 
drain fat from frying pan, pour in a cup of light cream and milk, cook 
until reduced to half and add the cream sauce. Boil a few minutes, strain 
over chicken sprinkled with chopped chives and parsley, and serve with 
corn fritters, sweet potato croquettes, fried tomato and the pieces of crisp 
salt pork. 

Pretty good as a Sunday breakfast specialty in any state : 

GIBLET HASH 

giblets I stalk celery, chopped 

salted water a few thyme leaves 

diced potatoes salt, pepper 

I carrot, diced flour 

i finely chopped onion toast 

poached eggs 

Wash sufficient giblets to serve number desired, place in cold salted 
water, bring to boiling and cook until tender. Remove from liquid and 
cut into small pieces. Return to liquid ; add potatoes, carrot, onion, 
celery, thyme, and salt and pepper to taste. When vegetables are cooked 
thicken the stew with a little flour. Serve on toast and top with a 
poached egg for each portion. 

Darky mammies seem to be the only ones who can make this wonder- 
ful Maryland dish : 

BONELESS TURKEY 

I turkey (8 to 10 I quart chestnuts, boiled 

pounds) and shelled 

I leg of veal (5 pounds) 1 calf's head 

1 ham (8 pounds) 1 beef shinbone 

2 cans whole mushrooms salt, pepper, paprika 
2 cans truffles parsley, boiled beets 
2 pounds western side carrots and eggs 

Split the turkey down the back and lay open on the table, removing 
all bones and laying the meat back in place as near original shape as pos- 
sible, being careful not to break the outer skin. Grind the meat from the 
leg of veal and line the entire inside of the turkey with about half of the 
veal. Dice the ham in one-half-inch cubes, then on the veal lay rows of 
ham, mushrooms, strips of western side, chestnuts, ham, and truffles cut 
in pieces; then repeat until all are used and cover with the remaining 



THE SOUTH 47 

veal. Roll turkey carefully but firmly in cheesecloth and let boil gently 
for four hours. 

Boil together the leg bone of the veal, the calf's head and beef shin- 
bone until all jelly has been extracted. Season highly with salt, pepper 
and paprika. Line an oblong mold (with sides high enough to fit the 
turkey) with some of the jelly and chill. When set, decorate with 
flowers, etc., made out of the boiled beets, carrots and eggs, using the 
parsley for foliage. Place turkey in mold, cover all with the jelly and 
chill thoroughly. Turn out on large platter to slice for serving. 

Another controversy arises when Southerners get to talking about 
ham. There are dozens of Maryland ways of preparing it. This is one: 

BAKED HAM 

Soak the ham in skimmed milk overnight. In the morning wash hard 
with coarse cloth or stiff brush, removing all mold or smoke from the 
outside. Put into a kettle of cold water and allow to boil hard until the 
meat leaves the end bone. Skin off rind while the ham is hot then put in 
the oven and allow part of fat to stew down. Then allow to cool, cover 
with brown sugar and stick remaining fat with cloves. Baste with three 
cups of sherry, Madeira or champagne. Bake until brown. 

And here's another: 



STUFFED HAM 

I ham J4 peck parsley 

i peck spinach black and red pepper 

y 2 cup chives salt 

If the ham is old soak it in cold water for twelve hours. Wash the 
vegetables carefully and chop fine. Season. Make holes lengthwise in the 
ham with a knife. Push the chopped and seasoned vegetables into the 
holes. Try to keep the holes separate so the filling will look round all 
through. Sew the ham in a piece of strong linen and boil twenty min- 
utes to the pound. Let it cool in the liquor in which it is boiled. Serve 
sliced when thoroughly chilled. 

Fit for a king or even a congressman, and no Maryland breakfast is 
complete without it: 

HOMINY 

3 pints cold cooked y 2 teaspoon salt 

hominy pepper 

l /\. pound butter 2 cups cream 

2 teaspoons sugar 



48 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Place one cup of cream and other ingredients in chafing dish and cook 
slowly, stirring continuously. As hominy begins to thicken add balance 
of cream. 

Two of the classic vegetables of Maryland: 



BOILED POKE GREENS 

Use the first shoots of the pokeberry plant, about six to eight inches 
tall. Wash thoroughly in cold water. Put in pot with cold water, with- 
out removing leaves or stem, and cook about half an hour until done. 
Drain and serve hot with melted butter, pepper, salt and drawn butter 
or hollandaise sauce. 



TURNIP GREENS AND HOG'S JOWL 

Cook about three pounds of hog's jowl in water to cover until tender. 
Remove hog's jowl and add one peck of thoroughly washed turnip 
greens and one teaspoon of salt. Boil quickly until tender, drain, cut up, 
season with pepper and serve hot with hog's jowl. 

Two sauces from Maryland kitchens : 



BRANDY SAUCE 

J/2 cup butter 3 tablespoons brandy 

1 cup sugar 6 tablespoons hot 

4 eggs, beaten separately water 

Cream butter and sugar together, add egg yolks, then hot water a 
little at a time. Add brandy last. Pour sauce in serving dish and put 

well-beaten egg whites on top. Mix the whites into the sauce as you 
serve it over pudding. 



WINE SAUCE 

Yx pound butter 1 egg 

3/4 cup brown sugar 1 glass wine (or more) 

Beat butter and sugar to a cream, add egg and beat until light. Put 
in wine gradually. Cook until thick and nearly boiling, stirring con- 
stantly. So good on spongecake or pudding. 

Every Southern state has its beaten biscuit. In Maryland they some- 
times are cut very small, and when baked are split and filled with a 
smudge of deviled ham. 



THE SOUTH 49 



BEATEN BISCU IT 

3 pints flour l /i cup lard 

2 teaspoons salt ice water, milk 

Sift the dry ingredients together. Work in the lard and add the liquid, 
half ice water and half milk, enough to make a stiff dough, and beat 
with a club for twenty-five minutes. Make in small biscuits and bake in 
a hot oven (450 F.). 

Here is the famous cake of Baltimore. Whether it really belonged 
to Lady Baltimore originally is hard to say. There are many variations 
of this recipe: 

LADY BALTIMORE CAKE 

1 cup butter 1 teaspoon vanilla 

2 cups granulated sugar flavoring 
2 l /2 cups sifted flour l / 2 teaspoon salt 

1 cup milk 1 teaspoon almond 

3 teaspoons baking flavoring 

powder whites of 6 eggs 

Cream the butter and sugar, then add the milk and the flour sifted with 
the baking powder, alternately. Fold in the beaten egg w r hites last of all, 
with flavoring. Bake in three layers in a moderately hot oven (375 F.), 
twenty-five to thirty minutes. 



FILLING 

To one half of the following frosting, when cool, add one cup of 
seeded raisins, cut small, one cup of chopped nuts and ten sliced mara- 
schino cherries with one half teaspoon of vanilla. Use the remainder of 
the icing plain for the top of the cake and decorate it with cherries. 

Melt one cup granulated sugar in one half cup of water with 1/16 
teaspoon cream of tartar, stirring with wooden spoon till smooth. Cover 
and allow to boil without stirring for four minutes. Then cook to the 
hard-ball stage. (This takes five to eight minutes after it boils, cooking 
to 254 F., or until a firm ball is formed in cold water.) Remove from 
fire while testing so that it will not overcook. 

When done, remove from stove and when it stops bubbling pour 
slowly onto two stiffly beaten egg whites (or one sixth of a cup), beating 
it constantly. Continue beating it about five minutes till cool and thick. 

This also is credited to Maryland cooks and is said to have been con- 
cocted for the General himself: 



50 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



WASHINGTON CAKE 

i}4 pounds cake flour 

(SH cups) 
1 54 pounds brown sugar 

(iy s cups) 

i y 2 cups butter 
8 eggs, well beaten 
I teaspoon soda 



y 2 teaspoon cinnamon 
y 2 teaspoon ground 

cloves 
I pound raisins 

1 pound currants 
y 2 cup brandy 

2 cups milk or cream 



i tablespoon rose water 

Blend dry ingredients and sift well. Mix butter and eggs and stir in 
gradually, alternating with milk or cream. Add brandy and rose water 
last. Mix in well. Bake in two loaf pans, lined with buttered paper, 
three hours, low oven (200 F. to 250 F.). 

There are white fruitcakes in every Southern state and all are good 
ones. This is my favorite from Maryland : 

WHITE FRUIT CAKE 



iy 2 cups flour 
y 2 teaspoon salt 
2 teaspoons baking 
powder 

1 cup butter 

2 cups sugar 
7 egg whites 
y 2 teaspoon almond 

flavoring 
y 2 pound conserved cherries, chopped 



1 cup milk 

y± pound citron, 

chopped 
1 coconut, grated 
1 pound almonds, 

blanched and 

chopped 



Reserve a very little of the flour to sprinkle through the citron, coco- 
nut, almonds and cherries. Sift remainder of flour with salt and baking 
powder. Cream butter and sugar, and to this add egg whites one at a 
time, beating well after each is added. Put the almond flavoring in the 
milk and add this alternately with the flour to the combined shortening, 
sugar and egg whites. Mix the citron, coconut, almonds and cherries 
with the sifted reserved flour and stir into the cake mixture. Bake in 
greased loaf pan in low oven (275 F. to 300 F.) for about one hour. 

PUDDING PIE 



1 cup butter 
1 y 2 cups brown sugar 
i>4 cups white sugar 
1 cup cream 



5 eggs, beaten until light 
1 teaspoon vanilla 
pastry, egg white 
nutmeg 



THE SOUTH 51 

Melt the butter and sugar with the cream in the top of a double 
boiler. Add the eggs and vanilla. Line two piepans with the pastry and 
glaze with beaten egg white to prevent soaking the crust. Pour the cream 
mixture into the pastry shells and dust with nutmeg. Bake about forty- 
five minutes in a slow oven (250 F.). 

COCONUT BREAD PUDDING 

2 cups milk y 2 cup sugar 

2 cups diced dry bread 1 teaspoon vanilla 

1 tablespoon butter 2 eggs, separated 

Y^ teaspoon salt y 2 cup grated coconut 

Scald the milk and soak the bread in it for an hour or more, stirring 
in the butter and sugar while still hot. When cool add yolks of egg, 
vanilla and coconut, and then the thoroughly beaten egg whites. Put in 
greased baking dish and place in pan of water. Bake about thirty minutes 
in a moderate oven (350 F.). 

2 

KENTUCKY DISHES 

At least eight kinds of biscuits are known to the deep-down Kentucky 
cooks, and to meet Kentucky natives out of their home setting and to 
mention food is to hear a great deal about biscuits, and for that matter 
all other kinds of good food. But beaten biscuits do not belong exclu- 
sively to Kentucky. They are found all over the South, and there is no 
one to say just where they originated or who thought them up. I want 
to keep peace between the covers of this book so all I can do is set down 
recipes as they have been given to me by authorities in various spots. 

In the Southern recipes, especially, we've had to take out some of 
the moonlight and magnolias of the phraseology and step it down to 
cold everyday spoonfuls and cupfuls and give oven temperatures besides. 
Be patient, Southerners, and realize that the rest of the country has to 
do without the blessing of a genuine mammy in the kitchen, and folks 
north and westerly have to rely on the less luxuriant produce of a less 
tropical clime. But insofar as possible, I have maintained the Old South 
in these recipes. Here are a few of Kentucky's best : 

BEATEN BISCUITS 

2 cups flour 2 tablespoons lard 

% teaspoon salt 

Mix with very cold sweet milk to a stiff dough. Work one hundred 
and fifty times through a kneader. Roll into sheet one half inch thick. 



52 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Cut out or make out with the hands. Stick with a fork and bake in a hot 
oven (400 F.) about twenty minutes till a rich brown. 

The dough can be kept for two days if put in a tightly covered jar 
and kept on ice or in a cool place. Roll from one hundred fifty to two 
hundred times through the kneader. Bake from twenty to twenty-five 
minutes in a hot oven. "If the stove is hot enough to blister them before 
they are baked, place a bread pan of water on the upper grating" — old 
coal and wood ranges ! Many of the best housekeepers prefer the old way 
of making the biscuits out by hand, to the use of the cutter. 

CREAM BISCUITS 

4 cups flour 2 teaspoons baking 
Y^ cup butter powder 

y 2 teaspoon salt 
1 quart cream 

Sift the dry ingredients together, cut in the butter and add the sweet 
cream, working very well for several minutes. Roll out as thick as a 
silver dollar. Bake in hot oven (400 F.). Serve hot with honey or 
preserves. 

CORN BREAD 

1 cup boiled rice 1 tablespoon melted 

2 cups sifted corn meal butter or lard 
2 eggs, well beaten 1 teaspoon baking 
y 2 teaspoon salt powder 

sweet milk (for rather thin batter) 

Combine ingredients and pour in a well-greased earthen baking dish 
and bake a half hour or more in a hot oven (400 F.). 

CORN DODGERS 

Sift the best meal made from the white corn, any quantity desired. 
Salt to taste. Mix with cold water into stiff dough and form into round 
long dodgers with the hands. Take the soft dough and form into shape 
by rolling between the hands, making the dodgers about four or five 
inches long and one and one half inches in diameter. Have a griddle hot, 
grease a little with lard and put the dodgers on as you roll them. Put 
in a hot oven (400 F.) and bake thoroughly, when they will be crisp 
and a rich brown. This bread does not rise. 

STEAM PONE 

1 cup New Orleans 1 teaspoon salt 

molasses 1 quart buttermilk 

5 cups corn meal 2 teaspoons soda 

2 cups brown flour 






THE SOUTH 53 

Mix thoroughly and place in airtight-covered mold or bucket. Set in 
kettle of boiling water and boil slowly but steadily for six hours. Then 
take from bucket, put in pan and bake in slow oven (250 F. to 275 F.) 
for two hours till a rich brown. 

This is "stepped up" from a very simple stew originated by trappers 
in settler days: 

KENTUCKY BURGOO 

6 squirrels 1 quart corn 

6 birds 1 quart oysters 

i l /2 gallons water 2 cups sweet cream 

1 cup pearl barley % pound butter 

1 quart tomatoes 2 tablespoons flour 

seasonings to taste 

Boil the cleaned and dressed squirrels and birds in the water till ten- 
der and remove all the bones. Add barley and vegetables and cook slowly 
for one hour. Ten minutes before serving add the oysters, cream and 
butter and flour rubbed together. Season and serve hot. 

TURBOT 

Steam one fish ; pick to pieces and bone ; sprinkle with salt and pepper 
in layers and set aside. Boil a little parsley and onion in a pint of milk ; 
strain, set back on fire; stir in a quarter pound of flour (four fifths cup), 
a quarter of a pound of butter (one half cup) and boil till thick. Set to 
one side until partially cold. Beat up two eggs and stir in the mixture ; 
butter a baking dish and fill with alternate layers of fish and dressing. 
Sprinkle top with bread crumbs and bake in moderate oven (375° F.) 
until it puffs up in center. 

Another controversial topic. There are countless ways to prepare this 
in Kentucky. One must suffice for our space: 

KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN 

Prepare young chicken and sprinkle with salt and lay on ice twelve 
hours before cooking. Cut the chicken m pieces and dredge with flour 
and lay in hot boiling lard and butter, equal parts ; season with salt and 
pepper and cover tightly. Cook rather slowly; if it cooks too quickly it 
will burn. Cook both sides to a rich brown. Remove chicken and make 
a gravy by adding milk, flour, butter, salt and pepper. Cook till thick 
and serve in separate bowl. 

Oh, don't miss this! 

KENTUCKY FOWL WITH OYSTERS 

Take a young chicken, fill the inside with oysters and put into a jar, 
covering tightly. Plunge the jar into a kettle of water; boil for one and 



54 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

one half hours. There will be a quantity of gravy from the juice of the 
fowl and the oysters in the jar, which make into a white sauce with the 
addition of a little flour, cream and butter; add some oysters to it or 
serve plain with the chicken. The gravy that comes from a fowl dressed 
in this manner will be a stiff jelly next day, and the fowl will be white 
and tender and of an exceedingly fine flavor — advantages not attained 
in ordinary boiling — while the dish loses nothing of its delicacy and 
simplicity. 

BLUEGRASS BAKED HAM 

Take a good magnolia ham one or two years old and let it soak thirty- 
six hours. Make a stiff dough of flour and water and envelop the ham 
and put in a baking pan. Add enough water to keep from sticking. Baste 
frequently and cook till thoroughly done, or till the hock can be re- 
moved, five to six hours. When done, skin it and make an icing of brown 
sugar and yolk of one egg, and cover top and grate bread crumbs over it. 
Put in oven and brown. Never be without one. Slice on the slightest 
provocation. 

Delicious, and came up from the Louisiana French. 



BEEF A LA MODE 

Remove the bone from a round of beef. Fill the hole with a dressing 
made of bread crumbs, salt, pepper and butter, seasoned with one tea- 
spoon salt, some pepper, ground cloves, mace and nutmeg. Make inci- 
sions in the beef and put in strips of pork which have been rolled in a 
mixture of the spices and sprinkle more of the same spices over the top. 
Cover the whole with fat bacon to prevent burning. Tie with a tape and 
skewer it well ; put in an oven and bake five hours. Baste constantly with 
butter and lard mixed with a little flour. When nearly done skim off the 
fat and thicken the gravy. Season with walnut ketchup and wine. 



KENTUCKY ROAST MUTTON 

saddle of mutton bread crumbs 
brown sugar chopped celery- 
cayenne pepper i tablespoon butter 
salt black pepper 
nutmeg gratings i teaspoon allspice 

Wash and wipe dry the mutton, rub with sugar, cayenne pepper and 
salt and grate a nutmeg over it. Make a dressing of the remaining ingredi- 
ents and additional brown sugar and salt. Cook from four to five hours 
according to size. Serve with a gravy made of the following ingredients : 



THE SOUTH 55 

2 cups flour i small nutmeg, grated 

1 cup brown sugar I glass jelly 

2 lemons y 2 cup butter 

I teaspoon allspice chopped celery 

salt, pepper 

HOMINY PUFFS 

I quart cold boiled i cup milk 

hominy I teaspoon salt 

]/ 2 cup flour 4 eggs, beaten separately 

3 teaspoons baking 

powder 

Combine the hominy with the egg yolks, sifted dry ingredients and 
milk, then stir in lightly the stiffly beaten egg whites. Drop from a spoon 
into boiling lard and fry rich brown. Serve with ham or any meat. 

The Kentuckians are as bad about desserts as are the Pennsylvania 
Dutch. You're liable to be served three at a sitting and then you are lost. 
This is one of the best: 

FROZEN CUSTARD WITH FRUIT 

4 e gg yolks i cup strawberry pre- 
i quart milk serves 

y 2 pound sugar I cup candied cherries 

I tablespoon gelatin a little thinly sliced citron 

1 cup raisins wine or sherry 

I pint whipped cream 

Using the top of a double boiler, boil the milk (excepting a very little 
in which to soak the gelatin), add the sugar and stir in the well-beaten 
egg yolks. Add the dissolved gelatin and let it cool. Put in freezer or 
automatic refrigerator. When half-frozen add the raisins, preserves, 
cherries and citron and a little wine or sherry, and stir in the whipped 
cream. Freeze hard. 

FROZEN WATERMELON 

2 cups milk, scalded i egg, beaten 
I tablespoon flour i quart cream 

I cup sugar i tablespoon vanilla 

J4 teaspoon salt I tablespoon almond 

extract 
raisins, brandy or wine, flavored whipped cream 



56 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Pour the milk over the combined sifted dry ingredients and egg; add 
flavoring extract and freeze. Line a melon mold, that has been embedded 
in ice and salt, with the frozen cream about an inch thick. Sprinkle over 
this raisins that have been soaked in brandy or wine one hour, and fill 
the center with sweetened and flavored whipped cream. Cover over the 
top with the frozen cream. Cover the mold with greased paper; fasten 
on top securely, and keep packed in ice and salt for three hours. Eat with 
rich cake. What do you care? 

FROZEN EGGNOG 

12 egg yolks I gallon cream, whipped 

1 pound sugar I pint brandy 

i pint Jamaica rum 

Beat the egg yolks very light and add the sugar, then the whipped 
cream. Freeze till firm, and then add the brandy and rum and turn 
freezer rapidly a few times to mix well. Eat with cake and have second 
helpings. You may never get to Kentucky again. 

One of the best! 

BLACK PUDDING 

4 e gg yolks I cup sour cream 

i cup sugar i cup blackberry jam 

2 cups flour J4 teaspoon soda 

i cup butter cinnamon, allspice, cloves 

Combine and bake in pudding pan in moderate oven (375 F.) or 
steam. Eat with hard sauce seasoned with whisky, or a lemon sauce. 

TIPSY PARSON 

spongecake blanched almonds 

1 cup sherry 2 tablespoons powdered 

3 eggs, beaten separately sugar 

2 cups milk 1 cup cream 

candied fruit 

Moisten the cake with the sherry. Make a custard of the milk and 
e gg yolks and pour over cake while hot. Before serving, stick full of 
blanched almonds and cover with the combined stiffly beaten egg whites, 
powdered sugar, cream and candied fruit. Dot a dab of currant jelly 
in the middle of the egg whites. 

Here's the cake to go with frozen melon and frozen eggnog: 



THE SOUTH 57 



BLACK CAKE 

I pound flour 2 pounds currants 

1 pound sugar Yi pound citron 

i pound butter i tablespoon cloves 

12 eggs, beaten sepa- 2 tablespoons cinnamon 

rately I tablespoon mace 

2 nutmegs i tablespoon allspice 

i glass blackberry jam Ya pound figs, chopped 

1 cup dark molasses l / 2 cup nuts, crushed 

2 cups brandy or whisky Ya cup vinegar 
2 pounds raisins i teaspoon soda 

Y* pound candied orange peel 

Put the flour in a bread pan and brown to a dark color, taking care 
not to burn. Beat the eggs separately, then together. Cut the citron in 
very thin slices and with other fruits dredge with flour. Beat the butter 
and sugar to a cream, add eggs alternately with the flour. Add molasses, 
jam, brandy and spices and then the nuts. Stir the fruits in lightly, and 
just before putting in the pan add the vinegar in which the soda has been 
dissolved. Put in a layer of the mixture, then sprinkle the citron over it, 
then another layer and so on, but do not put any citron on top. Bake in 
a loaf pan in a slow oven (250 F.) for four hours or longer. When 
cold, cover with icing flavored with a little lemon extract. 

Now don't miss this: 

WATERMELON PICKLE 

Prepare the rind by paring the outside and using only the firm part 
of the melon, cut in shapes and let it lie overnight in weak alum water. 
Soak in clear water one day. 

To five pounds fruit take one half the amount of sugar, one quart of 
vinegar and boil. Add slices of one lemon and spices to taste, cinnamon, 
ginger, mace. Pour hot over the fruit and let stand overnight. Pour off 
and boil, and do this three mornings, the last time putting the fruit in 
the syrup, and cook till it can be pierced with a fork. Put in jars and 
seal. Eat with cold meats. 

3 

FROM VIRGINIA 

Only a few of the many famed dishes of Virginia are included. But 
again it is because many of the biscuits and batter breads are practically 



58 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

the same as those of Kentucky. There is not space to repeat them. But 
here are some of the others, the nomenclature suggestive of the Old 
South, the dishes themselves delicious and practical to boot. Countless 
other fine cakes and puddings are traditional on Virginia tables. They 
are for the most part so closely similar to Georgia, Alabama, Kentucky 
and Carolina dishes that they are omitted from this chapter. 
A breakfast favorite is: 

MUSH BATTER CAKES 

2 cups mush (Indian 2 eggs 

meal) J^ teaspoon salt 

i cup flour milk 

Make into a thin batter, drop from a spoon, into round shape, on the 
hot griddle and bake. 

A meal in itself when ham is served with this "pudding." This form 
of batter and meat combination is typical of Virginia kitchens. 

CHICKEN PUDDING 

4 young chickens 6 eggs 

4 tablespoons butter i quart milk 

salt, pepper 2 cups flour 

celery or parsley chicken giblets 

Cut the chickens up into quarters and stew in a saucepan with half 
of the butter and the seasonings. Make a batter of the eggs, flour, milk 
and remaining butter. Arrange the chickens in the bottom of an earth- 
enware baking dish, saving most of the liquid in which it stewed. Pour 
the batter over the chickens and bake in a moderate oven (350 F.) 
until brown. Add the giblets to the reserved gravy, season, thicken and 
serve hot in a bowl with the chicken. More eggs and butter can be used 
in the batter if a richer dish is desired. Sliced ham is a delicious accom- 
paniment with the Chicken Pudding. 

Another version of the "pudding" and memorable if you have once 
sampled it: 

GREEN CORN AND CHICKEN PIE 

1 8 ears green corn 3 spring chickens 

pepper, salt butter 

Cut the corn from the cob, cutting close to get all the sweet part next 
the cob; season with pepper and salt. Cut the chickens into* quarters and 
parboil with their cleaned gizzards and livers. Cover bottom of buttered 



THE SOUTH 59 

baking dish with corn, then put in the chicken, dotted over with pieces 
of butter; pour over the water in which the chicken was parboiled, 
sprinkle with pepper and salt and then add the rest of the corn. Bake 
for about one hour in a moderate oven (350 F.), or until set and 
brown. 

French or Creole influence in Virginia was responsible for a number 
of dishes of which this is a fine example: 

SWEETBREADS WITH ORANGE 

1 large sweetbread salt, pepper, butter 
3 oranges gravy 

Gash the sweetbread very lightly in two or three places, then baste 
it well with butter. Squeeze an orange carefully over it, that some of 
the juice may get into the gashes, sprinkle with pepper and salt, "tie it 
to a spit and let it be carefully and thoroughly roasted," or broil under 
moderate flame. When the sweetbread is nearly done prepare a little rich 
gravy, take up the sweetbread, squeeze another orange over it and pour 
some of the gravy over it hot. Serve with a garnish of sliced orange. 

TURKEY A LA DAUBE 

Bone a small hen turkey; put pepper and salt on the inside and cover 
with slices of boiled ham or tongue. Fill with well-seasoned forcemeat; 
sew up and boil it. When tender, serve hot or cold. A "jelly" from the 
meat kettle (kept on old-fashioned Virginia ranges) was always put on 
such a boiled turkey. 

VIRGINIA GOOSE 

goose 4 tablespoons butter 

a few sage leaves, 1 teaspoon pepper 

chopped 2 teaspoons salt 

2 onions, minced fine flour 

lard 

Put the sage leaves, onion, butter, pepper and salt in the goose; then 
spit it, lay it down, dust it with flour; when it is thoroughly hot baste 
with lard. If the goose is large it will require an hour and a half before 
a good fire. When it is nearly done dredge and baste, pull out the spit 
and pour in a little boiling water. 

MARSH DUCKS WITH ONION SAUCE 

Scald and draw your ducks, put them in warm water for a few min- 
utes, then take them out and put them in an earthen pot ; pour over them 



60 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

a pint of boiling milk and let them lie in it two or three hours; when 
you take them out dredge them well with flour and put them in a kettle 
of cold water; put on the cover, let them boil slowly twenty minutes, 
then take them out and smother them with onion sauce. 

ONION SAUCE 

Boil eight or ten large onions, change the water two or three times 
while they are boiling; when tender enough chop them on a board to 
keep them a good color, put them in a saucepan with a quarter of a 
pound of butter and two tablespoons of thick cream; boil it a little and 
pour this over the ducks. 

DUCKS WITH ORANGE 

Dress the ducks. Mince the livers, some green onions, mushrooms, 
sweet herbs and parsley together, and combine with a little scraped 
bacon, some butter, salt and pepper, and put into the bodies of the ducks 
and roast, covered with slices of bacon and wrapped up in paper. Season 
a little gravy with the juice of an orange, a few shallots minced, salt 
and pepper. When the ducks are roasted take off the bacon and serve 
them hot with the orange sauce poured over them. 

Originated by Negro cooks as a savory stew with garden lettuce, this 
graduated to the mansion and became famous. It is typical of Virginia: 

SALMAGUNDI 

3 heads lettuce parsley 

2 roasted chickens 20 small onions, boiled 

10 anchovies oil 

1 lemon vinegar 

4 hard-cooked egg yolks salt, pepper 

Shred the lettuce as fine as threads and use to cover the bottom of a 
large dish or platter. Slice the breasts of the chickens very thin, the 
width and breadth of one's finger, and spread carefully over the lettuce 
in regular circles, leaving spaces between them. Wash and bone six of 
the anchovies, cut each into eight pieces, and lay them regularly between 
the slices of chicken. Bone and dice the remainder of the chickens; dice 
the lemon; mince the egg yolks, parsley and remaining anchovies; mix 
and pile up in the middle like a sugar loaf. Lay boiled onions (the size 
of walnuts) around the mound and others around the edge of the dish. 
Beat together the oil, vinegar, salt and pepper and pour carefully over 
the whole dish. Serve. An old "Virginia Cookery-Book" says, "There 
is as much taste shown in fixing up a salmagundi as in any made dish 
whatever." 



THE SOUTH 61 

Another creation of mammy's. She knew how to use leftovers and 
make them taste good. Picadillos are famous in some Virginia homes as 
breakfast dishes: 

PICADILLO 

cold cooked fresh meat salt, pepper, mustard 

boiled or baked ham stewed tomatoes 

2 onions, minced 4 eggs, beaten 

lard I tablespoon butter 

Dice the fresh meat and ham. Fry the onions in the lard. Combine 
the tomatoes, butter and eggs with the meat and onions, and stirring 
constantly cook over a brisk fire in an iron stewpan until the eggs are 
scrambled and the moisture is sufficiently "taken up" to serve. Do not 
let it burn. 

Every Virginia household served these : 

BEEF OLIVES 

Cut slices from a fat rump of beef six inches long and half an inch 
thick ; beat them well with a pestle. Make a forcemeat of bread crumbs, 
fat bacon, chopped parsley, a little onion, some shred suet, pounded 
mace, pepper and salt; mix it up with the yolks of eggs and spread a 
thin layer over each slice of beef; roll it up tight and secure the rolls 
with skewers. Set them under a broiler and turn them till they are 
nicely browned. Have ready a pint of gravy thickened with brown flour 
and a tablespoon of butter, and seasoned with a cup of red wine, two 
tablespoons mushroom ketchup, salt and pepper, and lay the rolls in it 
and stew them till tender. Garnish with forcemeat balls. 

RAGOUT OF VEAL VIRGINIA 

Separate the joints of the brisket and saw off the sharp ends of the 
ribs; trim it neatly and half roast it. Put in a stewpan with a quart of 
good gravy seasoned with wine, walnut and mushroom ketchup, one 
teaspoon curry powder and a few cloves of garlic. Stew till tender; 
thicken the gravy and garnish with broiled sweetbreads. 

Another Virginia specialty: 

STUFFED CALF'S LIVER 

Slit a lengthwise hole in a calf's liver, but do not cut through. Fill 
with a forcemeat made of part of the liver parboiled, fat of bacon minced 
very fine, powdered sweet herbs, grated bread, spice and salt and pepper. 



62 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Cover with fat strips of bacon and roast, flouring well and basting with 
butter till done. Serve hot with gravy sauce seasoned with a little wine. 

Originated by darky cooks, this was a favorite for plantation reunions : 

BARBECUED SH0TE 

Take a forequarter of a shote or fat young hog and make several 
incisions between the ribs and stuff with a rich forcemeat. Put in a pan 
with two cups of water, two cloves of garlic, pepper, salt, two cups of 
red wine and two of mushroom ketchup. Bake for three or four hours, 
or until quite tender in a hot oven. Thicken the gravy with butter and 
brown flour. Serve garnished with balls of the forcemeat. 

VIRGINIA SEA PIE AND PASTE 

Lay at the bottom of a small Dutch oven some slices of boiled pork 
or salt beef, then potatoes and onions cut in slices, salt, pepper, thyme 
and parsley shred fine, some crackers soaked and a layer of fowls 
cut up, or slices of veal. Cover with paste, repeat with another layer 
of the same materials and covering with paste and repeat until oven is 
full. Put a little butter between each layer, pour in hot water till it 
reaches the top crust, to which you must add wine, ketchup of any kind 
you please and some powdered cloves. Let it stew slowly until there is 
just gravy enough left. Serve in a deep dish and pour the gravy over it. 

PASTE 

y 2 pound butter or drip- 4 cups flour 

pings water, salt, pepper 

Pour the boiling-hot drippings or butter into the flour and add as 
much water as will make it a paste. Work it and roll it well before using. 

This is a Negro favorite, which by virtue of its goodness was taken 
up to the big house and there remains: 

CURRY OF CATFISH 

3 or 4 white channel cat- 1 tablespoon butter 

fish 1 tablespoon flour 

1 quart water 2 teaspoons curry 

2 onions powder 
chopped parsley salt, pepper 

Clean and skin the fish and cut off their heads; cut them in pieces 
four inches long ; use as many as will be sufficient for a dish. Stew with 



THE SOUTH 63 

the water, onions, parsley, salt and pepper, until the liquid is reduced 
to about one cup. Remove the fish and cover to keep hot. Rub the butter 
into the flour, combine with the curry powder and thicken the gravy 
with it ; cook a few minutes, stirring continuously. Season with salt and 
pepper, pour over the fish and serve. 

English influence shows in this dish created for the pride of Virginia 
trout streams: 

BROILED TROUT 

An old Virginia cookbook states that June is the season in which 
trout are best. The recipe says: "Clean the trout thoroughly, wash and 
dry. Tie them several times around with 'pack-thread' to keep them 
whole and in shape. Roll trout in salted melted butter, lay 'over a clear 
fire at a good distance, that it may do leisurely.' " On the modern broil- 
ing rack use the moderately low flame. Serve with the following sauce : 



SAUCE 

I anchovy butter 

I tablespoon capers pepper, salt, nutmeg 

]/ 2 teaspoon flour i teaspoon vinegar 

Wash and bone the anchovy and cut it in very small pieces, chop the 
capers, combine the flour and butter and cook all ingredients together 
for a few minutes. Pour over the trout. 

Rose water was an essential of Virginia baking. It is called for in 
countless old recipes. These are gay little cakes for a feminine tea party, 
obviously created when plantation eggs were plentiful: 



MARMALADE CAKES 

I pound sugar y 2 cup rose water 

I pound butter peach, quince or rasp- 
6 eggs, well beaten berry marmalade 

i l /2 pounds flour powdered sugar 

I teaspoon mixed spices lemon extract 

(cinnamon, nutmeg, 8 egg whites, well beaten 

mace) 

Rub together the sugar and butter until perfectly light and combine 
with eggs, sifted flour, spices and rose water. Roll on pastry board about 
half an inch thick ; cut out the cakes and bake about ten minutes in a 
moderate oven (300 F.). When cold spread the surface of each cake 



64 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

with marmalade and dab a spoonful of mixture of the very lightly beaten 
egg whites, powdered sugar and lemon flavoring high in the center of 
each cake. Return to a low oven (225 F. to 250 F.) and as soon as they 
are a pale brown take them out. 

There are many "Lee" recipes in Virginia, and many families which 
claim authentic "receipts" from the old kitchens which once cooked for 
the Lees. This cake comes from a cookbook of the period, newly stand- 
ardized to be baked in modern ovens. 



LEE CAKE 

10 eggs whites of 2 eggs, well 

I pound sugar beaten 

y 2 pound flour 1 pound powdered sugar 

juice and grated rind of juice of orange with 

lemon some of the grated 

rind 

Sift the flour and sugar; beat the ten eggs separately until as light as 
possible, then beat the sugar with the yolks; add alternately with the 
whites and cream to the flour, gradually without further beating. Grate 
in the lemon rind and squeeze in the juice. Bake thin in tin pans. Make 
an icing of the powdered sugar, egg whites, orange juice and rind and 
fill between the layers of the cake and cover the top and sides. 

One of the wedding-cake recipes attributed to Martha Washington 
and said to have been prepared for the wedding of Nellie Custis to 
Major Lawrence, the favorite nephew of the General: 



A RICH BLACK CAKE 

20 eggs, beaten 5 pounds fruit 

separately J4 ounce mace 

2 pounds butter 1 grated nutmeg 

2 pounds powdered 1 cup wine 

sugar Yi cup French brandy 

2^2 pounds flour (8 
cups) 

Cream the butter and add the well-beaten egg whites, a spoonful at 
a time, and mix well. Gradually mix in the sugar, then the well-beaten 



THE SOUTH 65 

egg yolks, sifted flour and fruit, and lastly the spices, wine and brandy. 
Blend all well. Bake in a slow oven (200 F. to 250 F.) five and one 
quarter hours. 

A recipe attributed to Mrs Lorenzo Lewis, the daughter-in-law of 
Nellie Custis: 



MUFFIN LOAF 

y 2 pint liquid yeast or 1 1 cup warm milk 

yeast cake dissolved 4 cups flour 

in 1 cup lukewarm 1 teaspoon salt 

water 4 eggs, separated 

2 tablespoons butter 

Combine the yeast with the liquid and half of the flour. Allow to rise 
until double in bulk, keeping the sponge at an even temperature. (It will 
then fall at the touch of a finger.) Stir in lightly beaten egg yolks, then 
lightly beaten whites. Sift the remaining flour and salt together; cream 
in the butter. Beat smooth about two minutes. Knead into a loaf. Bake 
in hot oven (400 F.) for about forty-five minutes. 



FLUMMERY 

1 cup fruit jelly 1 teaspoon orange ex- 
1 cup cream tract or 1 teaspoon 

y 2 cup wine rose water 

sugar flavored cream 

Heat the jelly, cream and wine slowly in an agate saucepan for fifteen 
minutes, stirring continuously; sweeten to taste, add flavoring, pour into 
a mold and chill. Serve with cream poured around it seasoned in any way 
you like. 



TANSEY PUDDING 

Beat seven eggs very light, mix with them a pint of cream and nearly 
as much spinach juice, with a little juice of tansey; add a quarter pound 
of powdered crackers or pounded rice made fine, a glass of wine, some 
grated nutmeg and sugar ; stir it over the fire to thicken, pour it in a 
casserole and bake it, or bake it like an omelette. 

And the Virginia household stand-by: 



66 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



BUCK AND BRECK PICKLE 



3 firm heads cabbage 
I peck green tomatoes 
]/ 2 peck ripe tomatoes 

1 dozen onions 

y 2 dozen green peppers 
y 2 dozen red peppers 

2 pounds sugar 
salt 

vinegar 

I teaspoon grated horse- 
radish 



I tablespoon ground 

mustard 
I tablespoon whole 

white mustard seed 
I tablespoon black 

mustard seed 
y 2 ounce mace 
y 2 ounce whole cloves 
I tablespoon black 

pepper 
3 tablespoons celery seed 



Chop the cabbage, tomatoes, onions and peppers and with the sugar 
and salt let stand overnight in a crock. In the morning, squeeze the 
water from them; put the vegetables in an agate kettle with vinegar 
enough to cover them. Simmer for three hours, just before removing 
from the fire add the horse-radish and other seasonings. 

And this was demanded on every well-set table: 



RIPE CANTALOUPE PICKLE 

(Eastern Shore) 

7 pounds cantaloupe 4 pounds brown sugar 

rind 1 ounce each cinnamon, 

2 quarts vinegar white ginger, cloves 

rind of 2 lemons 

Cut the rind from ripe but not soft melons. Peel thickly, wash and 
drain thoroughly. Boil the vinegar and sugar together ; remove any scum 
that rises; add the spices and let boil a few minutes longer. Put in the 
cantaloupe rind and let boil until the syrup thickens. 



THE SOUTH 67 

4 
THE CAROLINAS 

NORTH CAROLINA DABS 

2 cups meal ]/ 2 cup milk 

2 eggs, well beaten salt 

y 2 tablespoon lard 

Scald the meal, and while hot rub in the lard, add the eggs, then the 
milk and salt. Drop the mixture from a spoon upon a tin sheet and 
bake in a moderate oven (325 F.) twenty-five to thirty minutes. 

BREAKFAST MEAL CAKES 

2 cups corn meal 1 egg 

2 cups buttermilk or *4 cup butter 

clabber 1 teaspoon salt 
1 teaspoon soda 

Mix all well together, adding the soda just before the cakes are sent 
to the oven. Bake in pattypans in hot oven (450 F.) about twenty 
minutes. 

BOPS 

2 cups milk 1 tablespoon butter 

3 eggs, well beaten 4 tablespoons flour 

Mix ingredients well together and bake in tin plates in a hot oven 
(450° F.). 

They ought to be buttered while hot, and put one above another 
before serving. 

ZEPHYRI N AS 

A breeze probably is created in the process, so quickly are these Zephyr- 
inas made, being rolled paper-thin from an unleavened kneaded dough 
made of two cups flour, one tablespoon butter, salt to taste and enough 
water to combine. They are cut with a saucer, pricked with a fork, put 
in a moderately hot oven (3 75 ° F.) and baked instantaneously. 

The Indians grew fat and happy on this soup, which also became a 
favorite with the white settlers: 



68 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



SEMINOLE SOUP 

"Take a squirrel, cut it up and put it on to boil. When the soup is 
nearly done add to it one pint of picked hickory nuts and a spoonful of 
parched and powdered sassafras leaves — or the tender top of a pine tree, 
which gives a very aromatic flavor to the soup." 

(The top of the pine tree means those tender little clusters of pine 
nuts. Ed.) 

BOEUF A LA GARDETTE 

Lard a middle-sized round of beef and put in a deep bowl. Pour over 
it a bottle of claret and a pint of vinegar and add sliced onions, allspice, 
and salt and pepper to taste. Let the beef remain twenty-four hours in 
this mixture, turning it at the expiration of twelve hours. Then put the 
whole into an agate kettle and boil slowly for six or seven hours. Serve 
in the thickened sauce, or thin this with more wine and serve as a gravy. 



BEEF AND OYSTER SAUSAGES 

Scald three quarters of a pint of oysters in their own liquor. Take 
them out and chop them fine. Mince one pound of beef and mutton and 
three quarters of a pound of beef suet; add the oysters and season with 
salt, pepper, mace and ground cloves. Beat up the yolks of two eggs and 
mix the whole well together and pack closely in a jar. When to be used, 
roll into the form of small sausages; dip these into the yolk of a beaten 
egg f sprinkle grated bread crumbs over them, or dust with flour and fry. 
Serve on hot fried bread. 



A TRUE CAROLINA SYLLABUB 

To one quart of cream add half a pint of sweet wine and half a pint 
of Madeira, the juice of two lemons, a little finely powdered spice and 
sugar to taste. The peel of the lemons must be steeped in the wine until 
the flavor is extracted. Whisk all these ingredients together and as the 
froth rises take it off with a spoon, lay it upon a fine sieve ; what drains 
from it put into your pan again and whisk it. Put the froth into glasses 
to be eaten with a spoon. 



REGENT'S PUNCH 

To two quarts of green tea add half a pint of currant jelly, a little 
champagne and the juice of four lemons; sweeten with loaf sugar and 
add old spirits of brandy to your taste. 



THE SOUTH 69 

5 
SOME ALABAMA SPECIALTIES 

ALABAMA CHICKEN PIE 

I young chicken ]/ 2 cup milk 

salt i teaspoon flour 

butter I hard-boiled egg 
cream pastry (optional) 

Have the chicken killed a day or two before needed, and salt and store 
in refrigerator. When ready to cook, wash, cover with water and boil 
until tender; add one tablespoon butter, remove from range to cool in 
liquor. Line sides of baking dish with cream pastry; arrange chicken in 
dish and place over it long narrow strips of pastry dotted with butter, 
arrange another layer of chicken with strips across; pour over one cup 
liquor in which chicken was cooked and one half cup milk in which a 
teaspoon of flour has been dissolved. Bake until pastry is brown. A hard- 
boiled egg may be sliced and arranged in the dish with chicken. 

CHICKEN TERRAPIN 

Yz cup butter red pepper, black pepper 

Yz cup flour I cup mushrooms, sau- 

i cup chicken broth teed in butter 

1Y2 cups cream 3 eggs, hard cooked 

salt 2 cups dark chicken meat 

Ya cup sherry 

Melt butter and cream into flour in top of double boiler, add broth 
and cream, stir until smooth. Season highly with pepper and salt. Add 
chicken livers mashed, eggs, mushrooms and chicken meat, and simmer 
until heated thoroughly through. Add sherry just before serving. 

BUTTERSCOTCH ROLLS 

4^2 cups flour Ya- teaspoon salt 

1 yeast cake % cup butter 

1 cup milk, scalded and 3/3 cup sugar 

cooled 2 eggs, well beaten 

Dissolve yeast in milk, add sugar, eggs, salt, flour and butter; mix 
thoroughly, turn out on floured board, knead well, place in well-greased 
bowl, cover, and set aside to rise. When double in bulk, knead again, 
roll to one half inch thickness and sprinkle with brown sugar, cinnamon 
and raisins. Roll as for jelly roll, cut into pieces about one half inch 



70 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

thick. Grease well an oblong pan and place therein a layer of brown 
sugar and nut meats, about three quarters of an inch deep. Dot well with 
butter. Place cut surface of the roll on this filling and bake in moderate 
oven thirty minutes. When done invert pan on oilpaper for a minute 
that butterscotch may set. If weather is cold, or time for rising is lim- 
ited, use two yeast cakes instead of one. 

CARAMEL PIE 

3 eggs, separated J4 cup butter 

i cup milk 2 tablespoons flour 

i cup brown sugar i teaspoon vanilla 

Heat milk, add sugar, butter, flour dissolved in little of the milk 
(cold), and yolks well beaten. Cook until thick and pour into baked 
piecrust. Cover with meringue made of whites of eggs and three table- 
spoons sugar. Bake in moderate oven (300 F.) and watch closely to 
prevent burning. When meringue is set and golden brown the pie is 
done. 

HICKORY NUT CAKE 

7 egg whites, well 3 cups flour 

beaten 1 cup sweet milk 

1 cup butter 3 teaspoons baking 

2 cups sugar powder 

y 2 teaspoon each vanilla and orange extract 

Cream butter and sugar, add sifted dry ingredients and milk, alter- 
nately. Mix well and add flavorings. Fold in the egg whites and pour 
into shallow loaf pan. Scatter one cup of hickory nuts over top and bake 
in moderate oven (375 F.) for about thirty minutes. 

DATE CAKE 

6 eggs, not separated ]/ 2 pound citron 

1 cup butter 3 cups dates, seeded 

2 cups sugar 4 cups pecan nut meats 

3 cups flour y 2 pound crystallized 

4 teaspoons baking cherries, chopped 

powder y 2 cup wine or whisky 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Chop and flour fruits. Cream butter and sugar, add well-beaten eggs, 
and flour and baking powder well sifted together, whisky or wine, 
vanilla, fruits and nuts. Mix well. Bake about two and one half hours 
in angel-cake or tube pan in slow oven (200 F.). 



THE SOUTH 



71 



COFFEE FRUIT CAKE 



i cup butter 

I cup brown sugar 

I tablespoon soda in 

I cup molasses 

3 eggs, well beaten 

5 cups flour 



2 teaspoons nutmeg 
2 teaspoons cinnamon 
2 teaspoons allspice 
y 2 cup wine or whisky 
i cup cold strong coffee 
I cup raisins 



More fruit may be added if desired. Chop the fruit and flour it 
slightly. Cream butter and sugar together. Add eggs, sifted flour and 
spices, molasses and soda, remaining liquid and raisins. Bake in slow 
oven (200 F. to 225 ° F.) one hour or a little longer. 



GEORGIA 

Georgia cookery is colorful as well as flavorful. The sea delicacies are 
as potent as those of Louisiana but with a difference: 



TERRAPIN STEW 



3 large terrapin 
3 pints water 
salt 



1 onion 



y 2 pound butter 
6 tablespoons flour 
juice and rind of 1 lemon 



y 2 grated nutmeg 
2 cups cream 
1 cup wine or sherry 
I tablespoon Worcester- 
shire 
red pepper 
6 hard-cooked hen eggs 



Cut off heads of terrapin, dip in boiling water for a short time and 
carefully pull off outer skin from feet, and all that will come off the 
back. With a sharp hatchet cut open the terrapin and take out the eggs, 
and put aside in cold water. Throw away entrails and gall bags, saving 
the livers, which are very much liked. Leave all the legs on the back and 
put on to boil. Put them into the water with salt and onion and let sim- 
mer and steam (not boil) about forty-five minutes. When tender take 
meat from back and remove bones. Cook meat a little more if not tender 
enough. 

Cut up meat, across the grain to prevent stringing, and set stock aside 
for a few hours to jell. Rub yolks of hen eggs and butter and flour 
together. Put on jelly or stock to cook, and as soon as it boils add this 
egg mixture^ also lemon and nutmeg. Then put in the terrapin eggs and 



72 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

meat, and last of all cream, wine, Worcestershire and salt and pepper 
to taste, being careful not to let curdle or burn. Add chopped whites of 
hen eggs. Always have enough hot milk to thin out if it is too thick. 

SHRIMP STEW 

2 tablespoons butter i pint fresh cleaned and 

2 tablespoons flour boiled shrimp 

2 cups milk salt, pepper 

sherry 

Melt butter in top of double boiler, stir in flour, then the milk, stir- 
ring well to prevent lumps. Cook slowly until the right consistency, then 
add the cleaned shrimp. Heat thoroughly, add the salt and pepper and 
sherry. 

CRAB SOUP 

To a white sauce made of two tablespoons of flour, two tablespoons 
of butter and one cup of milk, add a paste made of one teaspoon of dry 
mustard and one tablespoon of Worcestershire sauce, and salt and pepper 
to taste. Thin this out with two more cups of milk and cream mixed, and 
just before serving add two cups of cooked crab meat and a few thin 
slices of lemon. 

CRAB SOUFFLE 

Y^ pound butter cayenne, nutmeg 

I tablespoon flour I pound freshly cooked 

1 cup milk crab meat (about 6 
l / 2 teaspoon salt crabs) 

2 eggs, separated 2 tablespoons sherry 

Make cream sauce of butter, flour and milk. Season and thicken by 
adding the slightly beaten egg yolks and letting the mixture cook, stir- 
ring constantly, a few minutes. Put in the crab meat and wine and mix 
well. Then remove, and when cool add the well-beaten whites of eggs. 
Put in baking dish, sprinkle with bread crumbs and bake in a slow oven 
(225 F.) twenty minutes. 

TURKEY STEW 

2 cups cold diced turkey grated nutmeg 
2 hard-cooked eggs 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

2 tablespoons flour grated rind of J4 lemon 

1 tablespoon butter 1 teaspoon Worcester- 

1 can mushrooms shire sauce 

turkey stock 



THE SOUTH 73 

Rub the yolks of eggs and butter together, then add flour and turkey- 
stock, the liquor from the mushrooms and seasonings, and cook. Add 
turkey and mushrooms and heat thoroughly and add the chopped whites 
of eggs just before serving. 



GEORGIA BAKED HAM 

Wash the ham and put in a large boiler, skin side up. Pour over it 
one can of black molasses and one gallon of weak tea and let it stand 
overnight. Next morning put ham in steamer, fat side up, and pour over 
it two quarts of water and bake in covered steamer three or four hours. 
Remove, skin, and plaster with a paste made of tomato ketchup and 
mustard. Return to the oven and bake half an hour, basting frequently 
with a cup of beer. Then sprinkle with brown sugar, bake until well 
browned and serve hot. 



OKRA FRITTERS 

Boil one quart of okra. Strain off water and mash. Season with salt 
and pepper, beat in two eggs, two teaspoons baking powder and enough 
flour to make a stiff batter. Drop one tablespoonful at a time in deep 
hot fat and fry. 

A general favorite : 



BUTTERMILK CORN BREAD 

2 cups corn meal ij4 cups buttermilk 

I teaspoon salt 24 teaspoon soda 

i egg 2 tablespoons shortening 

Sift meal, mix with salt, egg and milk, in which soda has been dis- 
solved. Add hot melted shortening and bake in greased iron skillet in hot 
oven till golden on top. 



SOUR CREAM GINGER CAKE 

i cup sour cream i cup black molasses 

2 cups flour I teaspoon ginger 

i teaspoon soda j4 teaspoon salt 

Mix molasses and cream, add flour, soda and salt, and beat until well 
mixed. This should be about the consistency of cake dough, and milk 
or flour may be added if necessary. Bake slowly in moderate oven (300 
F.) about one hour and serve with whipped cream. 



74 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



PEACH CREAM 

12 peaches 2 tablespoons cornstarch 

3 e gg yolks, well beaten 2 cups milk 

4 egg whites, stiffly i tablespoon melted 

beaten butter 

]A cup powdered sugar 

Scald all but a little of the milk, dissolve the cornstarch in the cold 
milk and stir into the hot. Remove from fire when it begins to thicken, 
stir in the butter, and when lukewarm whip in the egg yolks until all 
is very light. 

Put a thick layer of peaches into a buttered baking dish, sprinkle 
thickly with sugar, pour the cream sauce over all. Bake in a 400 F. oven 
ten minutes. Cover with a meringue made of the egg whites and a little 
powdered sugar. Brown slightly in the oven, set at 225 ° F. 

PEACH CONSERVE 

4 pounds peaches 1 grated orange and juice 

1 pound sugar y 2 pound black walnuts 

1 grated lemon 

Peel peaches and boil until pulpy. Add sugar, lemon and orange and 
cook until thick. Then stir in chopped-up nuts, put in jars and seal. 
A delicious mixture for peach ice cream in winter. About one and one 
half pints of conserve to one quart of cream makes a delectable dessert. 



7 

FLORIDA 

In Florida the fish of the Atlantic seaboard and the Gulf States both 
are served, and play a large part in the dietary — the cookery blending 
Creole, general Southern and Indian. Red snapper, Creole style, is a 
favorite. And the hard-shelled crabs served cracked, heaped on huge 
platters, with bowls of a dressing of two thirds olive oil, one third fresh 
lime juice, salt and tabasco pepper, are something to be remembered. 
The crab meat is picked out of the shells at the table and dipped into 
the dressing, the fresh lime juice blending exquisitely with the flavor 
of the crabs. 

Aside from the sophisticated hotel cookery, perhaps the most distinc- 
tive contribution the state makes is its variety of citrus recipes of which 
only some of the most representative can be given: 



THE SOUTH 75 



BAKED GRAPEFRUIT 

The fruit is halved; seeds, core and white membrane partitions re- 
moved; then the center is filled with brown sugar, jam or ginger syrup, 
a dab of butter added and the halves are baked in a moderate oven 
(325 F.) for a half hour. Serve one half to each person, either as a hot 
appetizer first course or as a hot dessert. A tablespoon of sherry added 
five minutes before removing from oven makes a sophisticated and deli- 
cious dessert, whereas for breakfast the more simple seasonings are more 
appropriate. 

MIAMI GRILL 

4 green-tipped bananas, 4 orange slices, y 2 inch 

peeled thick 

4 tomato halves 4 lamb or veal chops, 

y 2 inch thick 

Place on greased broiler rack. Brush bananas with melted butter. Salt 
bananas and tomatoes. Broil for ten or twelve minutes with broiler rack 
four inches under moderately high flame. Turn once to secure an even 
brown. Serve on a hot platter, seasoning meat with salt and pepper. 
Garnish with lemon quarters, sliced stuffed olives and parsley. Serves 
four. 

GLAZE AND CINNAMON ORANGE 
SLICES FOR BAKED HAM 

Forty-five minutes before ham has finished baking, remove from oven, 
cut off rind with kitchen scissors or paring knife, pour off fat in pan 
and score the fat surface with two or three slashes. Spread a glaze over 
the surface made of one cup of brown sugar combined with juice and 
grated rind of one orange. Complete baking in low oven, basting fre- 
quently. Serve with garnish of cinnamon orange slices and fresh mint. 



CINNAMON ORANGE SLICES 

1^ cups sugar juice of one lemon 

y 2 cup water 2 sticks of cinnamon bark 

3 unpeeled oranges, cut in thick slices 

Combine all the ingredients but the orange slices, heat to make a 
syrup, then add the orange slices. Boil gently without covering until 
orange rind is clear. Place a one-inch length of stick cinnamon through 
the center of each orange slice. Chill oranges in syrup before serving. 



76 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



CITRUS FRUIT DUCK SALAD 

2 cups roast duck, cut in 2 cups orange sections, 
small pieces halved 

]/ 2 cup grapefruit salad dressing 

Mix gently and serve on crisp dry lettuce thoroughly chilled. Garnish 
with mayonnaise. 

GRAPEFRUIT SALAD DRESSING 

1 cup salad oil £4 teaspoon salt 

Yz cup grapefruit juice dash of pepper 

y 2 teaspoon sugar 

Mix all ingredients and shake in a covered bottle until thick. 

FLORIDA MOLDED SALAD 



2 cups tomato juice 


1 pkg. lemon-flavored 


1 small bay leaf 


gelatin 


3 or 4 whole cloves 


1 cup finely cut celery 


2 slices onion 


Y2. cup grapefruit 


salt and pepper to taste 


segments, diced 


1 teaspoon lemon juice 


mayonnaise 



Simmer tomato juice, bay leaf, cloves and onion for fifteen minutes. 
Strain; add salt, pepper, lemon juice. Measure liquid and add hot 
tomato juice to make two cups. Pour over lemon gelatin, stir until dis- 
solved; chill until partially set. Add celery, turn into seven-inch ring 
mold ; chill until firm. Turn onto large platter, garnish with greens and 
fill center with grapefruit segments, seasoned with salt, pepper, sugar, 
lemon juice and mayonnaise to moisten. Sprinkle generously with 
paprika. 

PALM BEACH GRAPEFRUIT CUSTARD 

2^2 cups grapefruit J4 teaspoon salt 

segments 1 Yi cups milk 

4 tablespoons flour 2 eggs 

1% cups sugar J4 teaspoon vanilla 

Mix together flour, one cup of the sugar and salt in top of double 
boiler. Add four tablespoons milk, add egg yolks and beat well. Add 
remaining milk. Cook in double boiler about twenty minutes until thick, 
stirring occasionally. Remove from fire, beat until smooth, add grape- 
fruit segments cut in small pieces. Pour mixture into custard cups; beat 



THE SOUTH 77 

egg whites, beat in remaining one quarter cup sugar and add vanilla. 
Cover tops of custards with the meringue and bake in moderate oven 
(325 F.) until delicately browned. Cool. 

SWEET PICKLED KUMQUATS 

2 lbs. whole kumquats 1 tablespoon whole 

i l / 2 lbs. sugar cloves 

i l / 2 pints water 1 tablespoon whole all- 

1 stick cinnamon spice 

1 cup vinegar 

Thoroughly clean well-ripened kumquats by scraping with a paring 
knife and stiff brush. Rinse well and drain. Make a slit with a sharp 
pointed knife into and across the sections of each kumquat to prevent 
them from bursting open and to facilitate penetration of the spiced 
syrup. The procedure also allows some of the seed to work out. Some 
prefer to pierce or puncture the fruit from stem to blossom end with 
a stainless steel skewer or an ice pick. Drop kumquats into an abundance 
of boiling water and cook until tender. 

Drain and add to sugar syrup. Cook briskly until kumquats are clear- 
ing and syrup is becoming thick. Cover and allow to stand overnight. 
The next day drain off syrup, add vinegar, one stick cinnamon broken, 
one tablespoon each of cloves and allspice tied in bag. Bring mixture to 
a boil and boil five minutes. Add kumquats and allow to stand covered 
overnight again. Drain off syrup again and repeat as before. When fruit 
is well flavored and syrup spicy and thick, pack kumquats in sterile jars, 
adding a small amount of spice. Heat syrup, strain over fruit, seal and 
process pints at simmering for five minutes. 

QUICK TANGERINE JAM 

2 cups tangerine, pulp 1 teaspoon grated 

and juice tangerine rind 

1 lemon, pulp and juice i l / 2 cups sugar 

Be sure seeds are removed from tangerine pulp and juice. Combine 
ingredients and boil quickly about ten minutes or until syrupy and clear. 
Makes two glasses. Very good served warm on hot biscuit. Also makes 
a splendid dressing for ice cream. 



78 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

8 
FAMOUS DISHES OF CREOLE COOKS 

The justly famous gumbos do not come exclusively under the classi- 
fication of Louisiana cookery, but the French and Spanish influence and 
the Negro cookery skill in early Louisiana homes probably were respon- 
sible for what we know as gumbo today. Other Southern states undoubt- 
edly owe their gumbos to Louisiana. In the true Gumbo File oysters 
are used with chicken and ham, and of course there is a crab gumbo, 
another made with oysters predominating, another with shrimp. This 
stew, always with the addition of the herbs and onion, contains file, the 
powder first made by the Choctaw Indians of Louisiana from dried 
sassafras leaves and sold by them in New Orleans at the French market. 
Two tablespoons of the file are added to any hot gumbo, which is then 
stirred and poured at once into the tureen — never heated again after 
the file is added. The mixture is always served with freshly boiled rice. 

SHRIMP GUMBO FILE 

50 small shrimp 3 sprigs parsley 

2 quarts oyster liquor 1 sprig thyme 

1 quart hot water 1 tablespoon lard 

1 large white onion or butter 

I bay leaf 1 tablespoon flour 

salt 
cayenne pepper, black pepper, file powder 

Boil the shrimp, then shell and clean them of the black vein ; put the 
lard in a deep iron kettle and when hot add the flour, making a brown 
roux. When quite brown, but not burned, add the chopped onion and 
the parsley. Fry these and when brown add the chopped bay leaf; pour 
in the hot oyster liquor and the hot water. When boiling rapidly and 
about five minutes before ready to serve, add the cooked cleaned shrimp. 
Keep boiling; then remove from the fire and stir in two tablespoons of 
the file powder. Season again with salt and pepper. Serve immediately 
over hot boiled rice. 

CRAB SOUP, FAMILY STYLE 

1 dozen crabs 1 large onion 

6 tomatoes 1 clove garlic 

1 sprig thyme 3 tablespoons butter 

3 sprigs parsley 2 lemons 

1 sprig sweet marjoram salt, pepper, cayenne 

bread or cracker crumbs 



THE SOUTH 79 

Cleanse the crabs thoroughly and extract all the meat from the body 
and claws ; scald and skin the tomatoes and squeeze the pulp away from 
the seeds and juice; chop very fine. Pour boiling water over the seeds 
and juice, and strain. Chop the onion and garlic, and stew in the butter. 
As they begin to brown add the tomatoes, cover, and after simmering 
a few minutes add the well-seasoned meat of the crab. Sift over this 
some bread or cracker crumbs and season with cayenne, sweet marjoram 
and thyme. Pour in the tomato water and add about a quart or more 
of hot water. Let it simmer for about an hour. Add the juice of two 
lemons and serve. 

CRAWFISH BISQUE 

8 dozen large crawfish 2 blades mace 

3 onions I clove garlic 

i carrot 4 tablespoons butter 

i bunch celery 2 quarts oyster liquor 

2 sprigs thyme dash of cayenne 

2 bay leaves salt, pepper 

4 sprigs parsley % CU P milk 

6 whole cloves y 2 loaf bread 

I cup rice 

Wash the crawfish thoroughly, being careful to cleanse away every par- 
ticle of sand. Boil a few minutes in about one gallon of water. When 
boiled take the fish out; save the water. Pick out two dozen of the 
largest crawfish, remove the inside of the tails and save the heads, remov- 
ing every particle of meat. Set this meat to one side with the shells of the 
head. Pick the meat from the rest of the crawfish, saving all the shells. 

Chop one large onion, the carrot, celery, a sprig of thyme, a bay leaf, 
three sprigs of parsley, the cloves, mace and garlic all very fine and put 
into the pot of water in which the crawfish were boiled. Add all the picked 
meat except the reserved tails, and all the shells and heads except the re- 
served heads. Add the rice and let it all boil steadily till the mixture be- 
comes thick and mushy. When it is well cooked take it off the fire and mash 
the shells and meat thoroughly and strain all through a sieve together. 

Add two tablespoons of butter and the oyster liquor to the strained 
mixture and season to taste with salt, cayenne and black pepper. Set to 
simmer slowly. 

In the meantime take the reserved crawfish meat and make a stuffing 
for the reserve heads; chop one onion very fine and let it brown in a 
tablespoon of butter. Squeeze thoroughly one cup of bread wet with 
water. When well squeezed mix with a little milk, sufficient to make 
a paste, season to taste and mix with the well-seasoned crawfish meat. 
Chop another onion and put in melted butter and add the crawfish stuff- 
ing, letting all fry about ten minutes, adding in the meantime a finely 
chopped sprig each of thyme and parsley and a bay leaf, and mix thor- 



80 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

oughly. Take off the fire and stuff the reserved heads of crawfish. Put 
on every stuffed head a dot of butter, and set in a hot oven and bake 
ten minutes. Place the baked stuffed heads in the tureen and pour the 
hot soup over them. Serve very hot with croutons of buttered toast, 
passing the latter in a separate dish. 

Needless to say this is a meal in itself. 

CRAWFISH BAKED A LA CREOLE 

50 crawfish bouquet fine herbs 

2 cooked chicken livers 2 hard-cooked egg yolks 

y 2 pound small mush- salt, pepper 

rooms cayenne 

2 tablespoons butter 6 shallots 

lemon bread 

cream sauce bread crumbs browned 
parsley in butter 

Cook the crawfish and let cool in their own water. Clean, picking off 
the shells and leaving the crawfish whole. Take out all the smallest ones 
and cut off the tail ends of the largest and place with the small ones; 
chop the remainder of the large crawfish and make a dressing with the 
two chopped cooked livers, parsley, the minced sauteed mushrooms, the 
bouquet of fine herbs (consisting of thyme, bay leaf, sweet marjoram, 
etc.) ; chop the shallots and add to the dressing, and season highly with 
cayenne, salt and black pepper to taste. 

Cut up the yolks of eggs and mix with a cup of the soft portion of 
bread, which has been wet and thoroughly squeezed of all water. Place* 
two tablespoons butter in frying pan and add the dressing when it begins 
to heat; cook about ten minutes and then place in a baking dish in 
which the crawfish are to be served, making a bed of the dressing. Ar- 
range with symmetry and grace the reserve crawfish upon this bed ; 
cover lightly with the mixed stuffing of livers, etc., and dot with small 
bits of butter. Pour over all a cream sauce and the juice of a lemon. 
Sprinkle with sauteed bread crumbs. Place in a hot oven and let it bake 
about ten or fifteen minutes. Serve hot. 

CURRIED OYSTERS 

4 dozen small oysters 2 sprigs thyme 

and their liquor 1 bay leaf 

1 tablespoon butter 3 sprigs parsley 

2 tablespoons flour salt, cayenne 

1 cup cream or milk 1 cup Louisiana boiled 

]/ 2 teaspoon curry rice for border 

powder 



THE SOUTH 81 

Drain the liquor from the oysters into a saucepan, being careful to 
extract all pieces of shell, and let simmer. Wipe the oysters dry with a 
towel. Put in another saucepan the tablespoon butter and let it melt, 
then add the tablespoons flour, stirring constantly and rubbing smoothly; 
do not let it brown. Add the cream or milk to the oyster juice and stir 
all this into the flour slowly, avoiding the formation of any lumps and 
stirring constantly. Let this boil about two minutes. Add the curry 
powder to a very little flour (less than a teaspoon), rub smoothly with 
a few drops of cold cream. Stir this into the oyster juice, season with the 
cayenne, salt, chopped thyme, etc., and as it boils drop in the oysters. 
Let them cook about three minutes and serve at once on a dish with a 
border of hot freshly boiled rice. Garnish with chopped parsley. 



NEW ORLEANS BROILED OYSTERS 

3 dozen fine fat oysters 2 shallots 

I tablespoon chopped I tablespoon butter 

parsley bread crumbs 

I bay leaf asparagus tips, freshly 
sprigs of thyme cooked 

I sprig sweet basil sliced lemon 
3 dozen well-washed oyster shells 

Blanch the oysters in their own juice and drain. Chop the herbs and 
shallots fine. Place the tablespoon of butter in a saucepan, add a little 
oyster juice from the first pan, heat for two minutes, add the seasonings 
and pour all on the oysters and let stand a few minutes. Then place the 
oysters in the well-washed shells, sprinkle a few bread crumbs on each 
and a dab of butter. Have the broiler very hot and broil the oysters four 
or five minutes. Serve with hot asparagus tips, masked with hollandaise, 
and slices of lemon. 

There is only one way to cook pompano and that is to broil it and serve 
with a Sauce a la Maitre d'Hotel, according to some New Orleans 
cooks. Others follow various recipes, and at the famous old Antoine's 
the paper-bag recipe (his secret) is the favorite. 



POMPANO 

I 3-pound pompano (or 2 lemons 

small ones to equal parsley 

3 pounds) Sauce a la Maitre 

I tablespoon olive oil d'Hotel 

I tablespoon butter 



82 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

To broil the pompano split the fish in the middle of the back if the 
fish is large; if small broil whole. Season well by rubbing with salt and 
pepper, mixed with a little olive oil. Put the pompano on the broiler 
and see that it is browned well on both sides. When done, place in a 
heated dish (heat by placing in a bain-marie or hot-water bath, and dry 
thoroughly). Butter the fish nicely and squeeze the juice of one lemon 
over it. Garnish with parsley and a sliced lemon and serve with a Sauce 
a la Maitre d'Hotel. 



BAKED GROUPER 



I 3-pound grouper 


3 large tomatoes 


2 dozen oysters 


]/ 2 pound small sauteed 


2 dozen shrimps 


mushrooms 


I dozen boiled crawfish 


3 sprigs thyme 


2 large onions 


3 sprigs parsley 


3 tablespoons butter 


2 bay leaves 


lard 


6 allspice 


salt, pepper 


3 whole cloves 


i cup dry bread crumbs 





Clean and wash the grouper thoroughly. Make a cut in the shape of 
the letter "S" on the back and stuff with the spice and the herbs. Rub 
thoroughly inside and out with salt and pepper. Make a stuffing with 
one dozen of the oysters, bread crumbs (wet and squeezed dry), one 
large onion chopped fine, a half teaspoon salt and a little black pepper. 
Mix well and fry in a pan a few minutes with a tablespoon of butter. 
Stuff the body of the fish with this and sew up with soft thread. Rub 
thoroughly with lard and place in the oven. Pour over immediately one 
cup of hot water and let the fish bake well. 

In the meantime prepare the following Sauce Chambord: Two table- 
spoons butter, one large chopped onion, one sprig of thyme, one bay leaf. 
Brown the onion and butter, being careful not to burn, and put in the 
three large tomatoes; add the chopped herbs; brown and add a pint of 
oyster water which has been heated by blanching the oysters. (Blanching 
means to place the oysters on the fire in their own water and heat 
thoroughly without boiling.) Season the sauce with salt and pepper to 
taste. 

Have ready in another dish the rest of the oysters (blanched) and the 
boiled shrimp. Put the fish in the dish in which it is to be served, garnish 
with the oysters and shrimp, placing them over the fish, and mingle 
between the sauteed and minced mushrooms and the cooked crawfish, 
placing them all around and on top of the fish. Pour the sauce over all 
and set in the hot oven. Bake a few minutes to heat thoroughly, and 
serve hot. 



THE SOUTH 83 



CHAURICE 

4 pounds lean fresh i sprig thyme, minced 

pork 2 sprigs parsley, minced 

2 pounds fat fresh pork 2 bay leaves, chopped 

2 large onions, minced fine 

I clove garlic, minced Yz teaspoon ground all- 
I teaspoon cayenne spice 

pepper casings 

I teaspoon chili pepper 2 teaspoons black 
I teaspoon red pepper pepper 

3 teaspoons salt. 

Hash the pork as fine as possible, fat and lean, and mix together. 
Season highly with the salt and peppers. Chaurice must be seasoned very- 
hot so do not fear to have too much red pepper ; it is the high seasoning 
which distinguishes the Creole sausage from all others. Add the onion 
and garlic and the herbs thoroughly with the chaurice. Hash all to- 
gether, and when well mixed take the casings (the Creoles always use 
the entrails of the sheep for this purpose) that have been well cleaned 
by the butcher. Scald them and wash thoroughly again. Dry them and 
fill with the mixture, tying them in the lengths you desire. 

Chaurice is fried in boiling lard for breakfast, always having sufficient 
to have the sausage swim in it, then serve, after draining off all grease, 
on a hot dish with a minced parsley garnish. It is used extensively in 
making "Jambalaya" and a few chaurices thrown into the pot of boiling 
cabbage or beans add greatly to the flavor. 

STEWED DUCKS WITH TURNIPS 

i pair ducks i clove garlic 

6 turnips 2 sprigs thyme 

1 tablespoon butter 2 sprigs parsley 

2 onions, chopped I bay leaf 

I tablespoon flour salt, pepper 

I square inch of ham, minced very fine 

Clean the ducks and cut into pieces at the joints. Put a tablespoon of 
butter into the pot and as it melts add the finely chopped onions; let 
them brown and then add the pieces of ducks. Let them brown and add 
the minced ham. Immediately after add the turnips, sliced or quartered, 
and a tablespoon sifted flour. Stir well ; let the flour brown slightly and 
add the minced thyme, parsley and bay leaf, and one clove of garlic, 
minced very fine. Stir well again and let it smother for about fifteen 



84 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

minutes, stirring frequently so that it will not burn. Then add water, 
almost sufficient to cover the ducks, and stir well. Cover tight and let 
the mixture smother for a half-hour longer. 

STEWED HARE WITH ONIONS 



I fine hare 


2 bay leaves 


I tablespoon butter 


y 2 pound small mush- 


I tablespoon flour 


rooms 


I large onion, minced 


2 cups consomme or 


I dozen small onions 


water 


I ounce of ham 


salt, pepper 


2 sprigs thyme 


y 2 cup cider 



y 2 teaspoon grated nutmeg 

Skin, clean, draw and thoroughly wash a fine tender hare. Set aside 
the liver and heart. Cut the hare into pieces at the joints. Make a 
marinade by placing the cider, minced onion and finely minced thyme 
and bay leaves in a stone jar. Add the nutmeg and a tablespoon of salt, 
and place in this mixture the cut-up hare, and let all stand for six hours. 
Then lift the pieces out carefully; have ready a saucepan in which has 
been melted a teaspoon of butter, and add twelve small onions glazed, 
and the ham, finely minced. 

Put the hare into the pan and let all brown nicely for about ten min- 
utes. Then add the flour finely rubbed, stir well and let brown. Add the 
consomme and stir till it begins to boil; then season according to taste 
with salt and pepper. Let all cook for three quarters of an hour, and add 
the heart and liver which you have finely chopped and thoroughly mixed 
together, then the mushrooms sauteed in a little butter. Cook for a 
quarter of an hour longer. 

QUAIL ROASTED IN GRAPE LEAVES 

6 fine quail juice of i lemon 

butter 12 grape leaves 

i tablespoon water 6 slices buttered toast 

green grape jelly- 
Select fine fat tender quail. Pick, singe, clean and wipe them well. 
Butter the inside of each quail nicely and sprinkle lightly inside with 
salt and pepper. Rub on the outside well with butter, then wrap up the 
birds in fresh moist grape leaves; set in a baking pan with a tablespoon 
of butter and roast from twenty to thirty minutes according to size. 
Garnish a dish nicely with fresh young grape leaves, place the quails on 
slices of toast and lay upon the leaves and serve very hot with green 
grape jelly. 



THE SOUTH 



85 



PEPPER SAUCE FOR VENISON 



1 carrot, minced fine 

2 sprigs thyme 
2 sprigs parsley 

I 
I 
I 



i cup consomme 
grated rind i lemon 
i tablespoon butter 
onion, minced fine i tablespoon flour 

bay leaf dash of cayenne 

branch celery, minced black pepper, salt 

y 2 cup currant jelly 

Put the butter in a saucepan, and as it melts add the flour. Let it 
brown slowly, then add the consomme. Let it boil, and add the herbs and 
vegetables and lemon grating. Let all boil slowly for an hour and a half. 
Season with salt and black pepper and a dash of cayenne. Boil for ten 
minutes longer, add the currant jelly and boil for an additional ten 
minutes. Serve with the venison. 

CREOLE OMELET 



6 large ripe tomatoes 
2 onions, minced 
y 2 clove garlic, minced 
2 tablespoons bread 
crumbs 



6 eggs 

2 tablespoons butter 

2 tablespoons minced 

ham 
salt, pepper, cayenne 

Scald and skin the tomatoes and chop fine. Add the onions, garlic and 
bread crumbs and fry together in a tablespoon of butter till quite brown. 
Then add the tomatoes and salt, pepper and cayenne to taste, and let 
all stew slowly for half an hour or longer. Prepare the eggs by beating 
the yolks to a cream, season lightly with salt and pepper, then add the 
whites, beaten stiff, and beat all thoroughly. Put a tablespoon of butter 
in the frying pan and when it melts add the egg mixture. Let it stand, 
shaking occasionally to prevent sticking to the pan, till the eggs are quite 
set; then pour the tomato mixture into the center and fold the omelet 
over and cook for two minutes longer. Roll gently into a dish and serve 
hot. 

CREOLE JAMBALAYA 



i y 2 cups rice 

I pound fresh pork 

I slice ham 

1 dozen chaurices (pork 

sausages) 

2 onions 

1 tablespoon butter 

2 cloves garlic 
2 sprigs thyme 



2 sprigs parsley 
2 bay leaves 

2 cloves, ground fine 

3 quarts beef broth or 

consomme 
y 2 teaspoon chili 

pepper 
salt, pepper, cayenne 



86 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Cut the pork very fine, lean and fat, into pieces of about half an inch 
square. Chop the onions very fine and mince the garlic and fine herbs. 
Grind the cloves. Put a tablespoon of butter into the saucepan and add 
the onions and pork and let them brown slowly. Stir frequently, and let 
them continue browning slightly. At this stage add the slice of ham, 
chopped very fine, and the cloves of garlic. Then add the minced herbs, 
thyme, bay leaf and parsley and cloves. Let all this brown for five min- 
utes longer and add a dozen fine chaurices; cut apart and let all cook 
five minutes longer. Then add the three quarts of broth or consomme. 

Let it all cook for ten minutes and when it comes to boiling add the 
rice, which has been carefully washed. Then add to this the peppers and 
salt to taste. The Creoles season highly with cayenne. Let all boil for 
a half-hour longer, or until the rice is done, and serve hot. 



FAMOUS CALAS 

"Belle Cala! Tout Chaud!" 

Under this cry was sold by the ancient Creole Negro women in the 
French Quarter of New Orleans a delicious rice cake, which was eaten 
with the morning cafe au lait. The Cala woman was seen upon the 
streets until the last few years. She went the rounds in a quaint 
bandanna tignon, guinea blue dress and white apron, and carried on her 
head a covered bowl in which were the hot Calas. Her cry, "Belle Cala! 
Tout Chaud!" would penetrate the morning, and the old Creole cooks 
would rush to the doors to get the first fresh hot Calas to carry to their 
masters and mistresses with the early morning cup of coffee. The Cala 
women have passed away but the custom of making Calas has re- 
mained. 

From one of the last of the old Cala women, one who walked the 
streets of the French Quarter for fifty years and more, this genuine 
Creole recipe comes: 

Yz cup rice y 2 cake yeast 

3 cups boiling water I teaspoon grated nut- 

3 e gg s me g 

y 2 cup sugar powdered sugar 

boiling lard 
3 tablespoons flour 

Boil the rice in the water till very soft and mushy. Take it out and 
set it to cool. When cold, mash well and mix with the yeast which has 
been dissolved in a cup of warm water. Set the rice to rise overnight. In 
the morning beat the eggs thoroughly and add to the rice, mixing well. 
Add the half cup of sugar and the flour to make the rice adhere. Mix 
well and beat thoroughly, bringing to a thick batter. Set to rise for 
fifteen minutes longer. Then add the nutmeg and mix well. Have the 



THE SOUTH 87 

lard boiling and deep enough for the cakes to swim in. Test by dropping 
in a small piece of bread. If it becomes a golden brown the lard is ready, 
but if it burns or browns instantly it is too hot. The golden-brown color 
is the true test. Drop the batter from a large mixing spoon into the boil- 
ing lard, remembering always that the cake must not touch the bottom 
of the pan. Let fry to a nice brown. Drain off the lard by laying in a 
colander or on heated pieces of brown paper. Serve in a hot dish 
sprinkled over with powdered sugar, and eat hot with cafe au lait. 

BAKED GRITS 

1 cup grits 2 cups milk 

2 cups water 2 eggs, beaten separately- 
salt I cup cream 

Boil the grits in the water and milk, mixed. Season and when quite 
dry take off the stove and let cool a little. Beat the yolks into the grits 
and blend thoroughly. Then add the whites and beat till very light. Add 
the cream. Bake to a beautiful brown and serve hot for breakfast. 



RED BEANS AND RICE 

i quart dried red beans i pound ham or salt 

i carrot meat 

i onion salt, pepper 

I bay leaf rice 

I tablespoon butter 

Wash the beans and soak them overnight, or at least five or six hours, 
in fresh cold water. When ready to cook drain off this water and cover 
the beans very deep with at least two quarts of cold water, for beans 
must cook thoroughly. Let the water heat slowly. Then add the ham or 
salt pork and the herbs and onion and carrot, minced fine. Boil the beans 
at least two hours or until tender enough to mash easily under pressure. 
When tender remove from the pot, put the salt meat or ham on top 
of the dish and serve hot with rice. 

DANDELION GREENS 

I quart dandelion greens i tablespoon butter 

I ham shank salt, pepper 

hard-boiled eggs 

Cut off the coarse roots ; wash the leaves thoroughly ; steep in salt and 
water for five hours to remove the bitterness. Boil a ham shank for two 
hours, throw in the dandelions, and cook gently for forty-five minutes; 



88 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

then drain, chop fine; season with butter, pepper and salt. Mince the 
ham very fine and sprinkle over the greens; spread over the top sliced 
hard-boiled eggs and serve hot. 



ENDIVE WITH CREAM SAUCE 

2 heads chicory (curly 2 cups cream 

endive) y% teaspoon nutmeg 

4 tablespoons butter salt, pepper 

Wash the chicory and throw away the outer leaves. Blanch for ten 
minutes in boiling salted water; take them out and put in cold water. 
Then drain off all the water and chop very fine. Cook slowly in a sauce- 
pan with four tablespoons of butter for a quarter of an hour. Pour the 
cream over it ; add the nutmeg and salt and pepper. Mix all thoroughly 
together for five minutes on the stove, then remove and serve hot with 
sauteed croutons. 



GREEN PEAS CREOLE STYLE 

2 cups young green peas i teaspoon powdered 

3 tablespoons butter sugar 
34 cup cream salt, pepper 
i egg yolk 

Shell and clean the peas and put them in a saucepan with three table- 
spoons of butter and cover with a cup of water; season with a pinch of 
salt and let them cook for twenty minutes or until tender. Beat the 
cream and egg yolk together, add a half pinch of white pepper and mix 
thoroughly with the peas. Add the powdered sugar, stir well, and let all 
cook together for five minutes and serve hot. 



BRABANT POTATOES 

3 boiled potatoes I teaspoon vinegar 

I tablespoon chopped 2 tablespoons lard 

parsley 2 tablespoons butter 

juice of i lemon, salt, pepper 

Dice the potatoes and fry for a few minutes in the lard. When half 
brown take them out and finish frying them in the butter to a light 
brown. When ready to serve add the parsley, lemon juice, vinegar and 
salt and pepper. Serve hot. 



THE SOUTH 89 



POTATOES A LA DIABLE 

2 dozen new potatoes, i teaspoon mustard 

about the size of cayenne 

marbles 2 teaspoons vinegar 

4 tablespoons butter 2 egg yolks, well beaten 

lard 

Boil the potatoes, being sure not to boil them too long. Heat lard to 
the boiling point in a deep frying pan, and when it begins to boil drop 
in the potatoes and let them fry for about five minutes. Lift out with a 
skimmer, drain quickly and put them into a saucepan with the melted 
butter into which the mustard has been rubbed. Add a dash of cayenne 
and the vinegar. Cook for three or four minutes longer, shaking 
constantly, and then take off. Add the egg yolks and serve. 



FRENCH PANCAKES 

J4 pound flour 4 eggs 

I cup milk powdered sugar 

I glass jelly 

Sift the flour into a bowl. Break in the eggs; beat well and add one 
ounce of powdered sugar. Mix thoroughly with a spatula and then add 
the cold milk, pouring it in gradually. Mix well for six minutes. Have 
ready a clean griddle ; butter lightly and when hot, drop on it about two 
large spoonfuls of the batter at a time. Let the cakes bake two minutes 
on one side and then turn and bake two minutes on the other. Lay the 
pancakes on a hot dish ; sprinkle generously with powdered sugar. Spread 
over each a half tablespoon of apple, strawberry, currant, peach or any 
kind of jelly desired ; then roll them up nicely, put them on a dessert dish 
and sprinkle powdered white sugar over them. Continue baking the 
cakes as fast as possible, sprinkling each in turn with the powdered sugar 
and rolling with the jelly, till all the batter is used. The above quantity 
will make about one dozen pancakes. 



SWEET POTATO CUSTARD PIE 

3 boiled sweet potatoes 2 tablespoons butter 

3 eggs, beaten sepa- y 2 teaspoon cinnamon 

rately grated juice and rind 
I cup milk of one orange 

I cup sugar powdered sugar 
pastry 



90 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Wash the potatoes well and boil them until tender but not overdone. 
Thirty minutes will suffice. When cold, peel and grate them. Beat to- 
gether the butter and sugar till light. Add the egg yolks and then beat 
in the potatoes, stirring first gradually and then beating lightly and 
steadily. Add the spices and the orange and then line a deep piepan with 
pastry, and fill with mixture. Cook in a hot oven (400 F.) for a half- 
hour. Beat the whites of the eggs to a stiff froth and while beating add 
two tablespoons of powdered sugar. When the pie is baked heap the 
meringue on top, set back in the oven and bake for an additional two or 
three minutes to lightly brown the meringue. 



9 

"JUST DIXIE" 

All through the Southland a wave of good cooking winds its way from 
Kentucky to Virginia into West Virginia, the Carolinas and on to the 
Gulf. Many dishes ardently claimed by natives of one of these states is 
also something to bleed and die for across a state line. Virginia hams and 
Kentucky hams, Virginia fruit cakes and Alabama fruit cakes — puddings 
supposedly written into the constitution of Georgia, also seemingly in- 
cluded in the founders' bylaws in South Carolina. 

Who could, even if he dared, classify state by state these wonderful 
dishes of Dixie? I wouldn't try. It is sufficient for a broad-minded cook 
to know that they are Southern and that with true Southern generosity 
and hospitality the "receipts" were passed along to a cousin or a new 
sister-in-law in a neighboring county, and thence across a state line ; and 
all, under the mellow influence of sun and rich soil, abundant crops and 
Southern imagination, grew even better by these exchanges. Southern 
dishes! Virginian if you please, and if you can prove it. Or Kentuckian 
or Georgian or Carolinian. A hungry gourmet will not care, but as he 
dines, will silently salute the precious heritage of the Southland which 
has remained to this day to be shared by all. 

Such are some of the recipes which follow and which "belong" to 
several Southern states. (And, I had better add, to some of those 
previously classified in various state groups!) 

Some Oddities 

When it is Derby Day in Kentucky and sometimes at horse sales, 
political rallies and at other important outdoor events, "Kentucky 
Burgoo" is the feature. Originally it was made from wild things found 
in the woods, but now domestic beasts and barnyard fowls combine with 
the vegetables to make this delectable stew or soup. Which is it ? Carey's 
Dictionary of Double Derivations defines it as a soup "literally composed 



THE SOUTH 91 

of many vegetables and meats delectably fused together in an enormous 
caldron, over which, at the exact moment, a rabbit's foot at the end of a 
yarn string is properly waved by a colored preacher, whose salary has 
been paid to date. These are the good omens by which the burgoo is 
fortified." 

Naturally a recipe which includes a ton of peeled and diced potatoes, 
six hundred pounds of tomatoes, six hundred pounds of lean meat, two 
hundred pounds of fat hens, and one dozen squirrels to each one hundred 
gallons of soup is not to be attempted by an amateur. But a recipe which 
you can try at home follows : 

BURGOO FOR SMALL PARTIES 

Cut meat to be used into inch cubes; do not throw away bones, add 
them to meat cubes. Add any dried vegetables which will enhance flavor 
of stew. Put all materials into large stewing kettle, unless beans and 
potatoes are being used. If this is the case, cook meats first and add beans 
and potatoes about an hour before serving. Fill kettle half full of water 
and place over fire to come to a boil. Prepare other vegetables, whatever 
vegetables you may have, for stew. Tomatoes, carrots, corn, cabbage and 
onions are customary. Lower heat and continue to simmer until vege- 
tables are tender. Add salt and pepper, and Worcestershire, tabasco or 
A I sauce to taste, when stew is almost cooked. There should always be 
enough water to cover the vegetables. In a real burgoo no thickening like 
meal or rice is used. 

POT LIKKER AND DODGER 

Pot likker consists of the water in which any vegetables have been 
cooked with a piece of salt pork or soup meat. However, in the South it 
is most frequently the water in which turnip greens have been cooked. 
Cut the tops from a bunch of turnips. Wash the greens thoroughly and 
place in a pot, covered with water. Add slices of turnip or other vege- 
tables and season with salt and pepper and a piece of soup meat or salt 
pork. Boil until the greens are tender. Remove the greens and the meat 
and the succulent soup that remains is pot likker. 

CORN MEAL DODGER 

i cup white corn meal 2 tablespoons melted 

]/ 2 teaspoon salt butter or other 

cold water shortening 

Add salt to corn meal and stir in the melted butter. Add sufficient 
cold water so dough will hold shape. Mold dough into biscuit-size pieces 
and drop into boiling pot likker. Cook closely covered in pot twenty 
minutes. Serve garnished with the greens from the pot likker. 



92 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



SWEET POTATO PONE 



4 large sweet potatoes, 

cooked 
24 cup brown sugar 
J4 cup New Orleans 

molasses 
y$ cup milk 
y 2 teaspoon nutmeg 



24 cup butter 
4 eggs, well beaten 
grated rind of I lemon 
grated rind of }4 orange 
Yz teaspoon cinnamon 
y 2 teaspoon ground 
cloves 



Grate the potatoes. Stir the butter and sugar till creamy, combine 
with the eggs and beat well. Then add the potato, spices, molasses and 
milk. Beat all together, adding the grated lemon and orange rind. Put 
the mixture in a well-buttered pan and bake slowly for about an hour. 
Serve hot or cold, cut in slices. 

ALABAMA RICE CAKES 



6 tablespoons cold hom- 
iny 
6 tablespoons rice flour 

Combine and bake on tin sheets. 



I tablespoon butter 
i egg, beaten 
milk to thin 



DIXIE CHICKEN SHORTCAKE 



I large chicken 

I pound mushrooms 



salt, pepper 



1 pan corn bread 

2 tablespoons flour 



Cook the chicken until very tender. Cool, and remove the skin and 
bones. Cut in medium-sized pieces. Make a sauce, using the chicken 
stock and thickening with the flour. Saute the mushrooms in butter. 
Now add the chicken and mushrooms to the sauce and season to taste. 
Cut the corn bread into four-inch squares and split. Cover the bottom 
half with the chicken mixture. Lay on this the top crust and cover with 
more gravy and chicken mixture. Leftover chicken and gravy can be 
used in this manner. 

ROAST SQUAB WITH RICE PILAU 

4 squabs 2 cups rice 

6 slices bacon 4 cups chicken stock 

I onion 4 eggs 

^4 cup chopped celery salt, pepper 

mustard pickle juice 






THE SOUTH 93 

Dress the squabs. Stuff with a mixture made as follows: Dice bacon 
and fry until crisp. Remove the bacon and brown the chopped celery 
and onions in the bacon drippings. Boil the rice in the chicken stock until 
tender, then add the bacon, celery and onion. Beat the eggs and add them 
to the rice. Season with salt and pepper. Stuff the squabs with the mix- 
ture and make mounds of the remaining filling on which to lay the 
squabs. Bake in hot oven for about twenty-five minutes, basting the 
squabs frequently with mustard pickle juice. 

CHICKEN A LA TARTARE 

1 broiling chicken J4 pound mushrooms 
J4 pound melted butter i clove garlic 

4 sprigs parsley salt, pepper 

i small onion bread crumbs 

Clean the broiler and split in half. Place in a frying pan in which 
the butter has been melted. Chop the parsley, onion, mushrooms and 
garlic and add to the butter with salt and pepper. Cover the frying pan 
and allow the broiler to simmer for fifteen minutes, turning it oc- 
casionally so that the flavor is absorbed. The chicken is then dipped in 
bread crumbs and broiled until well browned. The chicken meat is 
delicately flavored with the mushrooms, onion, garlic and parsley com- 
bination. The precooking in the butter sauce also assures the tenderness 
of the meat. 

CHICKEN POTPIE 

2 Yz tablespoons minute 2 cups cooked chicken, 

tapioca cut in pieces 

% teaspoon salt I J4 CU P S milk: or stock 

dash of pepper 2 tablespoons melted 

dash of paprika butter 

6 unbaked baking-powder biscuits, rolled % inch thick 

Combine ingredients in the order given. Turn into greased casserole 
and bake in hot oven (425 F.) for twenty-five minutes, stirring mix- 
ture after it has baked ten minutes; return to oven and bake for twelve 
to fifteen minutes longer or until browned. Serves four. 

CHITTERLINGS 

Wash chitterlings (the cases of the smaller intestines of swine) thor- 
oughly and cover with boiling salted water. Add one tablespoon whole 
cloves and one red pepper ; cut in pieces the size of oysters. Dip each piece 
in beaten egg and then in cracker crumbs. Fry in deep fat until brown. 



94 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



CHICKEN TERRAPIN 

2 pairs sweetbreads 2 egg yolks 

1 large chicken 1 tablespoon butter 

1 quart cream salt, red pepper 

1 tablespoon cornstarch 3^ CU P sherry 

Parboil the sweetbreads, let cool and remove all the membrane, cut in 
small pieces. Boil the chicken, cut up in small pieces and add to the 
sweetbreads. Place the cream in a double boiler and thicken with the 
cornstarch. When it begins to get hot add the egg yolks and stir well. 
Then add the butter and seasoning. When well thickened and hot stir 
in the chicken and sweetbreads. Just before serving add the sherry. This 
can be served either on toast or in patty shells. 



BARBECUED LAMB AND SAUCE 

1 leg lamb 1 teaspoon ginger 

2 tablespoons chili sauce (ground) 

2 onions, sliced 1 teaspoon dry mustard 

1 clove garlic 1 tablespoon vinegar 

1 tablespoon Worces- pepper, salt 

tershire 2 tablespoons olive oil 

After wiping the lamb well with a damp cloth, rub thoroughly with 
the spices which have been mixed together. Dredge well with flour and 
brown quickly in a hot oven (400 F.) about twenty-five minutes. Re- 
duce heat and baste with the combined chili sauce, Worcestershire, 
vinegar and olive oil. Slice onion and place around the meat with the 
clove of garlic. Baste every fifteen minutes, allowing about thirty min- 
utes to the pound for roasting. One hour before finished add one cup of 
boiling water. Skim fat from pan and strain for gravy. 



SAUCE 



J4 pound butter 


2 tablespoons Worces- 


1 cup vinegar 


tershire 


1 sour pickle, finely 


2 tablespoons chili sauce 


chopped 


4 slices lemon 


2 tablespoons chopped 


1 teaspoon brown sugar 


onion 


1 green pepper, finely 




chopped 



THE SOUTH 95 

Combine and mix thoroughly. Place in a saucepan on a slow fire and 
cook until butter melts, stirring constantly. Place in top of a double 
boiler and keep warm until ready to use on barbecued meat. 

BAKED OPOSSUM 

Skin the opossum and wash thoroughly; wipe dry. Grease inside and 
out of opossum with bacon fat and season with salt and pepper. Put in 
roasting pan and place three or four pieces of bacon across, a sliced onion 
and opossum's liver, finely chopped, and pour one quart of hot water 
into pan. Use a moderate oven (350 F.) and baste every fifteen minutes 
for about one and one half hours or until tender. Garnish with half 
slices of orange or fried sweet potatoes. The opossum may be stuffed 
with a bread stuffing as for poultry, in which case the animal should be 
tied up like a suckling pig. 

ROAST SUCKLING PIG 

For roast suckling pig use only the very young pigs not over six weeks 
old. Scald them by immersing in very hot water (not boiling) for one 
minute. Remove from the water and use a very dull knife to scrape off 
hair in order that skin will not be broken. Then cut a slit from the 
bottom of the throat to the hind legs and remove the entrails and organs, 
being careful not to break the brains. Wash thoroughly in cold water 
and chill. Fill with any desired poultry stuffing and sew opening. Roast 
in a moderate oven (350 F.) from three to four hours. Applesauce and 
sweet potatoes are traditional accompaniments. 

PENDENNIS TURTLE SOUP 

2 pounds veal bones 1 small can tomato 
2 carrots puree 

2 onions salt, pepper 

2 tablespoons butter whole cloves 

3 tablespoons flour 2 cups boiled fresh turtle 
2 quarts beef stock or meat 

consomme 1 lemon 

1 small can tomatoes 2 hard-cooked eggs 

]/2 cup sherry 

Roast the bones and vegetables with the butter until brown. Add 
flour, and brown again. Add stock or consomme, tomatoes, tomato puree, 
salt, black pepper to taste, and a few whole cloves. Boil for two hours. 
Add sherry. Strain the soup through cheesecloth. Then add boiled fresh 
turtle meat cut in small squares, lemon and eggs, also cut in small 
squares; boil up quickly and serve. 



96 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



POMPANO WITH SHRIMP STUFFING 

2 cups cooked shrimp ]/ 2 cup chopped mush- 

2 eggs rooms 

i cup heavy cream *4 CU P sherry 

I boned pompano pepper, salt, paprika 

cucumbers, French dressing 

Clean the shrimp and put through the meat grinder. Beat the egg and 
half of the cream together. Mix the shrimp, mushrooms and seasoning 
together and stir in the cream and egg. Stir to a smooth paste. Put the 
mixture on one half of the pompano. Sew the two halves of the fish to- 
gether and put in a baking dish. Pour the remaining cream over the 
fish and bake in a moderate oven for forty-five minutes. Serve with the 
sliced cucumbers, marinated in the French dressing. 



MISSISSIPPI COLESLAW 



I cup mayonnaise 
I head cabbage 
I cup chopped cold 

tongue 
I cup cold chopped ham 



I green pepper, minced 
I red pepper, minced 
y 2 onion, chopped 
I egg white 



Slice cabbage in shreds. Mix the meat, peppers and onion together 
and add to the cabbage. Thin the mayonnaise with beaten white of egg 
and add to the cabbage mixture. Sugar can be added if not sweet 
enough. 



FLORIDA GUSPACHY SALAD 



4 tomatoes, peeled and 
sliced 

1 cucumber, peeled and 

sliced 

2 green peppers, sliced 

thin 

I tablespoon minced 
onion 

y 2 teaspoon Worcester- 
shire 



y 2 teaspoon Ai sauce 
salt, pepper, paprika 
34 teaspoon dry mus- 
tard 

1 teaspoon sugar 
i pilot cracker 

2 tablespoons sour 

cream 
lettuce 



Combine the cucumber, tomato and pepper and drain off their juices. 
Soak the cracker in cold water for about three minutes and squeeze dry. 
Place a layer of the vegetable mixture in a bowl and sprinkle with the 



THE SOUTH 97 

chopped onion and cracker. Spread with sour cream to which all the 
above spices and sauces have been added. Repeat until all ingredients are 
used. Place on ice for about three hours; serve on crisp lettuce leaves. 

BAKED PAPAYA 

Cut mature but unripe papaya in halves lengthwise. Add a little sugar 
and orange, lime or lemon juice; or a little cinnamon in place of the 
juice. Bake twenty minutes and serve immediately on taking from the 
oven. 

BAKED PAPAYA COCONUT CUSTARD 

4 cups ripened papaya I cup sugar 

pulp 4 eggs 

i cup shredded coconut 4 cups milk 
i orange, pulp, juice and grated rind 

Make a custard of the egg, milk, sugar and orange. Place papaya and 
coconut in a baking dish. Pour over the custard and bake in a moderate 
oven. 

PAPAYA COCKTAIL 

Combine papaya balls with French dressing made of lime juice, a little 
sugar and salt, and place in cocktail glasses, garnished with a sprig of 
mint. 

PAPAYA CANAPE 

Top toasted rounds of bread, buttered and sprinkled with cinnamon 
and sugar, with a round of papaya sprinkled with lemon juice or crossed 
with red pimiento strips. 

HOPPING JOHN 

2 cups cow peas (or 3 tablespoons bacon 

black beans) drippings 

I cup uncooked rice salt, pepper 

3 cups water, in which peas were cooked 

Boil peas until tender. Add the bacon drippings, rice and three cups 
water to steam the rice, and seasonings. Cook over a slow fire for one 
hour. 

CURDS AND CREAM 

Set sour or raw milk in a crock or bowl until it becomes clabber. Pour 
slowly into a curd press until press is full. Place press in pan and let 



98 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

drain overnight. Turn onto a flat dish, grate nutmeg freely over the top 
and serve with heavy sweet cream, more grated nutmeg and sugar. 
Honey may be used in place of sugar. A colander lined with a double 
thickness of cheesecloth may be used in place of the curd press. 

HOECAKE 

Moisten salted corn meal with scalding water or milk. Allow it to 
stand for an hour. Put two or three teaspoons of this on hot greased 
griddle. Smooth it out to make cakes one half inch thick and let it cook. 
When one side is done turn over and brown the other. Serve very hot 
for breakfast. This dish goes well with sausage. 

CRACKLING BREAD 

I cup cracklings (diced) y 2 teaspoon soda 

I y 2 cups corn meal *4 teaspoon salt 

% cup wheat flour I cup sour milk 

Cracklings are the pieces of meat remaining after the lard has been 
rendered from the pork. Mix and sift together the dry ingredients. Add 
the milk, stir in the cracklings. Form into oblong cakes and place in 
greased baking pan. Bake in hot oven (400 F.) thirty minutes. 

VIRGINIA WAFFLES 

1 Yz cups boiling water y 2 teaspoon salt 

y 2 cup white corn meal 2 eggs, beaten separately 

1 y> cups milk 3 tablespoons melted 
3 cups flour butter 

3 teaspoons baking 3 tablespoons sugar 
powder 

Cook the meal in the boiling water thirty minutes; add milk, dry 
ingredients, egg yolks, butter and egg whites. Put one tablespoon of 
waffle batter in each compartment near the center. Cook on greased hot 
waffle iron or ungreased electric waffle iron until well puffed and a deli- 
cate brown. 

WILD RICE AND MUSHROOMS 

1 cup wild rice 2 tablespoons flour 

3 cups boiling water 1 cup milk 

1 pound fresh mush- salt 

rooms 2 tablespoons butter 

Cover the rice with boiling water and let boil fast for fifteen minutes, 
or until water is well absorbed, then let steam until it is dry and fluffy. 



THE SOUTH 99 

Peel the mushrooms, saute in the butter until well browned. Remove 
mushrooms from the skillet and add the flour to the butter, rubbing to a 
smooth paste. Then add the milk and cook until thick. Add the mush- 
rooms to this and heat. Pour mushrooms over rice and serve. 

From Arkansas, the land of the black walnut: 



BLACK WALNUT SPONGE CAKE 

I cup sifted cake flour y 2 lemon, juice and 
34 teaspoon salt grated rind 

5 eggs Yz cup flour 

i cup sugar y 2 cup walnut meats 

Separate eggs and beat yolks until lemon-colored. Add the sugar, 
lemon juice and rind, and fold in the sifted flour; add the nuts mixed 
with the additional half cup of flour and lightly fold in the stiffly beaten 
egg whites. Bake in ungreased tube pan in a slow oven (325 F.) for 
about an hour. Invert pan and remove when cold. 



BLACK WALNUT COOKIES (modified) 

1 J4 cups cake flour 2 teaspoons baking 
1 cup sugar powder 

y 2 cup shortening y 2 cup sweet milk 

1 egg Y\ cup black walnuts 
y 2 teaspoon salt 

Combine and sift dry ingredients. Beat milk and egg, and add. Then 
stir in melted shortening and black walnuts. Drop by teaspoonfuls on 
baking sheet and bake for twelve minutes in a moderate oven. You may 
use one half cup nut meats with one fourth cup chopped citron and two 
squares melted chocolate, added with the nuts. 



PECAN NUT CAKE 

3 cups pecans, finely 1 teaspoon baking 

chopped powder 

6 eggs, beaten sepa- y 2 teaspoon salt 

rately 1 teaspoon vanilla 

1 ^4 cups sugar boiled orange icing or 

whipped cream 

Combine the egg yolks and sugar, beating well. Sift together the 
flour, baking powder and salt ; add the nuts and combine with egg mix- 



100 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



ture. Beat well. Stir in the stiffly beaten egg whites and vanilla and bake 
in two layer-cake tins in a moderate oven (350 F.) from thirty to forty 
minutes. When cool, cover with icing and whole pecans or whipped 
cream. 



PECAN PIE 



1 cup whole pecans 

1 cup dark molasses 

2 tablespoons butter 



2 eggs, beaten 

1 cup sugar 

1 teaspoon vanilla 



Cream the butter and sugar, add the molasses, the eggs, the pecans 
and vanilla. Beat together well. Put in unbaked pie shell and bake in a 
slow oven (275 F.) for about thirty minutes. Serve with whipped 



cream. 



GEORGIA PECAN BROWNIES 



I cup pecans, chopped 
1 cup fine dry bread 
crumbs 



2 egg whites 
1 cup brown sugar 
]/ 2 teaspoon maple 
flavoring 

Beat egg whites stiff, add sugar and flavoring. Stir well. Combine 
nuts and crumbs and fold into egg whites. Shape into small balls, place 
on buttered baking tin, bake in slow oven until brown (325 F.). 



CARROT PUDDING 



1 y 2 cups grated raw 

carrots 
1 cup grated raw 

potatoes 
1 cup flour 
y teaspoon ground 

cloves 
y 2 teaspoon cinnamon 
y teaspoon nutmeg 
y teaspoon salt 



2 tablespoons melted 

butter 
y pound thinly sliced 

citron 
grated rind of 1 orange 
grated rind of 1 lemon 
2 eggs, well beaten 
1 cup sugar 
1 teaspoon soda 



Cream butter and sugar, beating well; pour in eggs and beat well 
again. Add carrots, spices, sifted flour, orange and lemon rinds and salt 
to above mixture. Dissolve soda into grated potato and add to mixture, 
which should be beaten well. Lastly add the citron. Butter mold and 
place a sheet of greased paper on the bottom and pour in the pudding. 



THE SOUTH 



101 



Cover the mold and place in a pot of boiling water to steam for about 
two hours. This may be served with sweet cream or your favorite sauce. 



SHORT'NIN' BREAD 

4 cups flour i cup light brown sugar 

I pound butter 

Mix flour and sugar. Add butter. Place on floured surface and pat 
to one half inch thickness. Cut into desired shapes and bake in moderate 
oven (325 F. to 350 F.) for twenty to twenty-five minutes. 



PLANTATION MARBLE CAKE 



2 cups cake flour 
2 teaspoons baking 

powder 
J4 teaspoon salt 
y 2 cup butter or other 

shortening 

1 cup sugar 

2 eggs, well beaten 



2 /z cup milk 

1 teaspoon cinnamon 



> teaspoon cloves 



y 2 teaspoon nutmeg 
2 tablespoons molasses 
frosting (butter, confec- 
tioners' sugar and 
flavoring) 



Sift flour, baking powder and salt together three times. Cream the 
butter thoroughly, add the sugar gradually, and cream together until 
light and fluffy. Add the eggs; then flour, alternately with milk, a small 
amount at a time. Beat after each addition until smooth. Divide the 
batter into two parts. To the one part add spices and molasses. Drop by 
tablespoons into greased loaf pan, alternating light and dark mixtures. 
Bake in moderate oven (350 F.) one hour and fifteen minutes or until 
done. Spread butter frosting on top and sides of cake. 



SHERRY JELLY 



2^4 cups boiling water 
% cup cold water 

1 cup sherry 

2 sticks cinnamon 



juice and rind 2 lemons 
2 tablespoons gelatin 
1 cup sugar 
whipped cream 



Combine cinnamon, lemon juice and rind with boiling water and let 
stand over low flame until ready to use. Dissolve the gelatin in the cold 
water (five minutes), then add to hot mixture and stir well. Add sherry 
and sugar and strain through cheesecloth. Pour into mold and place in 
refrigerator until set. Serve with whipped cream. 



102 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



PLANTERS PUNCH 

Dissolve a tablespoon of sugar in a tall glass, add one half cup of 
Jamaica rum, one quarter cup good brandy. Squeeze into this the juice 
of one half lemon and a little pineapple juice. Pour into the glass with 
the sugar and then fill with shaved ice and mix thoroughly with spoon. 
The glass should be frosted when the drink is served. 



CHAPTER IV 

The Middle West 



Where does the Middle West begin? And if it begins, let us say for 
the sake of this discussion, west of the Alleghanies, how far south and 
north and west does it continue? And having laid it out all nice and flat 
on a paper map, what if any are its culinary highlights? And where are 
they and why? 

The why is the easiest answered. New Englanders trekking westward 
found the lands drained by the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri rivers 
rich looking and full of promise. Some settled right there and let their 
hardier or more persevering friends and neighbors push on westward, 
making new wagon trails as they toiled laboriously onward. 

In Ohio, Indiana and Illinois there is a strong flavor of New England 
in the cookery. So is there also much of the tang and succulence of Dutch 
and German viands. Here and there are strong evidences of Southern 
mammy cookery, for in those states as well as some farther north, 
Negroes were welcomed as they escaped from Southern plantations, and 
later considerable numbers, when given their freedom, sought the Land 
of Promise among the Yankees. 

To a lesser degree these same influences are found in the cookery of 
Michigan and Wisconsin ; also there is a pronounced effect of Dutch and 
Scandinavian strains, the former from the settlements in and around 
Grand Rapids, and the latter in Wisconsin as well as in Minnesota and 
the Dakotas. 

Missouri is Southern almost exclusively in its cookery, with accents 
from the Indian and Mexican. Oklahoma is strongly influenced by 
Indian and Mexican coloring, with here and there a suggestion of the 
South and a few original dishes too, which are not to be classified as 
anything except Oklahoman. 

Kansas is noticeably New England again with strains of pioneer 
phraseology to amuse and delight the connoisseur (old New England 
dishes renamed with Western lingo) and beyond these, until the coastal 
states are reached, it's any man's guess as to what he may find and how 
he would classify the dish (as to origin) after encountering it. Basically, 
the cookery of all this section has a New England ancestry; but the 

103 



104 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

climate, crops and flora and fauna encountered by the pioneers and their 
descendants have combined to produce some culinary freaks, sprinkled 
here and there amidst just solid good "plain eating" in the well-to-do 
ranch and farm homes, and pretty bad going in poorer homes and any 
"eating houses" other than the better hotels in the big cities. 

Polyglot is the word. And yet this is not meant as a derogatory term. 
It is undeniable that every state, without exception, has produced and 
still does produce good cooks, and these produce good dishes. But your 
lucky stars have a great deal to do with helping you locate them. You 
might go for days and not meet such cooks, and in those days you would 
have meals which were drab or bad, disgraceful or just indifferent. 

I make no apology for the lack of strictly classifiable recipes in this 
section of the book. Nor shall I clutter up the pages by giving dishes 
which are obviously New England or Southern simplified or modified 
and renamed. But I do pause to pay tribute here to the effectiveness of 
the phenomenon of American food advertising. It is in this great broad 
expanse of our continent that a distinctive and unique new note in 
American cookery has been sounded. 

The inventiveness, skill and accomplishment of home economics 
women in collaboration with the country's food manufacturers, and in 
turn with the advertising copy writers, have combined to create a new 
cuisine. This is composed of the array of now famous gelatin desserts 
and jellied salads and meat dishes, of frozen desserts and frozen salads, 
soups from the can, prepared meats, canned foods and condiments, ready- 
to-serve prepared cereals — literally thousands of edibles, some amazingly 
good. 

These are the products of the American food industry — that word is 
significant. A great far-flung new country in the making had to be fed 
quickly and effectively. There was no time for Latin coddling or Middle 
European elaborating or Southern luxury. Feed the millions. Well, it 
has been done and in the doing some sacrifices had to be made to the 
subtleties. 

In their place is this distinctive wholly American creation — a polyglot, 
varied, now (in recent years) increasingly good cookery. Thanks must 
he given for the betterment to the steady and necessarily uncolorful 
plodding of the domestic scientists and home economists. Lately they are 
talking less of calories and more of appetite appeal. Some of them have 
been torchbearers, and they've written books and articles, prevailed in 
conferences with the businessmen executives of the industry and through 
the wide media of the gross-circulation women's magazines and news- 
paper syndicates have led women into putting a little lure in the baked 
potatoes and the family pot roast. They have at the same time made the 
average American homemaker conscious of food as something more than 
a necessity. Its importance to the health, well-being and happiness of the 
American family is more talked about today than any other topic of 
interest to women. More people than ever before in the history of the 
country are talking about food, and sooner or later that means that food 



THE MIDDLE WEST 105 

will be better and then still better. Today folks are not ashamed to brag 
about their grandmother's cookery and their mother's, and it is increas- 
ingly fashionable to talk about their own. 

That's how I got most of these recipes! Listening to natives of the 
Middle West brag about the food they grew up on. In Ohio there are 
some high lights. One is a restaurant in Columbus, the capital, which is 
known all over this country and to a good many travelers from Europe. 
It started out as a tearoom in a department store, and the food served 
there was so superbly good that it outgrew its bounds and moved into a 
once private home, now several floors of indescribable eating. Mary 
Love's name is known far and wide as the originator of that restaurant 
and as its owner and manager. It was the stamp of her ideas which 
turned the department-store tearoom into a restaurant for which men 
and women were willing to stand in line and wait hours, just to sample 
the chicken and biscuits, the cake and ice cream, the beautifully cooked 
vegetables and the crisply different salads. Plain food — in one sense — 
those dishes I mentioned above, which are not new but which under 
loving consideration, using the rich produce of the farm lands around 
Columbus and the skill of cooks trained under this knowing woman, 
came forth from the kitchen as superb dishes. Middle Western cooking, 
if you please, for it is unlike anything South or East or Northwest or 
Californian or European. 

In Ohio, Indiana and Illinois there are all the dishes you will find in 
New England — except the plentiful sea-food concoctions. But pies, pies, 
pies, the products of rich orchards and gardens and fields, delectable 
quince honey, gingerbread, gooseberry tart (with whipped sour cream), 
spareribs and sauerkraut — the list of the good things is endless. The sea 
food is not missing — oyster pies have been fixtures of the church sociables 
since there were churches in that section. Today, oysters, lobsters, crabs 
and other sea delicacies come in iced barrels from the coast by plane, or 
the canned variety is used ; the local streams and the Great Lakes supply 
excellent fish which, especially on the Friday market day, find plenty of 
purchasers. 

But thirty years ago and maybe earlier, a taste for fish was being 
stimulated in that inland place by such events as the annual fish fry. In 
one Ohio community a little grove of woods with a clearing in the 
middle was the scene of this festivity. Iced barrels of fish were ordered 
from a Lake Erie fisherman, and on the day set for the fry the mayor of 
the little town drove out early to the grove. Here his Negro helpers had 
set up the stove. This was a long brick oven covered with a strip of sheet 
iron which had been scrubbed clean and oiled with lard. As the fires 
grew hotter in the oven the sheet iron got hot too, and when it was time 
for the fry, about noon, the fish had been cleaned and laid in salted corn 
meal. Also by that time the community had gathered, carriage loads of 
men, women and children with picnic baskets and their best dispositions 
to the fore. 

The smell of frying fish was carried miles on the breeze; families 



106 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

spread out their picnic dinners, and their plates were heaped with hot 
fish from the big stove. Potato salad and bread and butter came out of 
the baskets. Later the big layer cakes were cut, and ice cream was dished 
from big freezers cranked by patient black hands. Yes, they made their 
ice cream right there and coffee too, and then the grown-ups danced to 
the music of fiddles and a cornet and the kids slept or played in the 
grass and made second trips to the spot where a colored man tended the 
big ice-cream freezers. 

Bucolic joys, probably no longer in evidence in Ohio, but comparable 
to the barbecues of meat enjoyed farther south and west and certainly 
something that should not be forgotten as part of the background of the 
cookery of that state. 



OHIO 

NUT TEA WAFERS 

y 2 cup butter, creamed i % cups flour 

I cup light brown sugar y 2 cup finely chopped 

I egg, well beaten black walnut 

y 2 teaspoon soda meats 

*4 teaspoon salt 

Combine in the order given and mix with hands. Pack very solidly in 
brick mold that has been well buttered. Leave in refrigerator overnight. 
(It will keep in refrigerator for a week or more.) Turn out and slice as 
thin as possible. Bake in hot oven (350 F.) on a piece of sheet iron. 



OLD-FASHIONED SOUR MILK CORN 

BREAD 

1 cup sifted flour 1 y 2 cups corn meal 

% teaspoon soda 2 eggs, beaten 

1 teaspoon salt 1 y 2 cups sour milk* 

3 tablespoons melted shortening 

Sift flour and measure; sift again with salt and soda and stir in the 
corn meal. Beat eggs well and mix with milk and shortening. Add to 
flour mixture and stir just enough to mix smoothly. Turn into a greased 
shallow pan or muffin tins and bake in a hot oven (400 F.) for about 
twenty-five to thirty minutes. 

*If not available place six teaspoons vinegar or six and three quarters 
teaspoons lemon juice in a two-cup measure and make up to one and one 



THE MIDDLE WEST 107 

half cups with sweet milk. Allow to stand a few minutes to curdle after 
mixing well. 

BROWN-SUGAR PI E 

3 cups brown sugar y 2 cup cream or undi- 

y 2 cup melted butter luted evapo- 

3 eggs rated milk 

I lemon, juice 

Mix these ingredients well and bake in one crust in a moderate oven 
(350 F.) until set. 

BAKED STEAK 

Have ready one steak cut one and one half inches thick. Rub steak 
with garlic, salt and pepper and put in shallow buttered pan. Slice onion 
over the meat and place three slices of lemon on this. Pour over all one 
half cup tomato soup and two tablespoons Worcestershire sauce. Add a 
few dabs of butter and roast in a moderate oven (325 F.) for thirty 
minutes. Serve from the baking dish. 



SWEETBREADS IN NESTS 

1 pair sweetbreads 2 slices onion 

2 slices bacon lemon rind 

1 cup stock 2 pounds green peas 

1 carrot ]/ 2 cup sliced mushrooms 

y 2 cup cream 

Parboil and blanch sweetbreads. Split in halves and sprinkle with 
chopped bacon. Place in a shallow baking dish and pour in stock, or 
dissolve one bouillon cube in one cup boiling water. Add carrot scraped 
and cut in slices, onion and shredded lemon rind. Bake twenty-five 
minutes (325 F.), basting frequently. In the meantime cook peas, rub 
through a colander and season with salt, pepper and butter and mold in 
the shape of nests. Place on a hot platter. Cook mushrooms for five 
minutes in butter, add cream and strain in stock. Bring to boiling point 
but do not let boil. Put a piece of sweetbread into each nest, pour over 
sauce and serve. Enough for four to six servings. 

FAMILY OMELET 

For three people use seven eggs ; separate the yolks and whites and 
beat thoroughly. To the yolks add salt and pepper to taste, have pan 



108 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

buttered well, mix whites and yolks, beating well while mixing, then 
put in hot pan in hot oven (400 F.) for few minutes. When done have 
melted butter and a little chopped parsley ready to pour on top and serve 
immediately. 

VEGETABLE LOAF 

1 head cabbage, chopped 2 or 3 cups whole wheat 

2 or 3 potatoes, grated bread 

a little celery, chopped a little milk 
2 sauteed onions, minced chopped parsley 
2 eggs, well beaten salt, pepper 

2 tablespoons butter 

Combine all ingredients except the milk ; mix thoroughly, then add the 
milk. Shape into a loaf, put in loaf-shaped pan and bake until brown in a 
moderate oven (325 F.). Serve with gravy or tomato sauce. 

GRAPE JUICE SHERBET 

1 cup grape juice 2 egg whites 

2 tablespoons lemon 2 tablespoons melted 

juice butter 

2 /z cup sweetened condensed milk 

Blend milk, lemon juice, butter and grape juice and chill. Beat the 
egg whites till stiff and fold into the chilled mixture. Place in pan and 
put in freezing unit of refrigerator for one to two hours. When frozen 
to a mush scrape sides and bottom of pan and beat for two minutes. 
Return to freezing unit for another hour. Total time will be about 
three or four hours, according to the set of your refrigerator. This may 
also be frozen as usual in a freezer. It serves six and is easily doubled. 

FRESH CHERRY CAKE 

y 2 cup sugar 2 level teaspoons bak- 
y 2 cup shortening ing powder 

4 eggs, separated J4 CU P pitted cherries, 
y 2 cup toasted bread halved 

crumbs y 2 teaspoon grated 
y 2 teaspoon cinnamon lemon rind 

1 cup cake flour 

Cream butter and sugar, adding the beaten, egg yolks, bread crumbs 
and cherries. Beat the egg whites till stiff (with a pinch of salt). Add to 



THE MIDDLE WEST 109 

the flour the baking powder, grated rind and cinnamon and sift into the 
first mixture alternately with the beaten egg whites. Bake in a 3 by 8 by 2 
inch greased and floured pan, or in a loaf-cake tin (at 325 ° F. to 350° 
F.) for thirty to forty minutes. Invert on an open grid and cool for an 
hour, then frost top only with the cherry icing made by stirring into 
three cups of confectioners' sugar a teaspoon of lemon juice and enough 
cherry juice to spread. When the cherries are halved add two tablespoons 
of sugar to them and let stand to draw the juice, draining well to obtain 
liquid for the frosting. 

Red or black cherries should be used and some of the large sweet 
canned varieties may be substituted for the fresh, providing juice with- 
out sugaring. 



2 

INDIANA 

HAMBURGER VEGETABLE SOUP 

2 medium-sized potatoes 1 cup string beans 

2 or 3 small onions 1 cup peas 

1 carrot 1 cup lima beans 

1 turnip 1 pound hamburger 

1 cup chopped cabbage salt 

1 or 2 stalks celery pepper 
1 cup tomato pulp or its equivalent of fresh tomatoes 

Stir the hamburger in a little cold water to prevent lumping, and 
simmer. Chop or dice the vegetables. Add at once the vegetables which 
take a long time to cook and put in the others later. Dried vegetables 
may be substituted for the beans, peas and lima beans, using one half 
cup of each and cooking them separately before adding to the soup. Any 
other leftover vegetables may be added if desired. Add enough hot water 
to make soup for six, although this should be thick like a gumbo when 
served. 

INDIANA SPAGHETTI 

1 pound round steak, 5 onions, sliced 

diced ]/ 2 pound mushrooms 

4 slices bacon 2 cups tomato pulp 

Simmer the meat until tender. Pan-broil the bacon and brown the 
onions in the fat. Then combine all ingredients and simmer twenty 



110 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

minutes. Combine with spaghetti (one package boiled no more than 
fifteen minutes and drained) and put all in a casserole. Cover with a 
one-inch layer of grated Parmesan cheese. Bake slowly (250 F.) until 
the cheese is golden brown. 



SUCCOTASH 

Boil five ears of corn and two cups of young lima beans separately. 
Cut the corn from the cob, combine with lima beans, add half a cup of 
cream and a tablespoon of butter, paprika and salt, and let it steam in 
the double boiler for fifteen minutes. 

Nothing is better than the same boiled corn, moistened well with 
cream, salted to taste, made pink with paprika, and allowed to steam in 
the double boiler for twenty minutes. 



RED CHOCOLATE CAKE 

1 cup sugar 1 ]/ 2 cups flour 

2 tablespoons butter 1 teaspoon soda 
1 egg 1 teaspoon salt 

1 cup hot water 2 teaspoons vanilla 

Yi cup grated chocolate 

Blend sugar and butter, then add the yolk of the egg and cream all 
well together. Sift flour, baking powder and salt together three times. 
Add to the creamed mixture alternately with half of the hot water in 
which the chocolate has been dissolved. Beat this mixture hard for one 
minute, then add remaining hot water in which the soda has been dis- 
solved. Add vanilla last. Bake in greased and flour-dusted loaf pan in 
moderate oven (325 F.) for forty minutes. 



LOVE AND TANGLE 

3 eggs, beaten 3 tablespoons milk 

3 tablespoons sugar flour 

Mix the eggs and sugar and add flour to make it thick enough to roll. 
Roll in thin strips about six inches long and three inches wide, fold 
double by bringing one end up to the other. Beginning an inch or half 
inch from the folded end, cut several slits down the open end. Drop in 
hot fat and fry until light brown. Drain and sprinkle with powdered 
sugar. 



THE MIDDLE WEST 111 

3 
ILLINOIS 

STEAMED PUDDI NG 

1 cup chopped suet y 2 teaspoon powdered 

2 cups fine bread crumbs cloves 

i cup sugar y 2 teaspoon grated 
l / 2 cup milk nutmeg 

1 cup raisins I teaspoon grated cin- 

2 cups flour namon 

I cup currants 4 eggs, well beaten 

I cup almonds 
i teaspoon soda dissolved in y 2 cup warm water 

Chop and flour the fruit, blanch and chop the almonds, then combine 
all the ingredients. Steam three hours in medium-sized mold. Serve with 
lemon sauce or "dip," which is nutmeg and vanilla-flavored sauce made 
with sugar, hot water and cornstarch. 



WAFFLES 

2 cups flour I J4 CU P S milk 

2 teaspoons baking 2 eggs 

powder I tablespoon melted 
Y$ teaspoon salt shortening 

Sift dry ingredients together; add milk to egg yolks and add to dry 
ingredients. Add shortening; mix in beaten egg whites. Bake in well- 
greased hot waffle iron until brown; turn once. Serve hot with butter 
and maple syrup. 



NUT PIE 

4 eggs, beaten light i cup hickory nut 

i cup sugar meats 

12 common round crackers 

Add the sugar slowly to the eggs. Grind the nut meats and crackers 
together and add to egg and sugar mixture. Pour in pastry-lined pan and 
bake in moderate oven (300 F.) twenty-five minutes. Serve with 
whipped cream. 



112 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



BEANS A LA EGYPTIENNE 

2 pounds green beans, 6 slices bacon, diced fine 

cut lengthwise i cup diced raw ham 

1 can tomatoes 2 tablespoons sugar 

2 large onions, cut fine salt 

Put together in glass baking dish with cover, and bake in moderate 
oven (300 F.) about thirty minutes. Uncover and sprinkle the top 
thickly with buttered bread crumbs. Turn oven to hot (or 400 F.) and 
continue baking till the crumbs brown nicely. 

BRAIN SOUFFLE 

Clean and prepare calf brains, letting stand in cold water until blood 
disappears. Cook slowly in four tablespoons butter. Add one tablespoon 
chopped parsley, a pinch of salt, a quarter teaspoon white pepper and a 
dash of nutmeg. Soak three slices dry bread in water until soft, to which 
add a quarter cup of butter and yolks of four eggs, and mix well. Com- 
bine with cooked brains, then fold in stiffly beaten whites of five eggs 
and three quarters cup of grated American cheese. Put in well-greased 
mold, set in dish of hot water, and bake covered in fairly hot oven 
(350 F.) for twenty-five minutes. 

MEAT BALLS 

1 pound round steak 1 egg 

y 2 pound loin pork salt, pepper 

1 onion, minced 2 slices dry bread 

1 tablespoon flour 

Meat should be ground twice. Soak the bread in water and when soft, 
squeeze out water. Add the remaining ingredients and enough water to 
make the meat mixture quite soft. Then shape into balls the desired size, 
preferably small, and pan-fry in a mixture of hot lard and butter. If 
gravy is desired add a little butter after the meat balls are removed 
from the pan, and stir in about two tablespoons of flour. Then stir in 
hot water and salt and pepper and a little cream. Pour the gravy over 
the meat balls. 

JELLIED VEAL LOAF, ILLINOIS 

3 pounds veal 1 tablespoon butter 

1 large onion, chopped 1 tablespoon gelatin 

2 stalks celery, chopped y 2 cup cold water 

salt and pepper 



THE MIDDLE WEST 113 

Cut veal in pieces, add the onion, celery, butter and seasonings to 
taste. Cover with water and cook slowly till the veal is tender and the 
liquid amounts to about two cups. Soak the gelatin in the cold water for 
five minutes. Grind the veal, strain the stock and dissolve the gelatin in 
it. Add veal and mix well and jell in loaf pans. 

CORN PICKLE 

i dozen ears sweet corn 2 quarts vinegar 

1 dozen sweet peppers 1 quart sugar 

1 quart onions 3/2 cup salt 

1 quart cucumbers 1 ounce celery seed 

2 quarts ripe tomatoes 1 ounce mustard seed 

3 to 5 hot peppers y 2 ounce tumeric powder 

Cut corn from the cob and chop the vegetables. Boil all ingredients 
together forty minutes in an agate kettle. Seal. Makes seven quarts. 



4 
MICHIGAN 

Besides the traditional breads, cakes, salads and desserts which were 
passed on as heritage from New England and Middle European an- 
cestors, the present crop of Michigan recipes includes many new salads, 
modern gelatin dishes and, as in all other parts of the country, the new 
recipes of modern homemaking magazines and books. But there are fish 
and game dishes there which are especially good. This is one of them: 

BAKED TROUT 

Wash and dry fish. Make a dressing of bread crumbs, butter, pepper 
and salt. Wrap a string around to keep together, dredge with flour, put 
pieces of butter on fish and bake one half hour to each pound of fish. 
Baste often. Thin slices of salt pork can be laid across the fish if de- 
sired. Serve with sauce. 

SAUCE 

Combine one cup thin white sauce, one beaten egg, one tablespoon 
chopped parsley, one teaspoon lemon juice and one hard-cooked egg, 
chopped. 

HAUNCH OF VENISON 

Wipe with damp cloth; rub over with melted butter, then cover top 
and sides with a thick paste of flour and water one half inch thick. Lay a 



114 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

coarse paper over all and put to roast with one cup of water in pan in a 
moderate oven (375° F.). Roast 15 to 18 minutes per pound. Baste with 
butter and water frequently. 

Twenty minutes before serving remove paste, dredge with flour and 
baste with butter until a light brown. Add a pinch of cloves, nutmeg, 
cayenne and a few blades of mace to gravy. 



SALMON LOAF AND DRESSING 

One can salmon, drain liquor off and save for dressing; add teaspoon 
salt, a little pepper, three tablespoons melted butter, three well-beaten 
eggs, one cup bread crumbs and half a cup of cream. Mix well and bake 
three quarters of an hour in a greased pan. 



DRESSING 

Beat one tablespoon flour smooth with water; beat yolk of one egg 
and add to it. Let one cup of milk and liquor off the salmon come to a 
boil and stir in the flour and egg; add one tablespoon of butter, salt and 
pepper. Turn salmon loaf out on a hot platter and pour dressing over it. 



SALMON CHOPS 

I can salmon 2 tablespoons white sauce 

1 shredded-wheat biscuit beaten egg 
macaroni 

Pick salmon in pieces, roll shredded-wheat biscuits fine, add white 
sauce; make in pear-shaped balls, roll in egg, then in shredded-wheat 
biscuit, put a piece of macaroni in small end and fry in deep hot fat (use 
frying basket), or saute in shallow fat. 



BEEF LOAF 

2 pounds round steak J / 2 small can pimientos 

y 2 pound salt pork 2 or 3 eggs 

Yz large loaf bread 1 cup milk 

1 onion salt, pepper 

Put meat, onion and pimiento through grinder, removing stringy parts. 
Crumb bread, and soak crusts in cold water. Knead all ingredients to- 
gether. Put in well-greased pan and bake about an hour in a moderate 
oven (300 F.). 



THE MIDDLE WEST 115 



GOULASH 

I tablespoon butter I green pepper 

I tablespoon flour, 4 large tomatoes 

browned 2 pounds beef, diced 

1 onion salt 

1 carrot pepper 

2 cups cooked spaghetti 

Combine the butter and flour. Remove the seeds from the pepper, 
chop all the vegetables and combine all the ingredients but the spaghetti. 
If the tomatoes do not provide enough liquid add a little hot water. 
Cover and let simmer two hours. Pour over the spaghetti and serve. 

ELEPHANTS' EARS 

Beat three eggs, add pinch of salt and a tablespoon of milk. Mix very- 
stiff with flour. Pinch off a piece about the size of a walnut, roll out 
very thin, fry in deep hot fat. Serve with hot maple syrup. 

This cake seems well known in every state in the Middle Western 
section. It is a good practical family cake: 

SUNSHINE CAKE 

7 egg whites 1 pinch salt 

5 e gg yolks y$ teaspoon cream of 

1 J/2 cups sugar tartar 

1 cup flour flavoring 

Sift sugar and flour five times, measure and set aside. Separate eggs, 
beat yolks to stiff froth, whip whites to a foam ; add cream of tartar and 
whip stiff. Add sugar to whites, then beat ; next add yolks and beat, then 
add flour and flavoring and fold lightly through. Bake in moderate oven 
(300 F.) forty to fifty minutes in a tube tin, ungreased but lightly 
floured. 

The perfect breakfast cake in Michigan and, in fact, throughout the 
Middle West: 

COFFEE CAKE 

2 cups brown sugar 2 or 3 eggs, beaten 
1 cup molasses 1 cup cold coffee 

94 cup butter 1 cup dried currants 

1 teaspoon soda 1 cup raisins 

5 cups flour 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

1 teaspoon allspice 



116 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



Blend dry ingredients, sifting twice, then add beaten eggs and butter 
blended, alternating with coffee and molasses and adding the currants 
last. Bake in a moderate oven (250 F. to 300 ° F.) for forty-five 
minutes. 

SNICKERDOODLE 



y 2 cup butter and lard, 

mixed 
y 2 cup sugar 
1 egg, beaten 
1 cup water or milk 
2y 2 cups flour 



2 teaspoons baking 

powder 
1 cup raisins, dredged 

with flour 
sugar, cinnamon 
nuts 



Combine all ingredients excepting the second listing of sugar, the 
cinnamon and nuts. Stir till mixed. This will be very stiff but spread it 
out in a shallow bread pan, sprinkle thickly over the top with the sugar, 
cinnamon and nuts. Bake about twenty minutes in a moderate oven 
(375° F.). 

RHUBARB MARMALADE 

6 pounds sugar 4 pounds rhubarb 

2 lemons 

Slice lemons fine and cook all together until thick as desired. Seal in 
sterilized glasses. 



WISCONSIN 



CABIN CHEESE 



Y\ pound butter 

y pound Roquefort 

cheese 
1 tablespoon ketchup 
1 teaspoon Worcester- 
shire sauce 
tabasco sauce 
J4 pound American 
cream cheese 



1 tablespoon minced 

chives 
}4 teaspoon onion 

juice 
y 2 teaspoon lemon 

juice 
}i teaspoon salt 
pinch of curry 

powder 



Blend the cheese and butter by creaming with fork dipped repeatedly 
in hot water. When smooth add remainder of ingredients. Beat as you 



THE MIDDLE WEST 



117 



would hard sauce, until perfectly smooth and creamy. Press into a mold, 
sprinkle with paprika. Chill for twenty-four hours before serving. 



BAKED WELSH RABBIT 



i l / 2 teaspoons salt 
l / 2 teaspoon 
paprika 



y 2 pound American 
cheese 

1 y$ cups milk 

2 eggs 

J4 teaspoon white pepper 

Chop cheese fine. Heat milk in double boiler. Stir cheese into milk. 
Beat eggs slightly and add dry ingredients. When milk and cheese are 
steaming hot pour over seasoned eggs and mix well. Pour this mixture 
into a buttered baking dish, place in a pan of hot (not boiling) water 
and bake in a moderate oven (300 F.) thirty minutes or until set. 
Serve at once. 



SCALLOPED CHEESE 



I quart milk 

3 cups dried bread 

crumbs 
J /4 pound cheese 
y 2 tablespoon salt 



J4 teaspoon paprika 
4 eggs, well beaten 
1 tablespoon butter, 
melted 



Heat milk and pour over bread crumbs. Add chopped cheese; cool. 
Add salt, paprika, butter and eggs. Mix well, pour into buttered baking 
dish and bake slowly (225 F.) one and one half hours or until done. 
Serve with grape jelly. 



CELERY AND CHEESE CASSEROLE 



1 cup American cheese, 
finely diced 

1 cup milk 

2 tablespoons butter 
2 tablespoons flour 
y 2 teaspoon salt 

% teaspoon pepper 



2 tablespoons grated 
onion 

1 cup cooked spaghetti 

2 cups cooked diced 
celery 

V 2 ci_ 

bread crumbs 



2 cup buttered grated 



Make a white sauce of the butter, flour, milk, salt and pepper. Add 
the cheese. Stir with wooden spoon until mixture is smooth. Mix to- 
gether with spaghetti, celery and onions. Place in buttered casserole and 
cover with buttered bread crumbs. Bake thirty minutes in moderately 
hot oven (325 F.). Serves six. 



118 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



CHEESE BISCUITS 

2 cups flour salt, milk 

2 tablespoons lard % pound American 

2 teaspoons baking cheese 

powder J4 pound butter 

Sift the dry ingredients, cut in the lard and add enough milk for a 
soft dough. Melt the cheese and butter in the top of a double boiler, add 
a little salt and dip each biscuit in this after cutting with small-size 
cutter. Bake in moderate oven (325 F.) ten to fifteen minutes. 

ALMOND ROLLS 

1 cup warm water 2 yeast cakes 

1 teaspoon sugar flour (less than 2 cups) 

]/ 2 cup butter Yz cup sugar 

3 eggs little grated lemon rind 
finely shaved almonds beaten egg 

Combine water, yeast and the teaspoon of sugar. When yeast rises to 
top of water stir in flour to make a thin batter. Let rise about two hours. 
When light add butter, the half cup of sugar, the three eggs and grated 
lemon. Stir it stiff, then let it rise again about two hours. Shape into 
little balls, dip in egg, then in finely shaved almonds ; let rise again about 
two hours. Bake fifteen minutes in a hot oven (375 F.). 

SALMON PUDDING 

1 small can steak salmon 1 cup hot milk 

1 tablespoon butter y 2 teaspoon salt 

1 cup bread crumbs }i teaspoon pepper 

2 eggs 

Remove skin and bones from salmon and rub fish fine with wooden 
potato masher. Melt butter in milk and add bread crumbs and season- 
ings. Combine with fish and last add the well-beaten eggs. Put into a 
buttered deep baking dish set in a pan of hot water and bake one hour, 
or steam in a pudding mold. When done turn onto platter and pour over 
it the following sauce : 

SAUCE 

6 hard-cooked eggs, dash of paprika 

diced 4 tablespoons 
1 cup cream finely chopped 

1 tablespoon butter parsley 



THE MIDDLE WEST 119 

Combine all ingredients but the parsley and heat in top of double 
boiler to boiling. Pour over fish pudding, sprinkle with parsley and serve 
at once, hot. 



MAPLE SYRUP CUSTARD 

I quart whole milk 2 /z cup Wisconsin maple 

4 eggs, beaten syrup 

Add maple syrup to the eggs and then the milk. Mix thoroughly. Pour 
into small custard cups, place cups in pan, fill to near top of cups with 
boiling water. Place in medium oven (300 F.) and bake about twenty 
minutes or until silver knife comes out clean. 



ESCALLOPS OF VEAL WITH BEER 
SAUCE 

\y 2 lbs. thin veal 3 tablespoons grated 

escallops cheese 

flour, salt, pepper % cup light beer 

3 tablespoons butter 2 egg yolks 

1 tablespoon cream 

Dip the veal in seasoned flour and brown in melted butter. Remove 
to service platter and keep warm. In a double boiler melt the cheese in 
the beer. Mix eggs with cream; add to hot beer slowly, stirring with 
a wooden spoon over low heat, and cook, stirring it steadily, till thick- 
ened to sauce consistency. Salt and pepper to taste. Pour over the 
escallops and brown all lightly under broiler. 



BEER CABBAGE SALAD 


4 cups chopped cabbage 


1 tablespoon minced 


y 2 cup green pepper, 


onion 


diced 


% cup beer 


2 tablespoons celery seed 


y 2 cup mayonnaise 


1 tablespoon sugar 


or boiled dress- 


y 2 teaspoon salt 


ing 


}i teaspoon white 




pepper 








Mix the salad ingredients. Combine beer and mayonnaise with season- 
ings, add to cabbage and toss. Chill. About six portions. 



120 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



BEER BREAD 

4 cups beer 2 teaspoons salt 

i cup cane or maple 9 cups rye flour 

syrup 9 cups white flour 

6 cakes of compressed J4 CU P slivers of 

yeast orange peel 

Heat beer and syrup together until lukewarm. (One quarter molasses, 
three quarters cup water may be substituted for syrup.) Pour some of 
warm beer mixture over yeast and dissolve. Cut orange peel in small 
thin slivers excluding white membrane and add to flour with salt. Make 
a smooth dough by thoroughly mixing all ingredients. Let stand in a 
warm place (70 F. to 8o° F.) until doubled in volume (about three 
quarters of an hour). Knead dough, form in long loaves and place in 
greased floured bread tins. Sprinkle with flour, cover and let stand until 
light (about 50 min.). Bake one hour in slow oven (fifteen minutes, 
400°F., fifteen minutes, 310 F., and thirty minutes, 300 F.). Brush 
loaves with hot water and roll in cloth until used. Makes three loaves. 



6 
MINNESOTA 

The variety of wheat recipes — breads, rolls, cakes — in Minnesota 
cooking is almost overwhelming. Pronounced German and Scandinavian 
influences are seen among these recipes; almond and anise flavoring are 
popular; tortes abound on many pages of their cookbooks; poppy-seed 
cakes and breads, coffee cakes, German horn cakes and wonderful fill- 
ings for them are outstanding. 

Here is German and Scandinavian cooking with an American in- 
fluence, rich and savory; of course there are the salads and desserts and 
other modernizations too. But the impression remains that Northern 
Europe has given us a flavorful cuisine in Minnesota and one we ought 
to know more about for our own good. 



BERLINER BUNS 

2 cups butter 4 eggs, beaten separately 

2 quarts flour 4 hard-cooked egg 

1 teaspoon baking yolks 

powder V2 cup sugar 

y 2 teaspoon almond extract 



THE MIDDLE WEST 



121 



Work butter into flour sifted with baking powder. Mix raw and 
cooked egg yolks thoroughly, then add sugar and add to first mixture. 
Add flavoring and stiffly beaten egg whites last. Roll thin and cut same 
as doughnuts. Cover with egg white, sugar and chopped blanched al- 
monds. Bake a delicate brown in medium oven (350 F.) 

ALMOND BREAD 



6 eggs, beaten light 
5 e gg yolks, beaten 

light 
2 cups sugar 
1 lemon rind, grated 
J4 teaspoon salt 



1 teaspoon baking 

powder 
1 quart flour 
1 teaspoon cloves 
1 tablespoon cinnamon 
1 ounce citron, cut fine 



1 pound almonds, cut fine lengthwise 

Beat whole eggs and yolks together with sugar, lemon, salt and spices 
ten minutes. Add other ingredients, mixing flour and baking powder. 
Knead lightly on board ; roll one eighth inch thick ; spread with more 
beaten egg yolks; cut long narrow strips and bake in medium oven 
(350 F.) ten to fifteen minutes. 

ANISE STICKS 



8 eggs, beaten separately 
3 J /2 cups sugar 
1 teaspoon butter 
y 2 pound almonds, 
chopped 



3 teaspoons anise seed 

4 teaspoons baking 

powder 
y 2 teaspoon salt 
flour to make soft dough 



Mix dough in the evening, in order given, sifting part of the flour, 
baking powder and salt together and then add beaten whites. Beat well, 
then add enough more flour to make a soft dough. Roll out, cut into 
long narrow strips and let stand overnight. In morning bake in medium 
oven (350 F.) fifteen minutes. 



GOETTER SPEISE 



6 eggs, beaten separately 
1 cup powdered sugar 

1 pound dates, cut fine 

2 heaping tablespoons 

flour 



: teaspoon baking 

powder 
4 pound almonds, cut 

fine 
/2 pound black walnuts, 

chopped 
j teaspoon salt 



122 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Add sugar to beaten yolks, beat five minutes. Then add nuts and salt, 
then the dates floured with flour and baking powder mixed. Lastly fold 
in the whites. Bake in shallow tin .in moderate oven (375 F.). Cut into 
pieces. Serve with whipped cream or simply sprinkle with powdered 
sugar. 

MANDELKRAENZE 

y 2 cup butter 4 cups flour 

1 cup sugar 1 teaspoon baking 
3 e gg yolks, well beaten powder 

y 2 lemon rind, grated 

Cream butter, add sugar, yolk and lemon ; beat ten minutes. Add 
flour sifted with baking powder. Quickly work the dough into long 
narrow roll. Cut off pieces, roll between hand and board, connect ends, 
forming circles. Dip in egg whites and then into a mixture of sugar, 
cinnamon and finely cut almonds. Bake in slow oven (250 F.) ten to 
fifteen minutes. 

ZIMMETSTERNE 

6 egg whites 1 lemon rind, grated 

2 cups sugar, sifted 1 tablespoon cinnamon 

1 pound almonds, 2 tablespoons flour 

chopped fine 

Beat egg whites very stiff; add sugar, lemon rind and cinnamon and 
beat fifteen minutes. Put aside a sauce dish full of this mixture. To rest 
of mixture add the almonds and then carefully fold in the flour. Drop 
from spoon. On top of each little heap put a bit of mixture set aside. 
Bake slowly (250 to 300 ° F.) to light brown color. 

POPPY SEED CAKE 

54 cup butter iyi teaspoons bak- 
1^2 cups sugar ing powder 

J4 cup milk 4 egg whites 

2 cups flour J4 CU P P°PPy seeds 

Pour the milk over the poppy seeds ; let stand at least two hours before 
baking. Cream butter and sugar, add poppy-seed mixture, then flour 
sifted with baking powder and egg whites beaten very stiff. Bake in large 
tin or in layers. When in layers use the following filling: 

1 y 2 cups milk 4 egg yolks 

2 tablespoons cornstarch j/2 cup chopped nuts 
J4 cup sugar 1 teaspoon vanilla 



THE MIDDLE WEST 



123 



Dissolve cornstarch in a little cold milk; add milk, sugar, beaten 
egg yolks and boil until it thickens. Add nuts and vanilla. Spread be- 
tween layers. Serve with whipped cream. 

MANITOU BLACK CAKE 



3 ounces chocolate, 

melted 
I egg yolk, well beaten 

1 cup milk 

2 tablespoons butter 
I cup sugar 



y 2 cup milk 
i l / 2 cups flour 
i teaspoon vanilla 
2 teaspoons baking 

powder 
i teaspoon soda 



Mix the yolk of the egg with the milk and melted chocolate. Cook 
over water until the mixture is thick and smooth. Remove from heat. 
Add the seven remaining ingredients in their order. Thoroughly beat 
in the flour before adding baking powder and soda. Pour into well- 
buttered pan, 12 by 9 by i l / 2 inches. Bake in moderate oven (375° F.). 
Cover with boiled frosting. Cut in squares. Is a very rich cake, more like 
confection. 

SWEDISH NUT WAFERS 



Y\ cup shortening, 

creamed 
J4 cup sugar 

1 egg, well beaten 

2 tablespoons milk 



I J4 cups flour 
I teaspoon baking 

powder 
]/ 2 teaspoon salt 
i teaspoon vanilla 



<3 cup nuts, chopped 

Mix in order given, reserving nuts for the top. Spread evenly and thin 
on well-greased inverted tin, sprinkle with the nuts and bake in moderate 
oven. While hot cut into strips ^4 mcn by 4/^2 inches with very sharp 
knife, and while still warm roll over the handle of a wooden spoon. 
May be eaten with or without whipped cream. 



OUR SCHWARZBROD TORTE 



12 eggs, beaten 

separately 
*4 pound sweet rye 

bread, dried and 

grated 
J4 cup wine or grape juice 
y 2 pound sugar 



I lemon rind, grated 
small piece citron, cut fine 
i teaspoon cloves 
i tablespoon cinnamon 
I tablespoon flour 
y 2 pound almonds, 
chopped fine 



124 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Dampen the grated rye bread with the* wine or grape juice, then add 
the sugar and the beaten eggs and beat fifteen minutes. Add citron, 
lemon rind and spices, also nuts and flour. Fold in the egg whites beaten 
very stiff. Bake in slow oven (250 F.) an hour. 

KREUZNACH HORNS 

4 cups flour Yz cup warm water 

1 cake compressed yeast 1 cup milk, scalded and 

2 tablespoons sugar cooled 

2 eggs, well beaten y 2 teaspoon salt 

2 tablespoons butter 

Set sponge with half of the flour and yeast dissolved in warm water 
and milk. When light, work into a dough with the remainder of the 
flour, adding melted butter, sugar, eggs and salt. Let rise again. Roll 
out into pieces six inches square and quite thin. Cut each square into four 
triangles, brush with melted butter, dust lightly with flour, roll up from 
the wide side, letting the point of the triangle come on top and bend 
around in the form of a crescent moon. Put them to rise into a greased 
pan. When ready to bake, brush over with milk and bake in a hot oven 
(400 F.). 

PEANUT FILLING 

1 cup sugar 1 cup sour milk 

1 cup ground peanuts 

Boil all together until soft ball forms in water. Beat till cool, then 
spread in the horns. 

GERMAN TOAST 

3 eggs 1 cup milk 

]/ 2 teaspoon salt 8 slices dry bread 

2 tablespoons sugar butter, maple syrup 

Beat eggs slightly; add sugar and milk; strain into shallow dish. Dip 
bread into mixture. Cook on a hot well-greased griddle, brown on one 
side, turn and brown on the other side. Serve with butter and sugar or 
maple syrup. 

MINNESOTA WELSH RABBIT 

2 teaspoons butter 2 cups bread crumbs 

y 2 pound American 1 teaspoon salt 

cheese Yz teaspoon dry 
1 pint beer mustard 



THE MIDDLE WEST 



125 



Melt butter, add cheese and melt, then pour in the beer. When quite 
hot and smooth, add the bread crumbs and seasoning. When well mixed 
and heated through, serve on slices of bread toasted on one side. 



ROTHE GRUETZE 

y 2 cup quick cooking *4 teaspoon salt 

tapioca i quart red raspberries 

1^2 cups sugar i quart red currants 

2 cups cold water 

Boil berries and water until thoroughly stewed ; strain and add sugar 
and salt; while hot, pour over tapioca in double boiler, boil until clear 
and thick. Pour into a mold or individual cups and serve cold with 
cream. 

CREAM POTATO SALAD 

2 quarts boiled potatoes, sliced fine 



DRESSING 



y 2 cup vinegar 
Yz cup sugar 
I teaspoon salt 



4 tablespoons butter 
I onion, cut fine 
I tablespoon flour 



Melt butter, stir in the flour, add vinegar, sugar, salt and onion and 
bring to boiling in an enameled saucepan. Add one cup sweet cream, 
whipped stiffly. Pour over the potatoes and mix carefully. 



GERMAN POTATO SALAD 



I quart boiled potatoes, 

sliced 
I onion, cut fine 
I teaspoon salt 
y$ teaspoon pepper 



i tablespoon 

flour 
J4 cup sugar 
yi cup vinegar 
y 2 cup hot water 



4 pound bacon, sliced and cut fine 

Add onion, salt and pepper to the potatoes. Fry bacon light brown, 
stir in the flour, then add hot water, vinegar and sugar; boil up, then 
pour hot over potatoes. If sauce is too thick add equal parts of water and 
vinegar or take less flour. If preferred, onions may be browned slightly 
in bacon fat instead of adding raw to potatoes. 



126 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



HERRING SALAD 

3 herrings, cleaned and i onion, minced 

minced i sweet pepper, chopped 

3 apples, chopped 4 hard-cooked eggs, 
3 boiled potatoes, diced chopped 

2 /z cup veal, chopped y 2 teaspoon sugar 

y 2 cup nuts, chopped salt, pepper 

Mix ingredients and serve with any salad dressing or merely with 
vinegar. Leftovers may be used in this salad. 

ALMOND SOUP AND WHIPPED CREAM 

1 cup blanched almonds, 1 quart thin cream 

chopped 1 cup whipped cream 

salt, pepper 

Simmer almonds and thin cream for five minutes. Thicken very little, 
if needed, with a very little cornstarch in a little milk, add salt and 
pepper and strain; pour over this a cup of whipped cream and beat all 
until foamy. Serve very hot in heated cups with hot wafers. 

SPATZEN 

To every two cups flour use one egg, a pinch of salt and enough water 
to make a stiff batter in a shallow dish ; let it run over the edge, then dip 
a knife into boiling salt water in which the dumplings are to be boiled 
and cut off the dough in small pieces, letting them drop into the boiling 
water. When the dumplings rise to the top of the water they are done. 
Skim them out into serving dish. Brown two tablespoons of butter in 
a spider, add two tablespoons bread crumbs, fry brown, then sprinkle 
over dumplings and serve. A good dish to eat with sour meats or sauer- 
kraut. 



THE MIDDLE WEST 127 

7 
NEBRASKA 

Corn, once the chief article of diet in Nebraska, is still found on local 
menus in many guises. But buffalo, deer and antelope meats are not 
mentioned so often in Nebraska kitchens as of yore. Rabbit, wild turkey, 
prairie chicken, wild ducks and geese may still be had as rarities, but the 
game and wild berries and fruits, wild greens, Buffalo peas and sheep 
sorrel are almost extinct. Flapjacks or pancakes and boiled wheat with 
molasses, other dishes of pioneer days, are still popular. 

NEBRASKA PRAIRIE CHICKEN 

Prairie chickens are about three quarters of the size of a tame chicken 
when full grown and are about the color of a partridge. They take no 
longer to cook than a tame chicken, the meat is all dark and sweeter. 
Guinea hen may be cooked the same way. 

Brown a big onion in one half or two thirds of a cup of butter and let 
the chicken, which has been cut up and wiped dry, simmer in this for 
fifteen minutes. Add one and one half cups water and let cook slowly 
till done. This must be stewed in a heavy iron pot with a cover. Add to 
the gravy one tablespoon flour and one cup heavy cream. Bake biscuits ; 
break them open when piping hot and make a border of them around a 
large platter. Pile the chicken in the center and pour the rich yellow 
gravy over the chicken and the biscuits and serve immediately. 

H. B. Robinson of Nebraska says: "We roasted prairie chickens like 
a wild duck but better still is to stew them in butter and onion in an 
iron kettle adding a little water till they are done and then adding a cup 
or so of cream. 

"Twenty or twenty-five years ago we used to go out any time after 
July 15th, when they are old enough to shoot, and get six to a dozen in a 
couple of hours. They are then in coveys, one family, and are in the hay- 
fields or wheat stubble. We always used our old dogs (pointers or setters 
— do you remember Babe who used to climb a tree?). Later, toward 
winter, they all bunch up into flocks of two or three hundred and occupy 
cornfields and are much more wary and harder to get near. Too many 
hunters and ruthless slaughter have almost exterminated them ; I don't 
believe there is one left in Platte or Merrick counties — maybe there are 
a few in the western part of the state. 

"It's agin the law to kill them at any time but they don't seem to 
replenish themselves at all — just like quail. You may remember when I 
used to have hundreds of them frozen up in our attic. I used to pay the 
Polanders a dollar a dozen for them. Took suitcases of them down to 
Omaha to Ed Maurer who was anxious to have them. He had a fine 



128 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

German restaurant like Luchow's. Now it would be life in Leaven- 
worth to kill one. 

"Mongolian pheasant have been planted in this state for years to re- 
place prairie chicken ; they are fighters and much hardier, quite plentiful 
in some counties and in some designated counties they may be killed from 
October 15th to November 15th, five a day to a person, but a fine if you 
kill a hen. 

"I can't remember anything more about prairie chickens except that 
I have slaughtered up into the thousands, so I am partly responsible for 
their extermination." 



NEBRASKA ROAST LEG OF VEAL 
OR LAMB 

Salt and pepper the meat well and cut up one large onion, some celery 
and parsley and add to one quart of buttermilk. Let the meat stand in 
this for several days, turning it every day. 

Then cover the meat with sour cream and add some juniper berries. 
Roast in a moderate oven (375 F to 400 F.) for three hours, basting 
often. Thicken the gravy with flour and serve with the roast. 

Many recipes in Nebraska, as in other Middle Western states, have 
German names or are German dishes renamed. They have been favorites 
since that section of the country was settled. 



NEBRASKA SAUERBRATEN 

Cover a five-pound rump cut with salt, pepper, half water and half 
vinegar for two days in summer, three or four days in winter. Turn 
every day. 

Roast three hours in a 375° F. oven with chopped celery, carrots, 
onions, juniper berries, bay leaf, parsley, slice of lemon, a few raisins 
and tomatoes in the pan. Baste with the vinegar water. 

Brown flour with lard and one or two teaspoons sugar, add a little 
vinegar water and pour the paste over the roast one hour before removing 
from the oven. 



NEBRASKA FRESH HAM ROASTED LIKE 

WILD, PIG 

Cut rind from an eight- to ten-pound ham, then rub well with the 
following: one pint red wine, one cup vinegar, two big onions grated, 
six bay leaves, one teaspoon each of whole and powdered cloves, thirty 
fresh juniper berries, grated rind of half a lemon and a little ginger. 

Lay ham in this liquor for several days, turning each day. 



THE MIDDLE WEST 129 

Brown the ham slightly in butter and pour over it hot water and some 
of the liquor it has soaked in, and roast for three hours in a moderate 
oven (375 F.). An hour before it is done add two cups of cream. For 
the gravy, skim off the grease and add a little flour, stirring smoothly. 



PICKLED STEINER 

Place in baking dish alternate layers of raw potatoes, beef, veal and 
pork all cut in cubes, and chopped onions, celery, parsley and carrots. 
Bake slowly two hours in a moderate oven (about 325 ° F.). 



BEEF TENDERLOIN 

Chop a few carrots, onions, celery and parsley and place around a 
tenderloin. Wring out a cloth in vinegar and wrap up the vegetables and 
meat and let stand under a weight for two days. Roast forty-five minutes 
to one hour in a hot oven (375 F. to 400 F.). Pour sour cream over 
this to serve. 



POT-ROASTED SQUABS 

Take as many squabs as desired, prepare them several hours before 
using by rubbing a little salt and onion on the inside of each, and keep 
in a very cold place. Put squabs into an iron pot or kettle with enough 
butter and a small onion chopped fine to brown nicely, turning often, 
seasoning with salt, pepper and a little whole allspice. Then add just 
enough boiling water to keep them from burning; let them simmer 
slowly till done, from thirty minutes to one hour. Any young wild game 
is delicious when prepared in this manner. 



SOUR RABBIT 

Clean and joint rabbits; for each rabbit take one teaspoon each of 
whole cloves, pepper and allspice ; two teaspoons salt, a dozen bay leaves, 
three large onions sliced fine; cover all with vinegar and let stand for 
two days. Then add water, set on stove and stew slowly for an hour or so. 



SOUR HERRING 

Six herrings soaked twelve hours, three apples sliced, four potatoes 
sliced, three small onions sliced. Add pepper, then take meat from herring, 
chop fine, add one cup of vinegar to one quart of water. Mix all together. 



130 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



SOUR CATFISH 

For a five-pound catfish. Pour boiling water over fish. Dress it, remov- 
ing scales and head, cut in one-inch slices. 



i quart water 
4 bay leaves 
2 or 3 cloves 
2 cups vinegar 



salt to taste 



io allspice 
i teaspoon sugar 
i large sliced onion 
io whole peppers 



Put on stove; when boiling, put the head of the fish in. Boil eight 
minutes. Put fish in. When meat parts from the bone it is done. Remove 
with skimmer. Pour gravy over the fish. When cold, it is like jelly and 
ready to serve. 



NEBRASKA ONION RYE BREAD 

Take some of your rye dough and spread out very thin. Place on top 
the following: Thinly sliced onions, fried in butter until transparent and 
tender ; a little salt and sour cream and one or two eggs beaten together. 
Roll into the dough. Bake as a loaf in a hot oven (425 F.) for twenty- 
five minutes. 

SALT-RISING BREAD 

At night scald three tablespoons white corn meal with new milk, wrap 
and set in warm place (not hot). In the morning make a stiff batter of 
one quart of warm water (hot enough to bare hand) and flour, adding 
tablespoon salt and the fermented corn-meal yeast. Cover your bowl and 
set in kettle of warm water and keep at even temperature for five and one 
half hours. The rising should at this time be near the top of bowl. Make 
into a stiff dough, adding warm water and flour and one tablespoon 
sugar and one half cup of butter. Form into loaves and keep warm for 
one hour. Bake in hot oven, as a hotter oven is required than for yeast 
bread. 



BEAR PAWS 



y 2 pound chocolate, 

grated 

2J4 cups sugar 

]/ 2 pound almonds, 



grated rind of 2 lemons 
1 teaspoon cinnamon 
y 2 cup sherry 
5 egg whites, beaten 
stiff 



ground fine 

Mix and shape with teaspoon. Bake in moderate oven (300 F.) for 
twenty minutes. 



THE MIDDLE WEST 131 

8 
IOWA 

IOWA PUDDING 

3 pounds raisins, chopped I cup sweet milk, poured 

i pound currants over bread crumbs 

i pound bread crumbs I cup grape juice or 

i pound chopped apples coffee 

I pound beef suet I piece citron, chopped 

I pound sugar fine 

I teaspoon nutmeg 2 tablespoons flour to 

io eggs, beaten dredge fruit 

separately I tablespoon cinnamon 

Combine all ingredients and steam four hours in kettle or mold. 



SAUCE 

I cup sugar 2 eggs, well beaten 

y 2 cup butter 2 cups cream (whipped) 

i teaspoon vanilla 

Cream the sugar and butter thoroughly, add the eggs and carefully 
fold in the beaten cream and stir in vanilla. 



MIDDLE WESTERN COCOA CAKE 
FROM IOWA 

1 cup shortening i teaspoon soda 

2 cups sugar 3 cups flour 

4 tablespoons cocoa I teaspoon baking 

2 eggs, beaten powder 

I cup sour milk i teaspoon vanilla 

I cup hot water 

Cream shortening and sugar together, stir in eggs and cocoa. Dissolve 
soda in sour milk and add to sugar and shortening alternately with flour 
and baking powder which have been sifted together. Stir in vanilla and 
lastly the hot water. Bake forty minutes in a slow oven (320 F.) in a 
loaf pan. 



132 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



FROSTING 

4 tablespoons hot coffee 4 tablespoons cocoa 

(strong) 2 tablespoons cream 

1 tablespoon butter powdered sugar 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Combine, stirring in enough powdered sugar to make it thick enough 
to spread and beat well. 



IOWA CORN ROLLS 

l}4 CU P S flour y 2 teaspoon salt 

J4 cup corn meal 1 tablespoon sugar 

4 teaspoons baking 2 tablespoons butter 

powder 1 egg 

Mix and roll out one fourth inch thick, cut with large cooky cutter. 
Spread over top with butter, fold over and bake in a fairly hot oven 
(3 75° F.) fifteen to twenty minutes. 



IOWA HICKORY NUT MACAROONS 

4 eggs, well beaten 2 cups flour 

2 cups sugar 2 cups hickory nut meats 

Stir together and drop on a buttered pan, turned upside down, or 
cooky sheet. Bake slowly (250 F.) for about twenty minutes. 



RHUBARB CONSERVE 

1 quart rhubarb, washed 1 box dates 

and cut in cubes 2 oranges, ground or 

1 quart sugar chopped 

1 cup chopped nut meats 

Cook rhubarb, sugar and oranges in an agate kettle until the rhubarb 
is clear, then add chopped dates. Cook a little longer and add nut meats 
when almost thick enough to put in glasses. 

IOWA PORK ROSETTES 

Have pork tenderloin cut in round pieces one half inch thick ; encircle 
each piece with slice of bacon and fasten with toothpicks; place in cas- 



THE MIDDLE WEST 133 

serole in one layer. Add salt, pepper and one cup of canned tomato soup. 
Bake one hour at moderate temperature (375° F.). 



9 
MISSOURI 

Southern and Mexican, New England and Western influences mingle 
in Missouri kitchens. Flocks of white turkeys driven to market, rich 
fields of cabbages and other garden produce mingle with sugar cane and 
tobacco. There are rich tables in this state and excellent dishes. Only a 
few of the specialties are indicated. For instance : 



ROAST GROUND HOG 

This is much like roast suckling pig in preparation and flavor. In fact, 
it has been palmed off as such on visiting Yankees. It is delicious, and 
is garnished with yams and all the conventional accessories of a roast 
meat dinner. 

GUINEA HEN WITH SAUCE 

i guinea hen (or chicken) 2 Spanish onions, sliced 

iJ4 cups cream 1 small can mushrooms 

1 medium-size can 4 tablespoons butter 

tomatoes 2 cups water 

1 pimiento, minced dash of cayenne 

2 large sweet green pepper 

peppers, cut fine salt 

Dress and clean a fat young guinea hen and put into a baking pan 
with one cup of hot water ; rub fowl with butter. Cook rapidly (hot oven 
400 F.) until well started, then moderately (350 F.), and when half 
done add the salt and more water as needed. There should be two rich 
cups of broth when finished. When the guinea is tender remove from 
oven and separate into pieces at the joints, leaving pieces whole, and 
return to the baking pan. Fry the onion to a golden brown in the butter. 
Combine the cream and broth, add the other ingredients and bring to 
boiling point on top of stove, stirring all the while. Keep back enough 
of cream to make a thickening with a very little flour and add to the 
sauce ; boil and remove from fire and pour over guinea. Set this to sim- 
mering in a moderate oven until the fowl is tender enough to fall from 
the bones when eaten. Serve piping hot on a platter with parsley garnish, 
if you wish. Be sure to have the sauce cooked to the consistency of cream 
gravy. 



134 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



MISSOURI BAKED HAM 

1 ham, 12 or 14 pounds cinnamon 

y 2 pound brown sugar 1 tablespoon prepared 

whole cloves mustard 

1 Y2 cups boiling water 1 y 2 cups vinegar 

Boil ham gently one hour. Skin off the fat and place in baking pan, 
fatside up. Sprinkle with cinnamon, stick thickly with cloves, pack with 
brown sugar. To the vinegar add the mustard and boiling water and 
put in pan. Cover with tight-fitting lid. Bake slowly three hours. Baste 
frequently with sauce in the pan. 

KITCHEN BARBECUE OF PORTERHOUSE 

2 tablespoons dry 4 tablespoons butter, 

mustard creamed 

2 tablespoons paprika 2 tablespoons olive oil 

1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon Worcester- 

1 teaspoon white pepper shire sauce 

one 2 J /z inch thick slice of porterhouse 

Choose a slice of porterhouse containing a good piece of tenderloin. 
Trim into shape, removing most of fat, and skewer firmly into position. 
Mix dry mustard with paprika, salt and pepper ; add these to butter and 
rub mixture well into meat, rubbing on both sides and edges. Place on 
grill over a pan and set under broiler. Mix olive oil with Worcestershire 
and brush surface of steak every five minutes during cooking. The heat 
should be reduced after the outside is seared. Turn every five minutes, 
dipping brush in any drip from steak on pan. Cook twenty-five minutes 
under moderate flame and rub in more mustard with moistened brush 
before serving. 

CHICKEN MOUSSE LOAF 

4 cups chopped cooked 2 tablespoons unflavored 
chicken gelatin dissolved in 

2 cups boiling chicken 4 tablespoons cold stock 

stock, well seasoned 

Add gelatin to boiling stock and stir until dissolved. Add chicken, then 
prepare the following mixture : 

1 cup heavy cream 2 tablespoons unflavored 

2 cups chicken stock gelatin dissolved in 

4 tablespoons cold stock 



THE MIDDLE WEST 135 

Add gelatin to boiling stock, and when partly set fold in cream, 
whipped stiff. Rub bottom of oval mold lightly with olive oil; arrange 
poinsettia blossoms of petals cut from pimientos and slice of hard-cooked 
egg yolk as center. Use parsley for stem, fastening in place with melted 
gelatin. When set, pour in inch layer of cream mixture ; let almost 
stiffen, add layer of chicken, alternating until all is used. At serving un- 
mold on large platter, garnished with lettuce and parsley, and surround 
with cups hollowed from beets or tomatoes filled with salad dressing. 



BAKED SQUASH 

y 2 Hubbard squash 2 tablespoons butter 

]/ 2 cup brown sugar salt, pepper 

Cut squash in half lengthwise ; scrape out all seeds, sprinkle with salt 
and pepper and butter and sprinkle brown sugar over the whole interior. 
Place in baking pan two thirds filled with hot water. Cover and bake 
slowly (225 F.) for two and one half to three hours. Serve on hot 
platter. 



SWEET POTATO AND ALMOND 
CROQUETTES 

Bake four medium-sized sweet potatoes or yams. As soon as tender 
split open and scoop out the pulp; force it through a puree strainer. To 
two cups of pulp add one half teaspoon salt, three tablespoons butter, one 
lightly beaten egg, a quarter cup of blanched almonds, chopped and 
pounded to a paste (there must be a fourth cup of almond paste). 
Moisten mixture with sufficient hot milk or cream to the consistency to 
handle. Shape in the form of sweet potatoes, apples or pears. Dip in 
flour, egg and crumbs and fry in deep hot fat. 



PEANUT SOUP 

2 cups shelled ground salt, pepper 

peanuts 1 quart water 

2 cups soup stock 23/2 cups thin cream 

1 stalk celery 1 slice onion 

Cook the peanuts with the onion and celery until tender in water. 
Press through a sieve and add the soup stock. Heat to boiling and stir in 
cream and seasonings. 



136 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



SUPERB PUMPKIN PIE 



Yz cup pecan nuts 

y 2 cup brown sugar 

]/ 2 cup white sugar 

2 cups stewed pumpkin 

2 eggs, beaten 

i teaspoon salt 

2 cups rich milk 



\y 2 teaspoons cinnamon 
y 2 teaspoon nutmeg 



2 teaspoon allspice 



y 2 teaspoon ginger 
2 tablespoons flour 
i cup heavy cream 
2 tablespoons sugar 



Stir the pumpkin in the milk with the sugar, eggs, flour, salt and lastly 
the spices. Beat briskly for five minutes or more. Bake in a rich pie 
pastry in a hot oven (400 F.) for several minutes, then moderately 
(325 F.), until done. Mix together the two tablespoonfuls of granu- 
lated sugar and heavy cream and beat until it stands. When the pie is cold 
spread the whipped cream over the top and sprinkle with the pecan 
meats. 

CHOCOLATE ANGEL FOOD 



10 egg whites (1 J4 
cups) 

1 teaspoon salt 

y 2 teaspoon cream of 
tartar or 1 table- 
spoon lemon juice 



2 cups sugar 

y 2 cup cocoa, sifted 

many times 
1 cup pastry flour, 

sifted 
1 teaspoon vanilla 



Beat eggs until stiff enough to stand alone, then mix in order given. 
Bake in ungreased pan one hour in a slow oven (320 F.). 



FROSTING 



i 1 /* cups sugar 

2 squares chocolate 



1 cup cream 

1 teaspoon vanilla 



Cook until it forms soft ball in water, adding the vanilla just before 
taking from the fire. Let stand until absolutely cold. Then beat until it 
becomes a light brown, about twenty minutes. 

NUT AND VEGETABLE PIE 



1 cup fresh lima beans 
1 cup almonds and 

peanuts 
1 cup thin white sauce 
salt, pepper 



2 hard-cooked eggs 
2 or 3 small onions, 

sliced 
6 medium-sized 

potatoes, diced 



THE MIDDLE WEST 137 

Cook the beans (dried beans may be substituted) and potatoes and 
blanch the nuts. Place a layer of beans in the bottom of the baking dish, 
then a layer of nuts and egg, followed by a layer of diced potatoes* Re- 
peat until the materials have been used. Pour over all the white sauce. 
Cover the top with a layer of potatoes, brush over with egg and milk 
and bake for thirty minutes in a hot oven. 

POTATO ROLLS 

2 medium-sized potatoes 3 tablespoons sugar 

1 yeast cake 2 tablespoons lard 

1 tablespoon salt flour 

Boil potatoes until tender ; drain water into mixing bowl ; mash pota- 
toes. Add enough water to water in which potatoes were boiled to make 
three cups. Add lard, sugar, salt and mashed potatoes and a cup of flour 
and beat. Dissolve yeast cake in a little cold water and add to other in- 
gredients when they are lukewarm. Add enough flour to make stiff dough. 
Knead well ten minutes. Return to bowl, grease top and let rise four and 
one half hours. Make into rolls, grease and let rise two hours. Bake in 
moderate (325 F.) oven about fifteen minutes. If desired, half of this 
can be placed in icebox and made into rolls next day and they will be 
even better than the first day. 

WATERMELON COCKTAIL 

ripe watermelon mint 

1 cup sugar 1 cup water 

Make a syrup of sugar and water ; add crushed mint leaves and cook 
for five minutes. Let chill to iciness. Pour over diced iced watermelon. 
Serve in tall-stemmed cocktail glasses and garnish with sprays of fresh 
mint. 



SWEET CUCUMBER MANGOES 

Use medium-size cucumbers; let them stand in salt water nine days, 
then soak them in fresh water twenty-four hours. Open them length- 
wise and take out the seeds. Place them in a preserving kettle with alter- 
nate layers of grape leaves, sprinkling a teaspoonful of alum over each 
layer. Cover with equal parts of vinegar and water. Squeeze the juice 
of some lemons, cut them in thin slices, including the peeling. Then fill 
the cucumbers with the slices of lemons and raisins. Tie the cucumbers 
together and place in jars, adding one half ounce cloves, one ounce cinna- 
mon, broken in small pieces. Make a syrup of one pound of sugar to one 
pint of vinegar. Boil well and pour over every morning for nine days. 



138 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

IO 

OKLAHOMA 

It is no use to pretend that barbecued goat is served in every Okla- 
homa homestead. Some natives have never heard of it. But it has been 
featured there and like the roast ground hog of Missouri is a novelty 
which deserves mention. 

BARBECUED GOAT 

Cut a fat young goat, about six or seven months old, in good-sized 
chunks. Place on strong wire stretched over the coals of a large hickory 
fire in a stone barbecue pit. Turn the meat frequently and baste with a 
sauce made of salt, pepper, vinegar and melted butter. Continue cooking 
and basting for from four to five hours, or until tender. Serve smoking 
hot with pickles and fresh tomatoes. The goat should be juicy, crisp and 
brownly tender, and permeated with the spicy sauce and fragrance of the 
hickory smoke. The only way to eat this is with the fingers, and the juice 
running down the chin. 

OKLAHOMA PUDDING 

Y2 cup brown sugar i teaspoon cinnamon 

2 tablespoons butter I cup dates, chopped 
y 2 cup sweet milk or cut in small 

1 cup flour pieces 

2 teaspoons baking I cup raisins 

powder i cup nuts, chopped 

I teaspoon nutmeg 

34 teaspoon salt 

Mix these ingredients and put in pan and over it pour the cup brown 
sugar dissolved in the two cups of boiling water. Bake one half-hour. 
Serve with whipped cream. Serves six. 

SPICE CAKE AND ICING OKLAHOMA 

1 cup butter 4 eggs 

2 cups sugar i teaspoon soda 

I cup sour milk i teaspoon allspice 

i cup nuts i teaspoon cloves 

2J4 cups flour I teaspoon cinnamon 

Cream sugar and butter; add sour milk and soda, flour and spices, 
eggs without beating. Stir well and bake in moderate oven (350 F.) 
thirty-five to forty minutes. 



THE MIDDLE WEST 139 



CARAMEL ICING 

2 cups granulated sugar I cup rich milk 

1 extra cup sugar % cup butter 

Cook this in stewpan until dissolved. Have skillet hot and brown one 
cup of sugar. Then add to first mixture. Cook to candy stage. Flavor with 
vanilla and add the one quarter cup of butter. Beat until thick enough 
to spread. 

OKLAHOMA CHRISTMAS RELISH 

2 dozen green peppers 6 large Bermuda onions 
2 dozen red peppers 3 tablespoons salt 

(ripe) 3 cups sugar 

2 cups celery 3 pints vinegar 

Grind up peppers. Boil ten minutes in agate kettle. Drain and add 
other ingredients and seal while hot. Ready for use immediately. 



CHAPTER V 

The Southwest and the West 

(Also see individual state menus.) 



Travelers in Missouri and Oklahoma may be surprised at the presence 
of chili con carne and tamales, the latter sold on the streets in cooler 
weather, hot from charcoal carriers. Mexican labor in the fields of these 
states was responsible for this culinary invasion, which has been so long 
established that Mexican food is now an accepted part of the gustatory 
achievement in these states. Penetrating further south and southwest- 
wardly the chili influence is more marked. Every Southwestern state 
now offers Mexican-flavored dishes in restaurants, homes and roadside 
rests. And Mexican food, so described, is a mingling of Spanish ideas and 
Indian simplicity and the native products of which, even in the time of 
Cortez, beans, maize, spices (notably peppers) and red chocolate were 
plentiful. Of course fowl (wild turkey was abundant then), meats, 
game, fish, fruits and vegetables were generously at hand and they still 
are, and the lavish luxury inspired by that abundance is certainly discern- 
ible in spots in Southwestern cookery. 

Housekeepers in Texas, Nevada, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado and Mon- 
tana, just like their sisters further east and north, indulge in all the 
variances of our modern cookery accomplishments. They use the canned 
and prepared foods which American manufacturing and distribution have 
made possible. I could give pages to the cakes and breads, desserts and 
salads ; but as made by these housekeepers they are pretty much the same 
as the best cookery found in other states. The unusual dishes of this 
section of the country are of greater interest for our purposes. 

Here are the genuine tortillas with which certain other notable dishes 
are prepared : 

TORTILLAS 

Drain well a fifteen-ounce can of hominy, put it through the food 
chopper twice and add one tablespoon of corn meal and two tablespoons 
of water. This should be the consistency of soft corn-bread dough. Roll 

140 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 141 

with the hands into small biscuits about half an inch thick. Put a moist 
cloth on a breadboard or on top of a wooden table. Place the biscuit on 
the cloth and cover with another moist cloth. Put a second wooden 
board on top and exert an even pressure upon the board. The resulting 
small wafer will be thin, well formed and ready to cook. Pull the top 
cloth off carefully and lift the tortilla from the bottom cloth onto a very 
hot slightly greased griddle iron. After two or three minutes turn with 
a pancake turner. When the tortilla is slightly browned remove from 
griddle and place in a hot dish between napkins to keep warm. This 
makes about twelve tortillas. 



TAMALES 

(with meat and masa spread) 

Separate and pick over carefully about three or four dozen clean corn 
shucks, green if possible, discarding any too small, split or otherwise not 
whole. Pour scalding water over them and clean thoroughly. Drain. 

Meat Filling 

2 pounds pork (fresh 3 cloves garlic 

ham, shoulder or 1 teaspoon salt 

loin) 1 teaspoon cumin seed 

2 quarts water 1 cup lard or other 

3 tablespoons chile shortening 

powder or chile 
paste 

Boil pork in salted water until very tender, then chop fine. Do not use 
meat grinder. Save bones and stock, which should be about a quart. Fry 
garlic in the fat until brown. Remove garlic. Make thin paste of chile 
powder and cumin seeds with half cup stock. Add this and chopped 
meat to the fat and let cook until partly dry. 

Masa Spread 

4 cups masa or tamalina l / 2 cup fat 

(or substitute 1 teaspoon salt 

canned hominy, 
drained and 
ground) 

To these ingredients add the remainder of hot stock from the meat 
filling and the fat from the top of the meat filling to make soft dough. 



142 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Mix well with hands. Spread one tablespoonful of masa mixture over 
half of heavy end of shuck. Pat this mixture on very thin, allowing for 
folding shuck up at bottom and rolling in from sides. On masa mixture 
place teaspoon of meat mixture. Roll shuck like a jelly roll and fold it 
over at the bottom. 

Have ready a steam cooker, or big kettle, with something in the center 
to hold the tamales upright, the bottom of kettle covered with a layer of 
bones topped by the unused portions of shucks, to keep the tamales from 
touching the bottom of the kettle. Stand the prepared tamales, folded 
side down, around center part of kettle. Put one cup of boiling water 
on the bottom of the kettle to make steam. Steam slowly for several 
hours. A fireless cooker is excellent for this. 

Here are some additional dishes found in Western and Southwestern 
cookery which are obviously Mexican in origin : 



CHALUPAS 

12 small tortillas i cup fresh tomatoes 

I head lettuce, shredded 2 large green peppers, 

fine chopped 

y 2 pound American i medium onion, chopped 

cheese, grated i teaspoon salt 

]/ 2 cup cold beans 

Cook the tomatoes, pepper, onion and salt slowly for five minutes. 
Spread thick paste of cold beans on hot fried tortillas, put one tablespoon 
of the hot sauce on the beans, then a mound of shredded lettuce with one 
teaspoon of grated cheese on top. 



ENCHILADAS 



12 tortillas 


y 2 cup water 


y 2 pound American 


2 cups fresh or canned 


cheese, grated 


tomatoes 


y 2 pound onions, minced 


I tablespoon flour 


y 2 teaspoon salf 


3 cloves garlic 


y 2 cup lard 


y 2 teaspoon salt 


3 tablespoons chile 




powder 





Fry tortillas in deep hot fat for two seconds. Dip in and right out, 
using pancake turner to remove. Make thin paste of salt, flour, chile 
powder or chile paste and water. Fry garlic in a little fat in a saucepan 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 143 

and remove. Then put tomatoes in this fat and add the paste. Let cook 
until thick. Have this sauce and the fat kettle on low adjoining fires. Put 
tortillas, one at a time, into the deep fat kettle and then into the sauce. 
When thoroughly soaked in hot sauce remove to heated platter. Put on 
each tortilla two tablespoons of a mixture of the cheese, onions and a half 
teaspoon of salt. Roll and place on serving platter. Stack tortillas parallel 
to each other and cover with remaining sauce. Sprinkle with some of 
cheese and onion mixture. Serve at once. 



CHILE CON QUESO 

I cup thin tomato juice thin slices toasted white 

i tablespoon flour bread 

y± teaspoon cayenne l / 2 cup grated American 

pepper cheese 

I tablespoon butter salt 

Over slow fire melt butter, add flour and salt. Pour the tomato juice 
in slowly, stirring constantly. Then add cheese and cayenne pepper. Cook 
until whole mixture is smooth. Serve immediately on toasted bread. 



TAQUITOS 

Fry fourteen small tortillas in deep fat until crisp. Put on each a very 
thin slice of fresh cheese, a slice of avocado, a quarter teaspoon finely 
chopped onion, a small teaspoon cooked beans mashed and fried, with a 
little green tomato and chile sauce. Roll the tortillas and arrange on a 
hot platter garnished with lettuce and radishes. Serve hot. 



CHILE CON CARNE 

I pound beef, diced in 2 tablespoons lard 

half-inch cubes Y\ cup flour 

y 2 pound red peppers, pinch of wild marjoram 

or 2 tablespoons salt 

chile powder hot water 

4 slices onion, minced 3 cloves garlic 

Fry garlic in lard until brown, then remove. Sprinkle flour over meat, 
then put meat in hot lard and brown. Make thin paste of chile powder 
or red peppers. (If red peppers are used, have seeds, veins, stems and 
skins removed by soaking in hot water.) Pour this and other ingredients 
over meat. Cover with hot water. Simmer until meat is very tender and 
sauce thickened. 



144 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



NEW MEXICO CUTLETS 


4 veal cutlets 


2 tablespoons broth 


i teaspoon thyme 


i teaspoon minced onion 


I bay leaf 


I teaspoon flour 


y teaspoon wild mar- 


I whole egg 


joram 


i cup raw blanched al- 


Y$ teaspoon black pepper 


monds, finely 


y teaspoon nutmeg 


ground 


I tablespoon fat 


y 2 cup bread crumbs 



salt, pepper 

Boil cutlets until tender in water which contains thyme, bay leaf, wild 
marjoram, black pepper, nutmeg and fat. Fry almonds and onion with 
broth. Beat egg white stiff and add well-beaten yolk and flour. Roll 
cooked cutlet in egg mixture and then in fried almond paste, and then 
finally in bread crumbs. Then fry cutlet in a little fat. Serve hot. 

SOUTHWESTERN MEAT BALLS 

3 e gg yolks i tablespoon minced 
3 tablespoons bread onion 

crumbs I tablespoon butter 

salt, pepper 3 cups cooked cold meat, 
y 2 teaspoon nutmeg minced 

Mix yolks of eggs and crumbs. Add salt, pepper and nutmeg. Fry 
onions to light brown and add crumb mixture and meat and mash. Cool 
and form small balls. Roll in bread crumbs and fry in hot fat to light 
brown. Serve with chile sauce. 

NEW MEXICO KID COOKED WITH 

BLOOD 

1 kid (about 6 pounds) 4 to 12 little green pep- 

2 tablespoons lard pers, to taste 

1 teaspoon salt 2 small onions, sliced 

1 teaspoon wild mar- 2 cups tomatoes, fresh 

joram or canned 

y 2 teaspoon black pepper 2 green peppers, sliced 

When kid is killed put a tablespoon of salt in the pan into which the 
blood has been poured to keep it from curdling. Cut up carcass and fry 
slightly to brown. Cover with hot water to which has been added salt, 
wild marjoram, black pepper, little green peppers, onions and tomatoes. 
Cook until meat is tender. When nearly done add the blood to the 
mixture and mix briskly. 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 



145 



RANCHO SPICED Bl 

iy 2 pounds beef shoul- 
der 

I tablespoon butter 

]/ 2 teaspoon cayenne 
pepper 

y 2 teaspoon allspice 



l / 2 teaspoon ground 

cloves 
i teaspoon lemon juice 
2 bay leaves 
I clove garlic 
salt, pepper 



i cup sherry or white wine 

Mix all spices well, and salt and pepper to taste. Rub meat on all 
sides with this. Mix butter and lemon juice. Pour over meat and put in 
refrigerator overnight. Then place in agate kettle with one cup hot 
water. Cook well over slow fire until tender. When meat is nearly done 
add wine, and thicken sauce with one tablespoon of flour. 

BAKED DUCK, RANGER STYLE 



i tablespoon salt 
6 cups cold water 
y 2 cup vinegar 
4 cloves garlic 
I tablespoon lard 
I large potato, sliced 
I 3-pound wild duck 
2 small 



I cup boiling water 
y 2 teaspoon cinnamon 
y% teaspoon cumin seeds 
I sweet green pepper 
i medium-sized onion 
y 2 teaspoon black pepper 
I teaspoon salt 
ripe tomatoes 



Clean duck and place in vinegar and cold water with tablespoon of 
salt for one half hour. Remove from liquid. Mash together garlic, cinna- 
mon, cumin seeds, teaspoon salt and black pepper. Rub this inside and 
outside duck. Put remainder of this seasoning in cheesecloth bag and 
leave it in the duck during baking. Parboil the potato and let cool, 
then slice and fry in lard to a light brown. Place the potato, green pepper 
and tomatoes around the duck with a cup boiling water. Bake slowly in 
covered pan till tender, about fifty minutes in a 250 F. oven. Serve hot. 

Again the Spanish influence is discernible in such dishes as this : 

RANCHERO CHICKEN AND PEANUT 

SAUCE 

1 5-pound chicken 
3 cups tomatoes, 

strained 
y 2 cup toasted peanuts, 

ground 



1 cup white wine 



1 tablespoon vinegar 
y teaspoon cloves 
34 teaspoon cinnamon 
salt 
pepper 

2 cups hot water 



146 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



Boil disjointed chicken slowly in agate kettle with tomatoes, salt and 
pepper. When nearly done add spices, peanuts, hot water and vinegar. 
Simmer until chicken is tender. Add wine and heat quickly when ready 
to serve. 



MEXICAN TURKEY MOLE 



i io-pound turkey 

3 tablespoons red pepper 

pulp 
y 2 pound almonds, 

ground 
J4 pound sesame seeds 
10 black pepper grains 
io cloves 



salt 

I teaspoon cinnamon 

y 2 tortilla 

3 cloves garlic 

I tablespoon anise seeds 

I teaspoon coriander 

seeds 
2^2 cups lard 

Simmer disjointed turkey in enough hot water to cover until nearly 
done. Remove seeds, veins and stems from peppers and soak in enough hot 
water to cover. When cool remove skins and mash to pulp. Fry garlic to 
light brown in one cup lard. Toast sesame seeds to light brown in one 
cup lard, using a covered vessel, constantly shaking so as not to burn. 
Fry almonds to light brown ; drain and set aside. Fry tortilla until crisp ; 
drain and put through food chopper together with almonds, sesame 
seeds, cloves, cinnamon, black pepper, anise and coriander. Strain the 
fat and put it together with the remaining fat in an agate kettle and 
add the mixture of spices, stirring with wooden spoon constantly until 
fairly thick. Then add pepper pulp and stir until well blended. Add 
nearly done turkey, strained turkey broth and salt. On slow fire simmer 
until turkey is tender. Do not cover vessel. Stir occasionally only one 
way, with wooden spoon. A metal spoon may cause the mole to curdle. 



POACHED EGGS, RANCH STYLE 

y 2 cup minced onions 
I tablespoon minced 

parsley 
I tablespoon almonds, 

ground very fine 
salt, black pepper 



6 eggs 

6 green peppers 
6 ripe tomatoes 
6 slices cheese 
i cup broth 
Yz cup lard 



Remove skins from peppers and tomatoes. Mash the tomatoes and cut 
the peppers into strips. Fry onions to a light brown, then add tomatoes, 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 



147 



almonds, peppers and parsley. Simmer and add broth. Carefully poach 
eggs in this sauce. Lay a slice of cheese on each egg. Cover until eggs 
are set. Serve hot with tortillas. 



FRIED EGGS, RANCH STYLE 



4 tablespoons cooking 

oil 
I clove garlic, chopped 

fine 
y 2 green pepper, 

chopped 



y 2 onion, minced 

3 fresh tomatoes (or 

i l / 2 cups canned) 
I teaspoon chile powder 

4 eggs 
salt, pepper 



Fry garlic in oil and remove. Fry onion until slightly brown. Add 
green peppers; fry for a moment, then add tomatoes, chile powder or 
chile paste and salt and black pepper. Simmer for twenty minutes, adding 
a little hot water if sauce gets too thick. Fry eggs on one side only. Place 
on platter and pour sauce over them. 

This type of soup is a stand-by in the ranching country. The recipe 
varies according to the cook — but these ingredients are typical. It is more 
Basque-Spanish than Mexican : 



RANCHMAN'S SOUP 



]/ 2 pound mutton 
J4 pound beef or veal 
J4 pound pork loin 
1% pounds marrow- 
bones 

1 breast chicken 

2 small leeks 

3 small turnips 
6 mint leaves 



6 coriander leaves 
6 slender peppers 
6 small onions with stems 
iy 2 teaspoons salt 
3 small carrots 
3 tablespoons sliced cab- 
bage 
y$ cup whole rice 
^3 cup dried peas 



5 quarts water 

Boil for three hours the peas, which have been previously soaked over- 
night, and the marrowbones in the five quarts of water. Then add all 
other ingredients and boil on slow fire for four hours more. Then strain 
soup through wet cloth. (The meat may be served later.) The soup 
resulting should be a little more than a quart. Put in top of double 
boiler to keep hot until time to serve. In each soup plate put one slice 
each of lemon, green pepper, radish, avocado and one coriander leaf. 



148 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



Another soup probably originated in southern Europe, but cooked in 
Mexico at the big plantations and in our own ranching country: 



LENTIL SOUP 



iy 2 cups large yellow 

lentils 
I medium-sized onion, 

minced 
5 slices fresh bacon 



i small bay leaf 
2 cloves garlic 
7 cups water 
2 teaspoons salt 



Wash lentils and pick over carefully. Put all ingredients, except salt, 
with lentils and cook over slow fire until lentils are thoroughly done. Add 
salt toward end of cooking period. Put through colander. Should have 
the consistency of cream. Serve hot with sauteed slices of bread. 

The Spanish influence is seen in these recipes which are known from 
Florida to California: 



ARTICHOKES IN VINEGAR 



2 tablespoons minced 

parsley 
I onion, chopped fine 

3 tablespoons olive oil 



1 hard-cooked egg, sliced 

fine 
salt, pepper 

2 tablespoons vinegar 



Mix these together thoroughly as a sauce and pour over cleaned, cooked 
and cooled artichokes. 



STEWED RICE 



y 2 pound rice 

i cup lard 

I cup tomatoes 

I large onion, minced 

3 cloves garlic 



i cup green peas 

i cup diced potatoes 

i teaspoon minced 

parsley 
4 cups water 



Soak rice in boiling water for fifteen minutes, then wash with cold 
water in colander, draining well. Brown garlic and onion in lard, re- 
moving garlic when brown. Add rice, stirring constantly, and brown 
evenly. Pour off fat; add peas, potatoes, parsley and water, and cook 
slowly for fifty-five minutes. Put mixture into well-greased mold or 
pudding dish, packing firmly; set in hot oven in a pan of hot water till 
ready to serve. 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 149 



SOUTHWESTERN SWEET POTATOES 

Cook sweet potatoes. Mash them with a little milk. Take an equal 
amount of grated pineapple with as little juice as possible. Arrange in 
alternate layers in baking dish with sprinklings of cinnamon and sugar 
to taste. Bake in moderate oven (350 F.) for half an hour. Serve cold. 

FRIJOLES 

]/ 2 cup red beans 2 tablespoons lard 

1 quart cold water 3 cloves garlic 

1 teaspoon salt 

Boil beans slowly in water for several hours until tender. Mash and 
add salt. Brown garlic in fat and remove. Add mashed beans to fat 
and fry to consistency of sandwich spread. 

FAMOUS BLACK BEAN SOUP 

\y 2 pounds black beans 3 tablespoons lard 

3^2 quarts water salt 

1 large onion, minced 1 leaf epasote 

Select beans and wash with cold water. Boil in water in glazed pottery 
pot for an hour. Then remove this water and put in another three 
quarts of boiling water. Season with salt, onion, very hot lard and leaf 
of epasote. Cook in covered pot on slow fire until very tender. Stir 
occasionally so that they will not stick to bottom of pot. The boiling 
ought to be slow and constant to avoid their becoming tough. Add a little 
boiling water as needed. The beans ought to be well cooked, whole, 
and with a little soup. Brown an onion in a pottery dish ; add to beans an 
hour before serving; keep hot on a moderate fire. 

SPANISH SALAD 

1 cucumber 1 head lettuce 

2 young onions J/2 cup vinegar 

3 small radishes 1 tablespoon bacon fat 

4 stalks celery or butter 

2 tomatoes 1 teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon chile powder or chile paste 

Cut the vegetables into small pieces and place in a salad bowl. Combine 
vinegar, bacon fat, salt and chile powder and bring to boiling in an agate 
pan, then pour over the salad and serve at once. 



150 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



TOMATO AND AVOCADO SALAD 

i pound ripe red y 2 pound avocado 

tomatoes 3 tablespoons oil 

3 small onions salt, pepper 

1 tablespoon vinegar lettuce 

Arrange on lettuce leaves, first a slice of tomato, then a slice of 
avocado, topped with onions. Mix oil, vinegar, salt and pepper and pour 
over salad. Set in very cold place until ready to serve. 

ALMOND RICE CUSTARD 

2 cups raw rice y 2 teaspoon salt 
1 quart fresh milk 1 cup sugar 

4 e gg yolks y 2 teaspoon cinnamon 

y 2 cup roasted ground almonds 

Wash rice, mix with milk and allow to stand three hours. Place in 
double boiler to cook until rice is well done. Then add well-beaten yolks, 
almonds, salt, sugar and cinnamon. Stir and continue to cook fifteen 
minutes. Divide into dessert dishes ; cool, and place on ice. Sprinkle with 
chopped pistachio nuts. 

THE INEVITABLE CHOCOLATE DRINK 
OF THE MEXICAN SOUTHWEST 

12 tablespoons cocoa 3 egg whites, unbeaten 

I teaspoon cinnamon 12 teaspoons sugar 

3 quarts milk 

Make thin paste of egg whites, cocoa, cinnamon and sugar, using one 
cup cold milk. Scald remainder of milk, then slowly add to the thin 
paste in the top of the double boiler, beating constantly with a wheel 
egg beater. Then serve at once. 

ANOTHER RECIPE FOR 
THE CHOCOLATE DRINK 

3 squares bitter chocolate y 2 teaspoon cinnamon 
1 teaspoon sugar for 5^2 cups milk 

each cup 

Melt chocolate in double boiler. Add sugar, cinnamon and milk. As it 
comes to boiling, beat with egg beater until frothy. 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 151 

Four states in the Union claim the most superlative grapefruit: 
Florida, Texas, California and Arizona ; no doubt each one is right ! 
Every kind of citrus recipe is found in the cookery of these states, but 
this pie comes from Arizona: 

DEEP-DISH ARIZONA GRAPEFRUIT 

PI E 

i cup grapefruit sections sugar 

]/z cup orange sections rich pastry for a 

y 2 cup sliced peaches crust pie 

Combine fruits and sweeten to taste. (Bananas, pineapple or other 
fruit may be substituted for peaches.) Arrange fruit in three-inch deep 
piepan and cover with pastry. Bake in hot oven (450 F.) for twenty 
minutes, then in moderate oven for thirty to forty minutes more. 

TEXAS CORN OKRA CREOLE 

5 ears corn 1 cup sliced okra 

2 cups tomatoes 1 onion 

1 tablespoon bacon fat 1 green pepper 

salt and pepper 

Yellow the minced onion in the bacon fat and add the peeled chopped 
tomato, okra and chopped green pepper. Let this simmer for fifteen min- 
utes, then add the raw corn as cut from the cob and let it boil gently 
for twenty minutes. Add a little hot water if it gets too thick. Season 
well. Serve with cold meats; or it makes an excellent supper dish with 
toast and a salad. 

NEVADA BARBECUED YOUNG CHICKEN 

3 1 Yi -pound chickens J4 CU P tomato ketchup 
y 2 pound fat %. cup sugar 

5 tablespoons Worces- 3 buds garlic 

tershire sauce 1 large minced onion 

4 tablespoons A-i sauce dash tabasco 

4 tablespoons vinegar pepper and salt 

Split chickens and brown in fat (of which two tablespoons should be 
butter) without any flour but with a sprinkling of pepper and salt. Place 
in roasting pan with fat from browning in cavity of each half. Mix all 
other ingredients, except garlic and onion which are minced and tied in 
cheesecloth and placed in the pan. Pour sauce over chicken in roasting 
pan and bake in a moderate oven till tender (about one hour), basting 
frequently with the sauce. Serve remaining sauce over chicken, diluting a 
little with water and straining if it cooks away too much. 



152 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



UTAH VEILED BREAD PUDDING 

3 cups dry whole-wheat' y 2 cup applesauce or jam 

bread crumbs ]/ 2 cup cream, whipped 

i cup sugar 

Mix crumbs and sugar. Line baking pan with waxed paper and pack 
crumbs solid into it. Bake in a moderate oven (375 F.) about twenty- 
minutes until brown. Turn out and serve hot or cold, spreading the 
jam or thick applesauce over it and covering with whipped cream. 

HAM FRITTERS FROM MONTANA 



2 eggs 


1 cup flour 


Ys cup milk 


y 2 teaspoon salt 


2 tablespoons melted 


1 teaspoon baking 


butter 


powder 


1 cup cooked ham, 


34 teaspoon pepper 


chopped 




1 cup canned 


or cooked corn 



Beat the eggs and stir in milk and butter. Sift the dry ingredients 
together and combine thoroughly with the first mixture. Last stir in the 
ham and corn and mix well. Drop by tablespoons into deep hot fat and 
fry until a golden brown. Drain on paper toweling or butcher's paper. 

WYOMING HAM POPS 

1 pound boiled ham, j/3 cup peanut butter 

ground 1 clove garlic, minced or 

y 2 cup butter, melted 1 medium onion, minced 
y 2 cup mayonnaise 

Mix these ingredients well and then make a biscuit dough as follows : 

4 cups flour 8 tablespoons vegetable 

7 teaspoons baking fat 

powder 1 cup milk (about) 

1 teaspoon salt 

Combine as usual, sifting flour, salt and baking powder together, cut- 
ting in the fat and adding milk to make a soft dough. Divide dough and 
roll out very thin. Spread thickly with the ham mixture (about one 
fourth inch or more) and cover with remaining dough, also rolled thin. 
Even off and press together lightly. Then cut into small squares about 
one and a half inches in size. 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 153 

Any shape may be used; and you may cut the biscuits first, spread 
separately and put together if you want to vary the shapes but it takes 
longer. Bake in a hot oven (400 F.) for ten to twelve minutes. You 
may make half the recipe for a smaller party. This amount makes from 
forty-five to fifty squares, serving sixteen to eighteen persons. 

IDAHO GREEN SALAD 

Line your salad bowl with crisp lettuce leaves. Sprinkle lightly a 
handful of finely chopped cold boiled potatoes; over this put a layer of 
sliced stuffed olives and cooked string beans; over this put a diced dill 
pickle and a minced green onion. Marinate with the following dressing: 

In a wide-mouthed glass jar with cover put a quartered clove of garlic, 
one teaspoon sugar, one teaspoon paprika, one cup salad oil, one teaspoon 
salt and one teaspoon cider vinegar. One small piece of ice should always 
be added to any oil dressing. Shake the bottle until dressing thickens. 

Garnish salad with quartered hard-cooked eggs, stuffed olives and 
walnut meats. Serve chilled. 

2 

PACIFIC COAST STATES 

In listing the culinary achievements of San Francisco perhaps chop 
suey belongs at the top of the list, because from that city the concoction 
known as chop suey gradually became a dish for the rest of America. 
Called by some "the national dish of China," the truth of the matter is 
that it is not even a Chinese dish and no Chinese ever eats it. 

The story of its invention is told by Carl Crow in 400 Million Cus- 
tomers. According to Mr Crow it all goes back to the gold-rush days 
in 1849 when so many thousands of Chinese had migrated to California 
to make their fortunes, not in the gold fields but in the more certain way 
of working in various trades in this new country. Soon after the dis- 
covery of gold the Chinese colony in San Francisco was large enough to 
support a couple of restaurants conducted by Cantonese cooks. It was 
to one of these, one night, that a group of miners, overcome by curiosity, 
had gone to find out what the yellow men ate. When they got to the 
restaurant the regular customers had finished their suppers and the pro- 
prietor was ready to close his doors. But the rough-spoken men demanded 
food, so the Cantonese restaurateur did the best he could. He went to 
the kitchen, dumped together all the food his Chinese patrons had left 
in their bowls, put a dash of soy sauce on top and served it to the miners. 
They wanted to know the name of the dish and he told them it was 
"chop suey," which is Cantonese slang for "beggar's hash." 

The visitors did not understand what the words meant but they liked 
the dish and came back for more ; thus by chance was established the 
now widespread chop suey fashion. Thousands of Chinese restaurants 



154 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



flourish in America today which could never have existed but for this 
dish. In the many fine restaurants in the Chinatowns of San Francisco, 
Los Angeles, Seattle and Portland, as well as those in Eastern cities, 
Americans are becoming constantly more familiar with genuine Oriental 
dishes. The comparatively large number of Chinese, Japanese and Fili- 
pino cooks in private homes in the cities of the West, and on the ranches 
also, help to bring the Far Eastern foods into our Far Western diet. 

CHOP SUEY 



iy 2 pounds pork, 
chicken, beef or 
lamb 

I large onion 

I stalk celery 

12 good-sized mush- 
rooms 



2 cups bamboo shoots 
\y 2 teaspoons sugar 
2]/ 2 tablespoons soy 

sauce 
I tablespoon tarragon 

vinegar 



Cut meat into thin strips with scissors. Put a half cup of sesame oil 
in a pan. After it is hot add the meat, stir for a minute, then add vinegar, 
soy and sugar and cook for five minutes. Chop the other ingredients and 
place in another pan which contains half a cup of hot sesame oil. Cook 
until thoroughly heated and then add the meat. Cook until it boils 
hard. If necessary add a little boiling water and thicken slightly with 
cornstarch or flour, made into a paste with a little w^ater. 

Chow mein has been similarly adopted by Americans and it also is 
well known in Chinese restaurants other than those of the West. It even 
has gained a place as a featured item of menus, usually one day a week, 
of many tearooms and lunch counters, even those in drugstores! Here 
is a super chow mein that you can make in your own kitchen. Today 
the Chinese ingredients can be ordered through most grocery stores. 



CHOW MEIN 



y 2 cup finely cut ham 
y 2 cup finely cut bacon 
I cup finely cut chicken, 

or other meat 
I cup celery, chopped 

fine 
I cup bamboo shoots 
I cup water chestnuts, 

sliced 
I medium-sized onion, 

shredded 



\y 2 cups chicken stock 
or consomme 

I pound chow mein 
noodles 

i e gg 

i tablespoon cornstarch 
I tablespoon sesame oil 
I tablespoon soy sauce 
J4 cup almonds 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 155 

Beat the egg well ; pour into hot frying pan, spreading over the entire 
surface in a thin layer. Fry until done and cut into noodle strips about 
an inch and a half long. Bring the chicken stock to the boiling point 
and add cornstarch, sauce and a tablespoon of sesame oil. Steam the 
noodles over this mixture until tender, turning frequently to prevent 
sticking. Fill a frying pan with sesame oil and when boiling hot add the 
steamed noodles and fry until brown and crisp. Drain on absorbent 
paper. Fry bacon, ham and chicken in sesame oil. Into another pan put 
all the cut-up vegetables and cook five to eight minutes. When all is 
cooked arrange noodles on a platter and spread bacon, chicken, etc., over 
them. Pour stock over all and garnish top with the strips of eggs. Serve 
at once. 

SHREDDED ROAST DUCK 

I domestic duck i cup white bean sprouts 

y 2 cup chopped bamboo Y\ cup shredded celery- 
shoots 

Roast duck to a dark brown color. Do not remove skin. Cut breast 
meat into thin shreds and mix with other ingredients. Flavor with two 
tablespoons of soy sauce and one fourth cup of essence from roasted 
duck. Cook together over slow fire four or five minutes. Serve hot. 



SHRIMP AND BAMBOO 

I cup small shrimp i l / 2 tablespoons soy 

Ys cup bamboo shoots sauce 

y 2 cup chicken stock i tablespoon tarragon 

vinegar 

Cube bamboo shoots. Dip in vinegar and sauce and fry in hot sesame 
oil for two minutes. Remove ; add to shrimps, chicken stock, two table- 
spoons sauce and stew five to six minutes. 



TRIPE SOUP 

J4 pound tripe I tablespoon chopped 

I quart chicken stock spinach 

I tablespoon soy sauce y 2 tablespoon chopped 

parsley 

Boil tripe ten minutes. Drain off water and slice in thin pieces. Add 
sauce to chicken stock together with parsley, spinach and tripe. Boil 
five minutes. 



156 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



CHINESE OMELET 



y 2 cup fresh mushrooms 
I cup minced meat 

(pork, chicken or 

beef) 



]/ 2 cup bamboo sprouts, 
cut in i-inch pieces 

3 e gg s 

I tablespoon soy sauce 

After mincing ingredients beat one egg and place in pan, and fold in 
one tablespoon of the mixture as in making an omelet. Put one table- 
spoon sauce in pan to season while cooking. Make a small omelet with 
each egg. Use sesame oil for frying. 

Another dish that found its way into our Western homes is sukiyaki, 
as made by the Japanese. With the vegetables and meat prepared in 
advance it is much easier to make at the table, on a grill or chafing dish, 
than it is to tell about it. This recipe will serve four : 



BEEF SUKIYAKI 



1 inch cube beef suet or 

butter 

2 Spanish onions, sliced 

thin 

I green pepper, sliced 
thin 

i cup chicken stock (or 
more) 

I bunch scallions, cut in 
thin strips 

I medium-sized can bam- 
boo shoots, sliced 
thin 

I medium-sized can shi- 
rataki (yarn potato 
noodles) in 5-inch 
lengths, or 1 cup 
cooked egg noodles 



It's a good idea to divide the ingredients and do two cookings to have 
the sukiyaki hot and very fresh for the second serving. 

Melt the beef suet or butter in a pan which is warmed, then add the 
Spanish onions, green pepper and two tablespoons of the chicken stock 
(or consomme), adding additional stock as needed. Add bamboo shoots, 
scallions, and let simmer over medium heat for about five minutes. Add 



i pound fresh mush- 
rooms, sliced or 
quartered, or Jap- 
anese dried mush- 
rooms 
1 pound raw spinach 
Ij4 pounds tenderloin 
or porterhouse 
steak, sliced paper- 
thin 
1 tablespoon sugar 
soy sauce (about 5-ounce 

bottle) 
1/4 pounds rice, steamed 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 157 

the shirataki and mushrooms and continue to simmer for another five 
minutes, stirring gently from time to time. Pour in more chicken stock 
and cover all with the spinach and then spread the meat over the 
spinach. Sprinkle the sugar over the meat and pour soy sauce over sugar. 
Do not use too much soy sauce at first; more can be added to taste just 
before serving. Let the spinach and meat steam for a few minutes, then 
turn the beef to cook on its other side. 

Serve in individual bowls or plates over plain steamed or boiled rice. 
Serve Japanese tea with it. Fresh or preserved fruits are considered a 
good finish for this one-dish meal. 

Sukiyaki can also be made with chicken or pork, or purely as a vege- 
table dish. If chicken or pork are used they should be added to the mix- 
ture immediately after the onions as they require more thorough cooking. 

In one elegant sukiyaki restaurant at the edge of the Oriental section 
of San Francisco, in surroundings of much red plush, shining brass and 
potted palms, a copper cooking unit is sunk in the center of each table 
and Japanese girls in native costume, looking like porcelain dolls, in- 
struct clients in the process of cooking sukiyaki. Their contention is that 
sukiyaki should be served from the communal cooking dish into indi- 
vidual bowls of beaten egg mixed with soy sauce and then immediately 
to a bed of hot rice. The delectable result well merits the large brass 
sign in front of the establishment: "Sukiyaki — If you not know how our 
girls teach you." 

CARACAS EGGS CALIFORNIA 

3 eggs i cup tomatoes 

2 ounces drief beef 2 tablespoons butter 

Y\ pound cheese I teaspoon chile powder 

Shred the chipped beef quite fine. Heat butter in skillet, then crisp and 
brown the dried beef in the hot butter. Add to this the chile powder, the 
grated cheese and the tomatoes. When simmering, stir in the beaten eggs. 
Cook only until egg sets, something like scrambled eggs. Serve hot. Serves 
four to six. 

CALIFORNIA STEAK WITH OYSTERS 

sirloin steak (i to i/ 2 I teaspoon chile powder 

inches thick) 2 teaspoons salt 

I pint oysters 3^> cup boiling water 

3 tablespoons lemon 2 tablespoons minced 

juice parsley 

3 tablespoons butter 

Broil the steak about fifteen minutes. Put the drained oysters in a 
cooking pan and stir a very few minutes over direct heat to start the 



158 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

juices. Spread these oysters over the top of the steak, then pour over 
the sauce made by blending the butter, salt, chile powder, boiling water 
and parsley. Bake in a hot oven (375 F.) fifteen minutes and serve 
immediately. 

California is probably responsible for more unusual ideas in salads 
than any other one community, although all the states which grow 
oranges and grapefruit have been busy in the last few years concocting 
mixtures of raw fruit and vegetables with a tart dressing. Here are 
some of California's favorites : 

ORANGE AND ONION SALAD 

On a bed of lettuce leaves arrange two very thin slices Bermuda 
onion, on the onion one-half-inch slices of peeled orange, another layer 
of onion and a second of orange. Garnish with pine nuts cut in slices 
and small sprigs of watercress. Serve with French dressing. 

ORANGE AND MINT SALAD 

Slice oranges very thin; chill; dip into finely minced mint and serve 
with French dressing on lettuce or some other salad green. 

ORANGE AND RAISIN SALAD 

1 cup raisins 3^ CU P orange juice 

2 tablespoons lemon juice 

Cook all together for ten minutes; drain; cool; mix with orange 
sections cut fine. Combine with chopped lettuce or other salad greens 
and serve marinated with French dressing. 

AVOCADO IN THE HALF SHELL 

Chill the fruit ; cut lengthwise ; remove stone and serve with mayon- 
naise or French dressing, or just salt, pepper and lemon juice, in the 
hollow. Eat with a spoon. 

PIMIENTO CHEESE SALAD 

J4 pound pimiento green peppers, cleaned 

cheese and tops cut off, in- 

5 tablespoons sour cream teriors marinated in 

1 teaspoon plain gelatin French dressing 

1 tablespoon cold water salt, pepper 

French dressing lettuce 

Soften gelatin in cold water and dissolve over hot water. Add this to 
the cheese which has been rubbed through grater and made smooth and 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 



159 



moist with cream. Stuff peppers with mixture and place in coldest part 
of refrigerator. When very cold, slice in thin rings and arrange these 
on a bed of crisp lettuce. Serve with French dressing. 

WATERCRESS SALAD 

Combine a head of lettuce chopped, sections of one ripe grapefruit 
and sections of two oranges, three quartered red ripe tomatoes, four 
stalks chopped celery, one peeled and diced apple with two bunches 
watercress. Toss with French dressing. Have all cold. Serve garnished 
with the large California green-ripe or black-ripe olives. The former are 
fairly new to the market but already Californians are telling the rest of 
the country how good these are. And they're right. 

VEGETABLE SALAD WITH CHEESE 



I cup cooked string beans 
Yi cup cooked peas 
y 2 cup cooked kidney 

beans 
Yz cup Swiss cheese, 

grated 
y 2 teaspoon each salt, 

pepper, paprika and 

dry mustard 



1 large tomato, cut in 

pieces 
6 tablespoons olive oil 

2 tablespoons lemon 

juice 
I tablespoon chopped 
parsley and olives 



Make salad dressing by mixing oil, lemon juice and seasonings. Add 
chopped parsley and olives. Mix vegetables and cheese thoroughly and 
marinate with dressing. Serve on very crisp lettuce. 

CALIFORNIA CHICKEN SALAD 

Combine equal parts of cold cooked chicken cut in small pieces and 
cut celery, and moisten with French dressing. Allow to stand long 
enough to marinate. When ready to serve add a tablespoon of diced 
oranges and peeled and seeded white grapes to each service of chicken 
salad. Serve on crisp lettuce, garnished with mayonnaise. 



ORANGE SALAD DRESSING 



y 2 cup orange juice 
2 tablespoons lemon 

juice 
J4 teaspoon salt 

Mix thoroughly, chill. 



1/16 teaspoon grated 

nutmeg 
few grains cayenne 
y$ teaspoon paprika 



160 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



GOLDEN SALAD DRESSING 

yi cup pineapple juice y$ teaspoon salt 

y cup orange juice 2 eggs, beaten sep- 
2 tablespoons lemon arately 

juice y$ cup sugar 

Mix fruit juices and heat in enameled or glass double boiler with 
salt. Beat egg yolks until thick and lemon-colored, gradually adding 
half of the sugar; then, while beating constantly, add hot fruit juices; 
return to double boiler and cook, stirring constantly until thick and 
smooth. Beat whites of eggs until stiff; add remaining sugar and com- 
bine with first mixture just before removing from fire. 

GOLD RUSH SOUFFLE 

2 cups mashed, drained, y 2 teaspoon .salt 

steamed summer y% teaspoon paprika or 
squash white pepper 

2 eggs 

The squash must not be too watery. Season it and mix with beaten 
egg yolks. Fold in the stiff whites last and pour into a greased baking 
dish (individual ramekins if possible). Set in a pan containing one inch 
of hot water and bake in a moderate oven (350 F.) for about thirty 
minutes for a large dish, or fifteen for individual dishes. Serve at once. 

CALIFORNIA TAMALE PIE 

2 cups yellow corn meal 2 large onions 
6 cups water 2 cups tomatoes, canned 

\y 2 teaspoons salt 2 tablespoons fat 

1 pound hamburg steak salt and pepper to taste 
2 or 3 teaspoons chile powder 

Boil the water, add salt, and very slowly add the corn meal, stirring 
it steadily to avoid lumps. (Bouillon cubes in the water add to the 
flavor.) Allow to cook slowly for half an hour, stirring it often. Lightly 
brown the sliced onions in the fat, add the ground meat and allow it to 
cook for three minutes, then add the tomatoes and seasoning and allow 
to come to a boil. 

Line a large baking dish, bottom and sides, with the cooled corn- 
meal mush; put in the seasoned meat mixture; cover with the mush, 
cooled in broken pieces, and bake until well browned (about half an 
hour). The meat and juices so permeate the corn meal that it is scarcely 
recognizable. 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 161 



CALIFORNIA SPANISH PEPPERS 

6 bell peppers y 2 clove garlic 

2 cups chopped shrimps I teaspoon grated bread 

1 tablespoon chopped % teaspoon pepper 

celery 34 teaspoon mustard 

*/g teaspoon salt nutmeg grating 

i egg I tablespoon butter 

Cut stem ends off peppers, remove seeds and place in cold salted water 
for a half hour. Cream butter ; add seasonings, beaten egg, crumbs and 
shrimps, chopped with outer shell and black threads removed, and lastly 
garlic cut very fine and celery. Stuff the pepper pods with this mixture 
and bake twenty minutes in a hot oven. 

CALIFORNIA CARROTS 

Choose the tenderest young sweet carrots, scrape and boil until tender. 
Cut lengthwise in halves, dip in thick honey and place in a baking dish 
with the bottom thinly covered with fine olive oil. Sprinkle thickly with 
grated cheese and salt and place in a hot oven and brown for about 
fifteen minutes. 

GOLDEN STATE SWEET POTATOES 

6 sweet potatoes y 2 teaspoon salt 

y 2 cup walnuts or pecans i teaspoon sugar 

1 6 marshmallows y 2 cup cream 

2 tablespoons butter nutmeg gratings 

Peel and boil sweet potatoes until tender. Drain, place in a mixing 
bowl and mash with butter, sugar, salt, nutmeg and cream. Chop the 
nuts and add to potatoes. Spread mixture in a square cake tin; lay on 
marshmallows, close together, and bake in a hot oven until brown. 

CHILLED ORANGE SOUP 

3 oranges I ounce blanched 
i lemon almonds 
\y 2 pints water I cup sugar 

y 2 teaspoon vanilla i tablespoon melted 

3 eggs butter 

Squeeze juice of orange and lemon and add one half teaspoon grated 
lemon rind, and the sugar, to the strained juice. Beat yolks of eggs, drip 
into them the melted butter, like oil, and three cups of hot water; then 



162 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

pour the eggs into the juice, place in double boiler, then fold in the whites 
of eggs. Stir constantly until it becomes creamy. Blanch almonds and 
slice. Serve the soup in glass cups, very cold, with three or four almonds 
in each cup and top with a spoonful of whipped cream and grated orange 
peel. 

ORCHARD GROWERS BREAD 

4 cups pastry flour i cup milk 

6 tablespoons baking iy 2 tablespoons grated 

powder orange peel 

1 teaspoon salt Yz cup orange juice 

y 2 cup sugar y 2 cup candied orange or 

3 tablespoons melted orange marmalade 

butter I egg 

Sift flour, salt and baking powder together, then add the sugar and 
grated peel. Combine this with the flour, adding it alternately with the 
liquid (milk and orange juice). Stir in the candied orange or marmalade 
and last add the well-beaten egg. Pour into a greased loaf tin and allow 
to stand for twenty minutes. Then bake in a moderate oven for forty 
minutes to an hour. 

ORANGE BISCUITS 

2 cups flour 2 tablespoons shortening 

5 teaspoons baking 16 small lumps sugar 

powder I orange, juice and 

i teaspoon salt grated rind 

y 2 to y^ cup milk 

Sift dry ingredients together, cut in shortening with a knife and add 
enough milk to make a soft dough. Roll three fourths inch thick, cut 
out with small round cutter and place close together in greased pan. 
Grate the yellow rind from the orange over the biscuits. Squeeze the 
juice, dip a lump of sugar into the juice and press into center of each 
biscuit. Bake in hot oven. 

The dried-fruit cookery of the country has been vastly stimulated by 
the development of the dried-fruit industry in California. Prunes, apri- 
cots, raisins, pears and peaches, the first three especially, have been used 
in exceptionally good recipes, some of which are easily traced back to 
Southern and New England origin, and some newly devised by home 
economists working for the dried-fruit industry. 

RAISIN WHEELS 

Roll biscuit mixture a quarter inch thick, brush over with melted 
shortening. Sprinkle with two tablespoons of brown, granulated or 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 



163 



maple sugar, a third teaspoon cinnamon, and cover with seedless raisins. 
Roll like jelly roll, cut off slices three quarters inch thick. Bake on well- 
greased pan in hot oven (400 F.) fifteen minutes. Delicious also with 
cooked dried apricots, finely chopped, in place of the raisons. 

RAISIN AND NUT BREAD 



2 cups flour 

4 teaspoons baking 

powder 
y 2 teaspoon salt 
1 cup seedless raisins 



y 2 cup chopped walnuts 
1 egg, beaten 
Yx cup sugar 
1 cup milk 
1 tablespoon melted 
shortening 



Sift dry ingredients, except sugar, and add raisins and nuts. Mix 
gradually egg and sugar, then milk and melted shortening. Combine 
mixtures. Put in well-greased bread pan and allow to stand twenty min- 
utes before baking. Bake about thirty-five minutes in a moderately hot 
oven (375 F.). Cool before cutting. 

RAISIN ROLLED COOKIES 



y 2 cup shortening 

1 cup sugar, granulated 

or brown 
1 egg, well beaten 
Yz cup milk 
1Y2 cups rolled oats 
1 cup seedless raisins 



iY> cups flour 

y 2 teaspoon salt 

]/ 2 teaspoon soda 

2 teaspoons cinnamon 

y 2 teaspoon nutmeg 

y 2 teaspoon ginger 

y 2 cup chopped walnuts 



Cream shortening well ; add sugar gradually and continue to cream ; 
add egg, milk, rolled oats, raisins and chopped nuts. Mix and sift dry 
ingredients and add to first mixture. Drop from tip of spoon on a well- 
greased pan, about three inches apart, and bake in a moderate oven 
about fifteen minutes. 



SAN FRANCISCO PRUNE BARS 



3 e gg s 

1 cup sugar 

1 cup flour 
1 teaspoon baking 
powder 



1 cup dried prunes 
1 cup chopped nuts 
}i teaspoon salt 
powdered sugar or 
frosting 



Wash and soak prunes two or three hours, dry, cut in small pieces. 
Beat yolks of eggs and add sugar. Beat whites until stiff and add 
alternately with dry ingredients. Add nuts and prunes and bake in a 



164 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

shallow pan in a moderate oven (350 F. to 375° F.) about thirty 
minutes. Remove from pan, cut in bars one inch by three inches and 
roll in powdered sugar, or frost with chocolate frosting. Will make 
about twenty bars. 

VALLEY PRUNE COFFEE CAKE 



2 eggs 

1 cup sugar 


]/ 2 cup milk 

Yz cup melted short- 


2 cups flour 
2 teaspoons baking 
powder 


ening 
1 teaspoon vanilla 
prunes, chopped nuts 



Beat eggs, add sugar. Sift flour and baking powder together and add 
to mixture alternately with milk. Beat until smooth ; add melted short- 
ening and vanilla. Pour into greased shallow baking pans, cover with 
well-washed, split, uncooked, pitted prunes. Then sprinkle chopped wal- 
nuts over all. Bake in a moderate oven (350 F.) about thirty minutes. 
Cut in squares and serve with or without whipped cream. Serves six to 
eight. 

BAKED BANANAS WITH RAISINS 

Peel and slice bananas. Put a layer in a buttered baking dish ; sprinkle 
a little lemon juice over the top and add a layer of seedless or seeded 
raisins; add another layer of sliced bananas and raisins. Make a thin 
syrup of one third cup sugar and one half cup of water, pour over 
fruit, cover and bake until bananas are soft. 

The fish cookery of the Southwest has a definitely Spanish flavor, and 
along the Gulf in some spots is Portugese ; the recipes given for Louisiana 
fish cookery are applicable to other Gulf regions. Also, California fish 
recipes may be very Spanish in character, or in the big hotels and 
restaurants French and Italian, as it is elsewhere in many high first- 
class restaurants. Californians probably think their fish dishes unique, 
but comparing them with those on the Atlantic there is little funda- 
mental difference. And since space limitations must be made somewhere 
on this far-flung Western shore, we are making it with the fish and 
letting the oranges, the dried fruit, nuts and avocados have the space. 

This is also true of Oregon, where exceptional fish cookery is enjoyed. 
The oysters are small, the clams big; but the prepared dishes not 
radically different from those already described on the Atlantic seaboard. 

In Lebanon, Oregon, where many claim that the strawberries grow 
the most flavorful, every year during the first week in June there is a 
Strawberry Fair and the town plays host to all its visitors and provides 
a handsome and delicious cake supposedly to be shared by all comers. 
The strawberry cake, some twelve feet wide and fifteen feet long, makes 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 



165 



triumphal progress through the streets of the town aboard a large truck, 
attended by rose floats, the Strawberry Queen and Princesses. The cake 
feeds more than ten thousand guests, so perhaps it is not surprising that 
the recipe calls for three hundred pounds of sugar, four hundred pounds 
of flour, twenty pounds of baking powder, one hundred twenty quarts 
of milk, one hundred ten pounds shortening, nine hundred sixty eggs, 
five pounds salt, two quarts flavoring extract, one thousand six hundred 
pounds strawberries and forty gallons whipped cream. 

But Lebanon housewives go right on making their cakes like this: 

STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE 



2 cups flour 

4 or 5 teaspoons baking 

powder 
I teaspoon salt 
Yz cup shortening 



J4 cup milk 

i egg, beaten 

4 cups strawberries, 

sweetened to taste 



Sift dry ingredients together several times. Cut in shortening, gradu- 
ally add milk combined with egg, stirring continuously. Pat out or roll 
out to size of large round baking tin (about one inch thick) and bake 
in hot oven (400 F.) fifteen minutes. Have ready four cups of 
crushed strawberries, sweetened to taste; it is good to let them stand 
a while with the sugar and beat slightly. When the shortcake is done, 
split, butter it hot, spread with crushed sweetened berries, cover with 
other half of shortcake, crust side down, spread and serve at once with 
heavy unwhipped cream. 



PACIFIC RED PINEAPPLE SAUCE 



1 cup fresh Oregon 
strawberries 



1 cup sugar 

1 cup pineapple juice 

Mash the strawberries and add sugar. Combine with pineapple juice 
and cook very slowly for half an hour, stirring frequently. Use enameled 
saucepan. Serve hot on cake or puddings or cold on ice cream. 



OREGON DRESSING FOR FRUIT SALAD 



J4 cup mayonnaise 

(made with lemon 
juice) 

% cup fresh straw- 
berries 



2 tablespoons confec- 
tioners' sugar 
J4 cup cream, whipped 
1 tablespoon lemon 
juice 



Hull and crush the strawberries and combine with mayonnaise, lemon 
juice and sugar, then fold in the whipped cream. 



166 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



OREGON HAM SLICE 

I slice ham, i inch thick i cup crushed straw- 

2 /z cup sugar berries 

8 cloves 2 tablespoons lemon 

juice 

Brown ham in an iron skillet, either in one piece or cut in four serv- 
ing portions. Place in baking dish with pan drippings and two tablespoons 
each strawberry juice and water. Cover and bake in moderate oven 
(375° F.) for one hour to ninety minutes or until almost done. Combine 
sugar, crushed berries and lemon juice and bring to boiling. Remove 
ham from oven, stick fat with the cloves, pour hot fruit juice over it 
and return to oven for fifteen minutes longer. Garnish with sauteed 
pineapple slices with sugared strawberry in center of each. 



SALEM PRUNE SALAD 

prunes, soaked or i cup boiling water 

steamed y 2 cup sugar 

y 2 envelope plain gelatin ]/ 2 cup lemon juice 

y 2 cup cold water mayonnaise 

Soak gelatin five minutes in cold water; add boiling water, sugar; 
stir until dissolved. Add lemon juice, strain into shallow mold and set 
aside until firm. Just before serving pit soaked or steamed prunes, allow- 
ing four prunes for each service. Stuff centers with seasoned cream or 
snappy cheese. Cut the jelly into cubes and arrange on crisp lettuce 
with the prunes. Garnish with thick mayonnaise. 



HOOD RIVER APPLE TURNOVERS 

Make your regulation pastry for apple pies. Roll it out one eighth 
inch thick and cut in five-inch circles. (For extra lusciousness spread 
the pastry with softened butter.) Pare, quarter and core about five large 
Baldwin apples. Slice the quarters thinly and divide between the pastry 
circles. Make a mixture of three quarters cup sugar, one tablespoon 
flour and one teaspoon cinnamon; sprinkle the apples with two table- 
spoons of the mixture for each turnover. Wet the edges of the pastry 
with cold water and turn over, pressing the edges together with a fork. 
Prick the top in two or three places and bake in a hot oven (425 F.) 
for fifteen to twenty minutes. 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 167 

WILLAMETTE VALLEY 
LOGANBERRY CHARLOTTE 

8 slices bread ( l / 2 inch I quart loganberries 

thick) I cup sugar 

J4 cup butter J4 CU P cream, whipped 

Remove the crusts from the bread and butter the slices. Stew berries 
and sugar about fifteen minutes. Put slice of bread on serving dish, cover 
with hot berries, repeat until all are used, pouring what is left of berries 
and juice over and around. Chill. Serve with whipped cream. 

OREGON SAUSAGE AND BAKED APPLES 

Use about one pound of well-seasoned sausage meat for six large 
greening apples. Break up the sausage and brown quickly in an iron pan. 
Add to this enough fresh bread crumbs to absorb the fat. As sausage 
varies greatly in the amount of fat it gives off it may be well to take out 
two tablespoonfuls and use fewer bread crumbs (about half the amount 
of the cooked sausage). Wash and core the apples, cut off a thick slice 
from the small end and peel the apple one third of the way down. Stuff 
the core well with the sausage dressing, heaping it up on top of the 
apple. Place in a pan with half an inch of hot water and bake forty- 
five to sixty minutes in a moderate oven. Since there is a long baking 
you do not want the sausage stuffing to get too dry, therefore it should 
be quite moist when filled into the apples. 

RASPBERRY CREAM FROM THE 
WILLAMETTE VALLEY 

1J/2 tablespoons plain i l / 2 cups scalding hot 

gelatin milk 

l / 2 cup cold water i teaspoon butter 

2 eggs, beaten sep- y$ teaspoon salt 

ately I teaspoon vanilla 

y 2 cup sugar i cup cream, whipped 

raspberries 

Soak gelatin in water five minutes. Mix beaten egg yolks and sugar, 
pour hot milk over slowly, put in double boiler with gelatin, butter and 
salt. Cook until the mixture thickens, about fifteen minutes. Strain, 
beat two minutes, let cool. Add vanilla, fold in stiff egg whites, then 
whipped cream. Turn into mold lined with raspberries, chill for three 
hours or more. Unmold to serve and garnish with whipped cream. 



168 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Southern Oregon pears are so succulent that they do not require any- 
special preparation for dessert and are most often served raw, with or 
without cheese ; but here are two recipes coming from the pear country : 

MEDFORD BAKED PEARS 

5 large pears candied ginger 

6 tablespoons sugar 3 egg whites 

grated lemon peel *4 CU P powdered sugar 

Pare and core the pears ; place them in a baking dish and fill the 
center of each with one tablespoon of sugar and a little grated lemon 
peel or candied ginger or both mixed together. Add three or four table- 
spoons of water and bake until tender. Cover with a meringue made 
with stiffly beaten egg whites and sugar. Brown quickly. 

ROGUE RIVER VALLEY 
PEAR CROQUETTES 

3 pears 2 cups milk 

y 2 cup rice 1 lemon 

2 tablespoons sugar 1 egg 
ladyfingers and angelica 

Put the milk and sugar in a saucepan, bring to boiling and add the rice 
and grated lemon rind. Stir over the fire until the rice is tender and milk 
absorbed. Turn this onto a plate, put aside to cool. Halve pears and 
stuff hollow side with rice, shaped like a cone, so they look like whole 
pears when finished. Beat egg; crush ladyfingers and press through a 
sieve; dip stuffed pears in the egg, then in the ladyfinger crumbs. Have 
ready a kettle of hot shortening and lower the pears into this fat and 
fry until golden brown. Drain them on thick paper toweling. Insert a 
small piece of angelica in the end of each to represent a pear stalk and 
leaf. Serve hot with whipped cream. 

If pears are very hard, first parboil a few minutes in a thin sugar 
syrup ; if tender and soft, boiling is not needed. 

BEAN-HOLE COOKERY 

In Oregon and Washington bean-hole cookery, initiated by the Indians 
and adopted by pioneers, still continues as a picnic stunt. A hole is filled 
with bristling hot stones and a closely covered earthen pot, filled with 
beans prepared for baking, is sunk into it. The spaces around the bean 
pot are filled in with more hot stones, covered with earth, and the beans 
are left for several hours to bake. It is rather practical, too, because 
you can go about your business without giving the beans another thought 
until they are ready to be eaten. 



THE SOUTHWEST AND THE WEST 169 

Sweet corn is also adapted to the bean-hole method of cookery. It is 
cleaned, silked, salted, then rewrapped around and crosswise in its husks 
and enclosed in the bean hole that has been lined with red-hot stones. 
A half-hour will be sufficient to complete the roasting. 

But perhaps the Indian method of cooking chicken or fowl is the most 
novel. The entrails are removed from the bird and salt and pepper or 
other seasoning is inserted, but the feathers are left on. Then, feathers 
and all, it is wrapped in a mud paste of clean earth and dropped into 
the hot bean hole, covered, and left to bake for several hours, accord- 
ing to the size of the bird. When done the mud, feathers and skin are 
torn off all in one and the juicy fowl eaten with the ringers. The 
chicken can also be prepared the same way and roasted in the coals of 
a campflre in the manner of little boys' potato bakes. 

WASHINGTON STATE PEACH PIE 

On a layer of sponge cake place a generous layer of tender, juicy, 
ripe, sliced peaches. Cover all with a thick meringue made by folding 
one third cup of sugar into two stiffly beaten egg whites. Place in a 
moderately slow oven (325 F.) to brown. Cool and serve with whipped 
cream sweetened with one teaspoon powdered sugar to each cup of 
cream. 



CHAPTER VI 

States' Evidence 



Here are menus from every state, as prepared by leading home econ- 
omists who either are natives of the states they represent or who have 
worked so long in the communities that they are thoroughly familiar 
with the produce of the local farms, orchards and streams and have 
generously prepared these samples for this book. In some cases recipes 
accompanied the menus and these are printed in this section of the book 
to substantiate the fine promise of the menus themselves. 

May your gourmet's tour of this continent, and that dash to Hawaii 
and Puerto Rico, repay you with a perfect digestion. 

ALABAMA 

Menu and recipes from Lois A. Ackerley, Director of School of Home 
Economics, Alabama College, Montevallo. 

ALABAMA RECIPES 
SCUPPERNONG COCKTAIL 

Wash and stem one gallon scuppernongs ; heat slowly and cook at low 
temperature until scuppernongs are soft. Strain. To each pint juice add 
one quarter cup sugar. Cook for an hour with temperature just below 
boiling. Then bottle and seal. When serving, use equal quantities water 
and scuppernong juice. 

BAMA SOUP 

2 pecks ripe tomatoes 12 ears corn 

y 2 peck okra 1 pint chopped onions 

Plunge tomatoes into boiling water for a moment; skin, chop fine, 
and boil thirty minutes ; then add one cup salt, onions, okra cut into thin 

170 



STATES' EVIDENCE 171 



Menu 

Scuppernong cocktail 
Chinquapin canapes 

Bama soup 

Crab de Mobile 

or 

Fish coquilles 

Fig preserves Blackberry jam Peach pickle 

Watermelon rind pickles Chowchow 

Choice of 

Roast possum and sweet taters Barbecued pork 

Black Belt fried chicken and puffs 

Candied yams Hoppin' John 

Boiled collards Okra dobe 

Lemon ice 

Choice of 
Spoon bread Biscuits Hoecake 

Wire Grass quail 
Buttered grits Browned gravy 

Thorsby lettuce salad 
Cheese straws Goldenrod dressing 

Choice of 
Fort Deposit pie Greenville spice cake 

Muscadine pie Cotton Boll Russe 

Demitasse 
Salted goobers Ribbon-cane mints 



172 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



rings, and corn cut and scraped from cobs. Cook until done. Seal while 
boiling hot in pint jars. Keep in dark closet. To make soup, add one cup 
of this mixture to one quart of milk and heat. 



CRAB DE MOBILE 



iy 2 dozen boiled crabs 

i cup bread 

Yz cup milk 

i cup cream 

2 tablespoons butter 



y teaspoon grated 

onion 
y 2 pod red pepper 

1 teaspoon salt 

y 2 teaspoon chopped 
parsley 

2 hard-boiled eggs 



Pick crabs, mix with bread, salt, pepper and hard-boiled eggs minced. 
Boil cream and milk with onion, butter and parsley and pour over 
crabs. Put into shells. Put bread crumbs and bits of butter upon top of 
crabs and bake about ten minutes. 



FISH COQUILLES 



2 cups cooked fish 

1 cup Irish potatoes 

2 cups rich milk 
salt and pepper 



1 heaping tablespoon 

butter 

2 level tablespoons 

flour 
Worcestershire sauce 



nutmeg 



Mix minced fish and mashed potatoes; season with salt and pepper 
and place in coquille shells or baking dish. Make a cream sauce of butter, 
flour and milk; remove from fire and add salt, pepper, Worcestershire 
and dash of nutmeg. Pour sauce over fish, brown in oven and serve 
immediately. 



FIG PRESERVES 

Gather firm figs with stems. Soak thirty-six at a time in weak lime- 
water, about fifteen minutes. Scrape off the outer brown skin, begin- 
ning at the stem and scraping down towards you; scrape stem also. 
Weigh and then wash fruit, but do not let it remain in water. Weigh an 
equal amount of sugar. Add three quarters cup water for each pound of 
sugar. Boil syrup twenty minutes, skim frequently, add figs and boil 
rapidly; after boiling ten minutes add two lemons sliced, with seeds and 
the yellow, but not the white rind, removed. When figs are done remove 



STATES' EVIDENCE 173 

and place in sun, on dishes, until syrup is almost as thick as honey. Add 
fruit, let boil and pour immediately into jars and seal. If you want 
beautiful preserves cook only ten or twelve pounds or about a peck at 
each cooking. 



ROAST POSSUM AND SWEET TATERS 

Scald the opossum with lye and scrape off the hair. Dress whole, leav- 
ing on head and tail. Rub well with salt and put in a cool place over- 
night. When ready to cook put in a deep pan with one quart of water, 
place three or four slices of breakfast bacon across the breast and put 
in oven. When half done remove from oven and stuff with a dressing 
made of bread crumbs, a little onion, salt and pepper and possum juice 
taken from the pan in which it has been cooking. Return to pan and 
place around it some small peeled sweet potatoes and bake all until 
light brown, basting frequently with gravy. 



BARBECUED PORK 

3 pounds pork shoulder 2 onions 

y 2 cup ketchup I y 2 teaspoons salt 

J4 teaspoon tabasco *4 teaspoon chile powder 

sauce I cup water 

Use heavy pot with fitting lid. Put half the pork in the bottom and 
cover with a layer of thinly sliced onions. Combine ketchup, salt, 
tabasco sauce, chile powder and water, and pour half this sauce over the 
meat and onions. Put in another layer of meat and onions and the re- 
mainder of sauce. Cover pot and bake for two hours in a moderate 
oven (350° F.). 



BLACK BELT FRIED CHICKEN 
AND PUFFS 

Kill and dress chicken the day before it is to be cooked ; salt, and place 
in the refrigerator. When ready to cook, wash, flour well and put into 
skillet with hot lard. Cook until a golden brown, remove from fat and 
place on paper to drain. Have ready some rich biscuit dough, roll thin, 
cut into strips about one by two and one half inches. Drop into the hot 
grease and fry a golden brown. Remove and drain on paper. Pour off 
grease, reserving about one half cup in skillet. To this, add pepper and 
about one half cup milk; stir well and pour into gravy dish. Garnish 
chicken with parsley and the puffs. 

To flour chicken evenly, put into paper bag with flour and shake well. 



174 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



CANDIED YAMS 

Peel and slice lengthwise raw sweet potatoes, cover with water and 
boil. When nearly done add about three quarters cup of sugar, two 
heaping tablespoons butter and cinnamon, if desired. Place inside of 
oven and cook until the top potatoes are slightly brown and syrup thick. 

OKRA DOBE 

Fry until light brown, three slices lean ham, one large onion and one 
tablespoon butter. Add one pint of boiling water, one large can of 
tomatoes, twenty-four whole okras, pepper and salt. Cook slowly for 
about forty-five minutes. Serve with rice. 

HOECAKE 

Moisten salted corn meal with scalding water or milk. Allow it to 
stand for an hour. Put two or three teaspoons of this on hot greased 
griddle. Smooth it out to make cakes one half inch thick and let it cook. 
When one side is done, turn over and brown the other. Serve very hot. 
This dish goes well with sausage and turnip greens. 

WIRE GRASS QUAIL 

Clean the birds as for stuffing, rub with butter, pepper and salt ; wrap 
in sheets of letter paper and cook slowly in roasting pan. 

CHEESE STRAWS 

2 cups grated cheese i heaping tablespoon 

2 cups sifted flour butter 

i teaspoon salt y teaspoon red pepper 

Make into stiff dough with ice-cold sweet milk and water mixed. 
Roll thin, cut into narrow strips and bake quickly. 

GOLDENROD DRESSING 

3 eggs I teaspoon salt 

i cup milk Yz teaspoon dry mustard 

Yz cup vinegar 2 teaspoons olive oil or 

cayenne melted butter 

Beat eggs until light; add milk, oil or butter, pepper, salt and 
mustard dissolved in vinegar. Cook in double boiler until thick. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 175 



FORT DEPOSIT PIE 

4 large eggs J4 of a quarter-pound 

J4 cup sugar stick creamery 

2 cups pecans butter 

I J4 CU P S ribbon-cane syrup 

Melt butter in an iron skillet until light brown ; add sugar, add eggs, 
one at a time, beating separately. Add ribbon-cane syrup and pecans and 
pour on an unbaked crust and bake in a moderate oven (about 375° F.) 
about thirty to thirty-five minutes until brown and firm. 

MUSCADINE PIE 

2 eggs (optional) i cup sugar 

i tablespoon butter 2 cups muscadines 

Beat eggs with sugar until light; add butter and muscadines. Cook 
in pastry with "latticed" top. Sprinkle lightly with sugar while hot. 
Serve with hard butter sauce flavored with nutmeg. 

GREENVILLE SPICE CAKE 

I cup butter i cup milk 

3 cups brown sugar i teaspoon soda 
3 eggs i cup raisins 
3 J /> cups flour i cup pecans 

I tablespoon each : ground cloves, mace, nutmeg, cinnamon 

Cream sugar with butter ; add well-beaten yolks. Add alternately the 
flour with which spices have been sifted and milk; add soda dissolved 
in one tablespoon warm water, raisins and nuts well floured and whites 
of eggs. Bake in a moderate oven fifty minutes. Ice with mocha icing. 

COTTON BOLL RUSSE 



12 marshmallows 


1 8 candied cherries 


% cup macaroons 


i tablespoon gelatin 


6 mint gumdrops 


Y\ cup cold water 


% cup boiling water 


]/ 2 cup sugar 


2 cups heavy cream 


i teaspoon vanilla 




extract 



Cut marshmallows and one dozen candied cherries into small pieces; 
crush macaroons. Sprinkle the gelatin on the cold water and dissolve 
with the boiling water. Then add the sugar and stir until dissolved. 
Whip the cream until it begins to thicken ; add vanilla extract ; gradually 



176 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

beat gelatin mixture into the cream and continue beating until stiff. 
Fold in marshmallows, cherries and macaroons. Serve in sherbet glasses 
garnished with bits of candied cherries and green mint gumdrops which 
have been cut with scissors. 

(Substitute any candied or well-drained preserved fruit for the cher- 
ries, and nut meats or stale cake crumbs for macaroons.) 

BISCUITS 

2 cups flour 3 tablespoons fat 

y 2 teaspoon soda buttermilk to make soft 

Yz teaspoon salt dough (approximately 

H cu p) 

Sift flour, soda and salt together; add the fat, and cut or rub it into 
the flour; add milk to make a soft dough; knead lightly and roll one half 
inch thick. Cut out and bake in a hot oven (400 F. to 450 F.). 



ALASKA 

Visitors to Alaska vary in their comment on the food there because 
some go as tourists, taking a quick boat trip, while others called there 
on business fly in and out so quickly that if they eat at all it is from 
a packed lunch some thoughtful friend provided before the start. Those 
stationed there for Government jobs eat the fish and reindeer and fill 
out on a menu of canned foods of which, thanks to modern ingenuity, 
there is now no limit. So a menu for Alaska might be the woodsman's 
or miner's beans, biscuits and bacon, with the inevitable tea or coffee, 
camp fashion; or fish or reindeer, bear or moose, roasted or broiled, and 
a good variety of canned fruits and vegetables, biscuits and coffee ; wild 
fowl, in some localities and some seasons, cooked with local wild berries 
is available. 

Menus vary also with the ingenuity and origin of the cook; there are 
reports from Alaskan travelers of superb dinners cooked by Chinese 
chefs; or amazing spaghetti dinners subtly created by an Italian cook 
who loves the land as his own; of camp dinners with pork and beans, 
catsup, hot biscuits, superb coffee and the finest of bacon, feeding hungry 
men who were yet not so hungry as to be oblivious to nuances of season- 
ing. And Alaskans claim the best salmon in the world, with their own 
special variety of caviar and other sea delicacies, depending on their 
location. 

A dinner menu and breakfast menu from Ruth E. Tucker, Head of 
Home Economics, University of Alaska, at College, Alaska. 

"Sourdough is typical of this country. The recipe for sourdough waffles 
is somewhat of a modification of the product which is typical of the 
Alaskan prospector who started his sourdough pot with wild yeasts." 



STATES' EVIDENCE 177 

Dinner Menu 

Cordova crab cocktail 

Yukon bean soup 

Summit Lake greyling 

Choice of 

Reindeer roast Caribou roast 

Land of Midnight Sun mushroom sauce 

Tanana Valley potatoes 

Evergreen cabbage Alaskan peas 

Chena cranberry sherbet 

Hot rolls Matanuska Maid butter 

Strawberry preserves 

Golden Heart salad Wafers 

Arctic Circle blueberry shortcake 
Mt. McKinley sundae 

Demitasse 

Alaskan Breakfast 

Alaskan red raspberries 

Sourdough waffles 

Blueberry jam Syrup 

Coffee 

SOURDOUGH WAFFLES 

Mix this batter the day before and put in a warm place. 

1 cake dry yeast (soaked J4 CU P sugar 

in % cup water) 4 cups flour (enough to 

3 cups water make a batter which 

J / 2 cup powdered milk pours easily) 

Next day: 

Remove one cup of the above and keep for a starter. Add to the re- 
mainder: 

2 teaspoons salt ]/ 2 teaspoon soda dis- 
% cup melted fat solved in 1 table- 
2 beaten eggs spoon water 

Mix and bake in a hot waffle iron. 



178 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



ARIZONA 

Menu from Mary Adele Wood, Manager of Dining Hall at the 
University of Arizona, Tucson. 

Typical Arizona Menu 

Chilled Arizona ruby grapefruit 

Cream-of-chicken mushroom soup with butter 
Toasted wafers 

Choice of 

White Mountain trout 

Roast young olive-fed turkey 

Broiled lamb chops with Apache bacon 

Roast loin of milk-fed veal 

Venison Grand Canyon style 

Nogales hot tamales 

Desert quail 

Pomegranate ice Brandied figs 

Baked Phoenix yams or 
Frijoles with chili 



Eloy green asparagus 



or 



Baked Hopi squash 



Hot biscuits with orange blossom honey 
(Arizona rose flour) 

Winter lettuce from Salt River Valley 
Sunshine dressing 

Choice of 

Yuma strawberry sundae 

Maricopa date cake with whipped cream 

Valley cantaloupe a la mode 

Cactus candy Soft shell pecans 

"Cactus candy is made from the Barrel Cactus, the Visnaga (Bis- 
naga), which is quite famous and often called the 'Well of the Desert.' 
In the early days the Indian runner and many a desert traveler was 
saved from death by obtaining a drink from this water barrel. The usual 
method was to slice off the head with a knife or any sharp instrument, 



STATES' EVIDENCE 179 

then pound the inside tissues to a pulp and squeeze from this a quart 
or two of cool sweetish juice. 

"Cactus candy made by the Indian and Mexican method much re- 
sembles the old-fashioned watermelon rind preserves, practically the 
same routine being followed and the preserved bits being dried. The gen- 
eral recipe for making cactus candy would read as follows : 

"Select a plump green barrel cactus from the desert. Remove spines 
and thick green skin by chopping off with a hatchet or cutting with a 
strong knife. Cut the white pulp which remains in the size desired or in 
one- or one-and-a-half-inch cubes. 

"Prepare a mild lye by boiling lime in water, stir until it stops bub- 
bling and allow to settle. When clear pour it over the cactus pulp, 
enough to cover, and let it stand overnight. Use in the proportion of 
one half tablespoon of lime to one gallon of water. 

"In the morning remove cactus pulp from the lye and soak and wash 
in clear water until all the taste of lye is gone. Then boil in clear water. 
Drain the pulp and change the water a number of times while cooking. 
When the cactus pulp is tender but not too soft drop in ice-cold water 
and then drain. 

"Make a sugar syrup, allowing one pound of sugar for each pound 
of pulp. Add the cactus to the syrup and boil slowly in a covered vessel 
until the syrup is thick and the cactus well done. Let the pulp stand in 
the syrup a week or so then drain and dry. Confectioners throughout 
the Southwest who make cactus candy each have their own particular 
method. Some omit the lye process, claiming it removes some of the 
cactus flavor. Often a month is required to complete the preparation of 
the candy. Firms from which cactus candy may be obtained are : 

Donofrio's Confectionery Company 
North Central Avenue 
Phoenix, Arizona 

Cactus Catering Company 
237 East Congress Street 
Tucson, Arizona 

Congress Sweet Shop 
204 East Congress Street 
Tucson, Arizona 

"Many deer may be found in the Kaibab Forest, located on the North 
Rim of the Grand Canyon. During deer season this is a paradise for 
hunters. 

"Venison, Grand Canyon style, may be prepared in the following 
manner: 

"Cut venison in pieces the size of small roasts. Rub the meat well 
with salt and pepper. Place in a heavy roasting pan and add a small 
amount of broth or water. Tie pickling spices in a bag and add to the 



180 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

broth. Cover tightly and let the meat steam; at intervals baste with 
the broth in the pan and a basting mixture consisting of equal parts 
vinegar and salad oil seasoned with salt and pepper. Cook slowly until 
the meat is very tender and brown. 

"Remove the meat, slice or cut as desired. Dilute broth with water if 
concentrated. Add catsup to color and a little pepper sauce. Thicken 
with roux (mixture of butter and flour). Serve the sauce over the meat 
and garnish with sliced stuffed olives and parsley." 

POMEGRANATE ICE 

IJ4 quarts pomegranate i cup lemon juice 

juice iy 2 pounds sugar 

Y\ cup lime juice (Ari- i l / 2 to 2 quarts water, as 
zona red limes may desired 

be used) pink coloring 

Y^ ounce gelatin 

Select pomegranates with very red juicy seeds. Remove these seeds, 
being careful to discard all yellow membrane, which is bitter. Put seeds 
in a bag made of several thicknesses of cheesecloth. Crush seed berries 
and strain off juice. 

Soak gelatin in part of the cold water. Let stand ten minutes then 
dissolve over hot water. Combine gelatin, pomegranate juice, lemon and 
lime juice, sugar and remaining water. Stir until sugar is dissolved. If 
seed berries are very red no coloring will be needed, if berries are a light 
pink add coloring to obtain the shade desired. Put mixture into con- 
tainer of ice-cream freezer. 

Freeze, then pack with ice and salt or put in hardening room and let 
stand one and a half to two hours. Serve. 



ARKANSAS 

Menus from Isabella C. Wilson, Head of Home Economics Depart- 
ment, University of Arkansas, College of Agriculture, Fayetteville. 

"The folks in Arkansas have so many good things to eat, and such 
different foods at different seasons of the year and in different sections 
of the state, that I am sending you several different menus; a game 
dinner to be served to hunters, a plantation dinner, an early summer 
dinner and a duck dinner. You can take your choice or use all of them. 

"Arkansas has fine fruits; strawberries, youngberries, Boysenberries, 
raspberries, grapes, peaches, figs and watermelons. 

"The most common meats are poultry, kid, lamb, mutton and fresh 
pork. There is also an abundance of game and fish. 

"The favorite breads are biscuit and variations of corn bread, from 
pan bread to corn dodgers. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 181 

"The Mexican influence has extended this far east and north. One 
finds tomatoes, onions, garlic and pepper, and hotter foods than further 
north. Also the Mexican chopped hot vegetable salads are popular. 

"Collard and turnip greens are very popular and all forms of field 
peas, such as Crowder peas, Lady peas, Black-eyed peas, etc. 

"There are many wild greens and fruits which are much used and 
relished by the people ; Muscadine grapes, possum persimmon, wild 
plum, watercress, hickory nuts, hazelnuts, chestnuts, walnuts and chin- 
quapins. The wild fruits are eaten fresh and also made into many de- 
licious products for the winter. 

"The recipes were prepared by Miss Zilpha Battey of the foods and 
cookery division of our university." 



Arkansas Game Dinner 

Tomato juice cocktail 
Crackers Celery Olives 

Broiled mountain trout 
Sliced cucumbers Lattice potatoes 

Broiled quail 
Biscuit Gravy 

Baked stuffed wild duck 
Brown rice pudding Candied sweet potatoes 

Roast saddle of venison 

Muscadine preserves 

Green beans Venison gravy Corn bread 

Watercress salad 

Pecan transparent pie 

Coffee 



Plantation Dinner 

Vegetable soup 

Backbones 
Lady peas Browned potatoes Collard greens 

Slaw 



Corn dodger 

Fried peach pie 

Coffee 



182 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

June Dinner 

Jellied tomato bouillon 
Wafers Celery Olives 

Broiled chicken 
New potatoes New peas 

Stuffed tomato salad 

Boysenberries 
Angel-food cake Coffee 

Arkansas Duck Dinner 

Tomato juice cocktail 
Crackers Olives Celery 

Roasted stuffed wild duck 
Brown rice stuffing Peas with mushrooms and 

hard-boiled eggs 
Sweet-potato croquettes Scuppernong jelly 

Orange, grapefruit and watercress salad 

Pecan transparent pie 

Coffee 

Ozark Mountain Dinner 

Roast young kid 

Crowder peas Turnip greens 

Whole boiled potatoes with gravy 

Corn bread Sorghum wilted lettuce 

Persimmon pudding 

Coffee 

Mary Rowdens Dinner 

Stewed chicken 

Fried ham Creamed eggs 

Green beans Mashed potatoes 
Candied sweets Slaw 

Corn bread Biscuit 

Watermelon pickle Cucumber pickle 

Raspberry jelly 

Pie Cake Coffee 



STATES' EVIDENCE 183 



PECAN PIES 

The recipe used for pecan pies in the Campus Cafeteria here is as 
follows : 

y 2 cup sugar I cup corn syrup 

3 whole eggs y 2 teaspoon vanilla 

y 2 cup crushed pecans i tablespoon butter 

pinch of salt 

Bake in a raw flaky paste shell in a moderate oven for ten minutes at 
400 F., then reduce heat to 350 F. and continue baking until firm. 

Another recipe for pecan pie is as follows : 

3 eggs, slightly beaten 1 cup corn syrup 

1/16 teaspoon salt 2 /$ cup pecan meats 

1 teaspoon vanilla 1 cup sugar 

Mix together all ingredients, adding nut meats last. Pour into nine- 
inch piepan lined with crust and bake in hot oven (450 F.) ten minutes, 
then reduce heat to moderate (350 F.) and continue baking until a 
silver knife blade inserted in center of filling comes out clean. 



PERSIMMON PUDDING 

The recipe for one persimmon pudding is as follows : 

1^2 cups persimmon 3 eggs 

pulp (run through 1 cup brown sugar 

a sieve) i l / 2 cups flour 

1 cup sweet milk l / 2 cup butter 

2 teaspoons baking cinnamon and 

powder cloves, to taste 

Steam in a pudding mold one and one half hours and serve with hard 
sauce or with dip. 

The following is a recipe for dip: 

i cup sweet milk 1 tablespoon flour 

y 2 cup sugar vanilla 

white of 1 egg 

Cook the flour, sugar and milk together until the raw taste is gone; 
let cool, add the beaten white of egg and nutmeg to flavor. 



184 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Another recipe for persimmon pudding is as follows : 

3 eggs, beaten I cup sieved persim- 

y 2 cup butter • mons 

Yz cup sweet milk 2 teaspoons baking 

2 cups raisins powder 

2 cups sugar i teaspoon cinnamon 

4 tablespoons flour 

Steam in buttered one-pound molds for three hours. 



CALIFORNIA 

Menu 

Fruit hors d'oeuvres 

{Grapefruit, white grapes, apricots, orange sections, 

green-ripe olives, carrot straws) 

Abalone steak with butter sauce 

Artichokes hollandaise 
California peas Souffle potatoes 

Cracked-wheat rolls Butter 

Half avocado with lemon dressing 

Fresh figs and cream 

Coffee 



ABALONE STEAK WITH BUTTER 
SAUCE 

The Abalone is a shellfish having but one shell found on the Pacific 
Coast. It often reaches a size of six inches and weighing twenty-five 
pounds to the dozen. 

The foot or muscle (with which it holds itself to the rocks with great 
tenacity) is the edible part of the fish. 

Slice the foot or muscle transversely. Lay on a flat, hard surface and 
pound gently until the fibers have completely relaxed ; season with salt 
and pepper, then dip in egg and crumbs and saute or pan-broil in bacon 
fat or olive oil over a moderate heat for about five minutes until slightly 
browned and tender to the fork. Care must be taken to pound well, to 
have the heat low and not to cook too long. Serve with melted butter. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 185 



COLORADO 

Menu from Patsy Shobe, Assistant Professor of Home Management 
at Colorado State College, Fort Collins. 

A Menu of Typical Colorado Foods 

Rocky Ford melon 

Puree of mile-high peas 

Choice of 

Fort Collins roast leg of lamb with mint jelly 

Fried mountain turkey with cranberry jelly 

Colorado Rocky Mountain rainbow trout with hollandaise 

sauce 

San Luis Valley Burbank Larimer County buttered 

puff potatoes peas 

Heart of Colorado pascal 
Fresh savory mushrooms celery 

Sweet Colorado State 
Pikes Peak hot rolls College butter 

North Park iceberg lettuce with roquefort cheese dressing 

Loveland early Richmond cherry pie 
Palisade peach ice cream 

Coffee 



PALISADE ICE CREAM 

4 cups light cream i l / 2 cups Palisade 

1*4 CU P S sugar peaches, run 

through a sieve 
2 tablespoons brandy 

Add the sugar to the cream and stir until the sugar is dissolved. Add 
the peaches and brandy. Freeze in a hand-turned or electric ice-cream 
freezer. Use eight parts of ice to one part rock salt. 



SAVORY MUSHROOMS 

Saute one pound of fresh mushrooms for five minutes, put in a 
casserole and add the following sauce : 

Force one cup fresh-cooked peas through a coarse sieve; add one tea- 



186 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

spoon onion juice, one half teaspoon chile powder mixed with one 
tablespoon of water, one quarter clove of garlic and boil five minutes. 

Remove garlic. Add three quarters cup cream, one half teaspoon 
salt and one eighth teaspoon pepper. Pour over the mushrooms and cover 
with one cup buttered bread crumbs. Bake in hot oven ten to fifteen 
minutes. 



CONNECTICUT 

Menu from Margaret S. Chaney, Connecticut College, New London 
(as given her by a "native"). 

Connecticut fish chowder 
Pilot crackers Milk 

Gingerbread and applesauce 

and 

Sausages 

Corn bread Succotash 

Molasses pie 



MOLASSES PIE 

2 cups New Orleans mo- 3 eggs 

lasses 2 tablespoons flour 

Yz cup sugar *4 teaspoon each of nut- 

juice of 2 lemons meg and cinnamon 

2 tablespoons butter 

Blend the lemon juice and molasses well and gradually stir in the 
flour which has been well moistened with a little water. Then add the 
spices and the melted butter and the yolks of the eggs, beaten very light 
with the sugar ; finally add the whites beaten stiffly. Mix well. Line the 
piepan with rich pastry, bake, fill with the mixture and bake again in 
a moderate oven, 325 ° F., for half an hour. One quarter cup of vinegar 
may be substituted for the lemon juice if you prefer. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 187 



DELAWARE 

Menu from Henrietta Fleck, Department of Foods and Nutrition, 
Women's College, University of Delaware, Newark. 

Menu of Delaware 

Kitt's hammock oyster cocktail 

Bouillon with Milford grated egg 

Baked Delaware Bay shad 

Brandywine frogs' legs 

Henlopen chicken fricassee with dumplings 

Baked Newcastle loin of pork 

Roast Diamond State turkey with Hochessin mushroom stuffing 

Dover candied sweet potatoes Blue Hen riced white potatoes 

Rehobeth turnip greens Laurel creamed onions 

Sussex succotash 

Smyrna watermelon pickles 

Millsville pumpkin pone Harrington corn bread 

Selbyville tomato salad 

Lily of Kent apple pie Bridgeville strawberry shortcake 

Sliced Camden peaches and Guyencourt cream 

Coffee 

ROAST DIAMOND STATE TURKEY 

WITH HOCHESSIN MUSHROOM 

DRESSING 

Select a choice Diamond State turkey. Clean and draw. Stuff with 
the following: 

2 cups finely chopped 2 cups stale bread 
Hochessin mush- crumbs 

rooms 4 tablespoons melted 

I tablespoon chopped butter 

parsley % teaspoon pepper 

y 2 teaspoon celery salt juice from y 2 small 

I teaspoon salt onion 

Yz cup milk 

Saute mushrooms in melted butter. Add milk. Pour over bread crumbs. 
Add seasonings. 



188 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Truss the turkey; brush with melted fat, place on rack in roaster, 
breast up. Roast at 350 F. Keep roaster uncovered. Brush turkey with 
fat every half-hour. 



BRANDYWINE FROGS' LEGS 

Select large Brandywine frogs. Trim and clean the legs. Dip in fine 
white corn meal, seasoned with salt and pepper, then in beaten egg and 
again in the corn meal. Saute in butter for ten to fifteen minutes, depend- 
ing upon the size. Serve immediately. 



PUMPKIN PONE 

10 quarts raw pumpkin y 2 gallon water 

2 large sifters corn meal 1 large sifter flour 

Cook the pumpkin and water until pumpkin is soft and tender. Mash 
with potato masher and bring to a boil. Combine corn meal and flour and 
scald with the boiling pumpkin. Set aside for ten hours. 

i pound granulated % teaspoon soda dis- 

sugar solved in y 2 cup 

3 tablespoons salt water 

Add sugar, salt and soda to pumpkin mixture. Stir thoroughly. Place 
in a greased black iron kettle that will hold ten to twelve quarts. 
Cook over a slow fire without a lid for two days. 



FLORIDA 

Menu 

Crab meat cocktail Mayonnaise relish sauce 

Wild duck with wild rice Orange sauce 

Asparagus vinaigrette Baby lima beans 

Southern biscuits Butter 

Grapefruit conserve Pickled kumquats 

Pecan pie 
(See page 100 for recipe.) 

Spanish coffee 



STATES' EVIDENCE 189 



GEORGIA 

Menus and recipes from Willie Vie Dowdy, President, Georgia Home 
Economics Association of Athens. 

"I am sending you two typical Georgia menus; a typical fall and 
winter menu, another a spring and summer menu, and will be glad to 
have you use either one. I am also enclosing some recipes." 

Fall and Winter Menu 
Georgia shrimp cocktail 

Roast hen with peanut or Ogeechee lime jelly 
pecan stuffing 
Sweet potato croquettes String beans 

Stuffed tomatoes Peach pickle 

Corn sticks Biscuits 

Pineapple pear salad 

Georgia pudding with hard sauce or Pecan pie 

Sugared pecans Coffee Crystallized grapefruit 

peel 

Coffee 

Spring and Summer Menu 
Cantaloupe and watermelon cocktail 

Fried chicken Rice Gravy 

Fried corn String beans Sliced tomatoes 

Hot rolls or Corn muffins 

Cucumber and radish salad or Fresh fruit salad of 
cantaloupe balls and peaches 

Iced tea 

Strawberry shortcake Peaches and cream with 

pound cake 

Recipes by Katherine Lanier. 

ROAST HEN 

Singe, dress, wash and wipe chicken. Stuff with dressing. Close the 
neck opening and lower opening by sewing or lacing. The lower opening 



190 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



will be covered if drumsticks are crossed and tied down to the tail or 
slipped into the band of the skin below the tail. 

Rub skin with butter, sprinkle with salt and pepper. Place breastside 
down on a rack in roasting pan. Sprinkle with flour, also sprinkle bottom 
of roasting pan with flour. 

Brown in a hot oven (500 F. to 450 F.). Add one quart of hot 
water. Cover roaster. Reduce heat to 350 F. for remaining time. 
Twenty minutes to the pound. Weigh the bird after it is stuffed to 
determine length of time to cook. 



PEANUT STUFFING 



3 cups bread crumbs 

J4 cup chopped peanuts 

3/2 teaspoon onion juice 

1 teaspoon salt 

y teaspoon pepper 



1 tablespoon chopped 

parsley 

2 tablespoons butter 
y 2 cup stock or water 



Mix bread crumbs and crushed peanuts. Add onion juice, salt, pep- 
per, parsley; moisten with butter and stock or water. Mix thoroughly 
and stuff chicken. 



sw 



EET POTATO SNOWBALLS 



2 cups mashed sweet po- 1 tablespoon of butter 

tato yi teaspoon ground spice 

y 2 cup brown sugar shredded coconut 
10 marshmallows 

Blend the mashed cooked sweet potato with the brown sugar, butter 
and spice. Roll each marshmallow separately into this mixture, forming 
balls. Then roll these balls in shredded coconut, place in oven and cook 
long enough for marshmallows to heat but not melt. 



GEORGIA PUDDING 



1 cup Georgia cane or 

sorghum syrup 
1 cup milk 

y 2 cup Georgia pecans 
y 2 cup chopped suet 

1 cup raisins, chopped 

2 teaspoons soda 



y 2 teaspoon salt 
y 2 teaspoon cloves 
y 2 teaspoon allspice 
y 2 teaspoon nutmeg 
2>y 2 cups flour 
2 teaspoons vanilla 
1 teaspoon cinnamon 



STATES' EVIDENCE 191 

Mix first four ingredients together, combine dry ingredients and add 
to liquids; add flavoring. Put in two-quart molds or coffee cans and 
steam two hours or longer. Serve hot with lemon or hard sauce. 

HARD SAUCE 

I cup sugar I teaspoon vanilla, fruit 

Yi cup butter juice or cream 

Cream butter; add sugar and seasoning and cream together well. A 
beaten egg white or yolk may be added if desired with nutmeg flavoring. 

STUFFED TOMATOES 

6 ripe tomatoes I teaspoon chopped 

I cup minced ham, onion 

chicken or beef Y* cup bread crumbs 

Y2 cup diced celery Y* CU P tomatoes or thick 

cream 
1 teaspoon salt 

Scoop out inside of tomatoes. Combine other ingredients. Fill tomato 
shells with mixture and bake in moderate oven forty-five minutes. 



PECAN PIE 

4 eggs 1 Y* CU P karo syrup 

1 cup sugar Y* CU P shelled pecans 

1 tablespoon butter pinch of salt 

1 teaspoon vanilla 

Beat eggs and mix with all ingredients. Line pan with pastry. Pour in 
mixture and bake one hour. Place in hot oven (450 F.) for ten minutes. 
Then reduce heat to 350 F. for fifty minutes. 



HAWAIIAN FEAST OR LUAU 

Menu and recipes from Miss Katherine Bazore, Assistant Professor 
of Home Economics, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Territory of 
Hawaii. 

"The bare table is entirely covered with large green leaves or ferns. 
Decorations consisting of fruit and flowers are placed in the center of 
the table. Yellow paper garlands representing leis made from the ilima 
flower are provided for the guests and may be placed on the table as a 
part of the decoration. 



192 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

"Watermelon, cut in wedge-shaped sections, is arranged on the table 
like the petals of a flower. The pineapples are prepared for serving at 
the table. The top and bottom are cut from the pineapple and saved. The 
center portion of the pineapple is carefully removed from the rind with- 
out cutting the latter. The center section of the pineapple is cut length- 
wise into wedge-shaped pieces. These pieces are returned to the rind and 
the top and bottom replaced before the pineapple is placed on the table. 

"On the leaves at each cover are placed small portions of tiny red 
peppers, red salt, chopped salted nuts, steamed crabs, small pieces of 
dried fish or jerked beef, and cubes of Haupia (coconut pudding). The 
other foods are all placed on the table in individual bowls made of wood 
or coconut. 

"According to Hawaiian etiquette, it is proper to eat with the fingers. 

"The poi made from the root of the taro plant may now be obtained 
canned. Guava juice or papaya juice may also be obtained canned. 
Spinach is substituted for the luau or taro leaves used by the Hawaiians. 
The Lawalu fish would be wrapped in ti leaves in Hawaii, but corn 
husks make a good substitute. Red salt may be prepared by coloring ice 
cream salt with raw carrot juice." 

Menu 

Red salt Chopped salted nuts 

Steamed crabs Tiny red peppers 

Salted or dried fish Pipikaula (jerked beef) 

Lawalu fish 
Kalua pig (barbecued pig) 
Baked Hawaiian sweet potatoes or bananas Poi 

Chicken, spinach and coconut Salmon lomi 

Haupia (coconut pudding) 
Fresh Hawaiian pineapple Watermelon 

Guava fruit punch 



PIPIKAULA (JERKED BEEF) 

\]/ 2 pounds beef tender- 2 tablespoons ice-cream 
loin (fillet) salt 

Wipe the meat with a damp cloth. Cut the meat into pieces four 
inches long, two inches wide and three quarters inch thick. Sprinkle 
them with salt, let stand for thirty minutes, and hang the meat in the 
hot sunshine. Keep it in the sun for two days or until it is well dried. 
Store in a cool place until it is to be used. 

Cook the meat in a frying pan over a hot fire, turning frequently 
until it is brown. Serve hot. Twelve servings. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 193 



LAWALU FISH (FISH 


BAKED IN 


cc 


HUSKS) 




i]/ 2 pounds fish slices or 
a 2^ -pound whole 
fish (butterfish, 
kumu, mullet, 


\y 2 tablespoons 
cream salt 
corn husks 


ice- 


moano, moi or 







weke) 

Scale and clean the fish. Rub it with ice-cream salt. Wrap the fish in 
corn husks, tying the ends together with string. Place the fish in a 
moderate oven (350 F.) and bake it from one to one and one half 
hours, depending upon the size of the fish. 

Additional flavor may be added by placing a thin piece of parboiled 
salted pork or a piece of bacon, one bay leaf, slices of onion and green 
pepper on each piece of fish before tying it in the corn husks. Serve hot 
in the corn husks. Six servings. 



CHICKEN, SPINACH AND COCONUT 

one 1 ]/ 2 to 2-pound 2 cans moist coconut or 

chicken 1 fresh coconut 

2 bunches spinach 3 tablespoons melted 

(2 pounds) butter 

1 teaspoon salt boiling water 

3 tablespoons hot 

coconut liquid 

Cut the chicken into small pieces and fry in butter until they are 
brown. Add one half teaspoon salt and pour boiling water over the 
chicken until it is half covered. Simmer until the chicken is tender. 

Wash and place the spinach in a saucepan without draining all the 
water from the leaves. Add one half teaspoon salt, place cover on the 
saucepan and cook over a low fire for several minutes until there is 
sufficient water to prevent burning. Remove the cover and cook until 
the spinach is tender. Drain and chop the spinach fine. 

Open the eye of the fresh coconut with an ice pick, allow the coconut 
water to drain and strain it through cheesecloth. Save the liquid. Crack 
the coconut and grate it, or grind the meat in a meat grinder. Add three 
tablespoons of hot coconut liquid to the coconut meat and allow it to 
stand for fifteen to thirty minutes. Place the coconut in several thick- 
nesses of cheesecloth or a poi cloth and squeeze out as much of the liquid 



194 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

as possible until meat is dry. If canned coconut is used squeeze out all 
liquid in the same manner. 

Drain the chicken, add to the spinach and add the coconut milk ob- 
tained by squeezing the grated coconut. Simmer the mixture for three 
minutes and serve hot. Serves six. 



SALMON LOMI 

Y^ pound salted salmon i 2 /z cups sliced tomatoes 
y 2 cup onions (3 large tomatoes) 

}i to y 2 cup ice water 5 green onions (with 

tops) 
1 teaspoon ice-cream salt 

Clean and soak the salmon three to four hours in cold water. Drain, 
remove the bones, then shred the fish into small pieces. Peel and slice 
the tomatoes. Chop the onions fine. Combine the tomatoes and salmon; 
mash them with a fork. Stir in the ice water and onions, chill the mix- 
ture thoroughly and serve it in small individual bowls. 

The Hawaiians prefer using only green onions. They lomi (crush) 
the green onions with ice-cream salt, using the fingers or a wooden 
potato masher. When the onions are fine add one quarter cup water, 
then add the salmon and tomatoes. Add the remaining water if desired. 
Serves six. 

HAUPIA (COCONUT PUDDING) 

6 cups grated fresh coco- 2 cups boiling water 
nut (2 coconuts) 3 tablespoons sugar 

3 tablespoons cornstarch or 6 tablespoons cornstarch 
( for soft pudding) ( for stiff pudding) 

Pour the boiling water over the grated coconut and allow to stand 
fifteen to thirty minutes. Strain through a double thickness of cheesecloth 
or poi cloth, squeezing out just as much milk as possible. If this does 
not yield three cups add the water poured from the inside of the coconut 
to make that amount. Mix the cornstarch with the sugar. Add sufficient 
coconut milk to make a smooth paste. Heat the remaining milk to boil- 
ing and slowly stir in the cornstarch paste. Boil until it thickens. Pour 
into a square cake pan having a layer two inches thick. Allow to cool 
and cut the stiff pudding into two-inch cubes. Serve on squares of ti 
leaves in Hawaiian style. Serve the soft pudding in small bowls or coco- 
nut shells. 

Hawaiian recipes familiar in the States — submitted by the pineapple 
growers. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 



195 



FILLET OF FISH, WAIKIKI, WITH 
PINEAPPLE SAUCE 



2 tablespoons butter 
6 fillets of sole (or any 

other whitefish) 
salt and pepper 
I cup stock (or bouillon 

cube dissolved in i 

cup water) 



4 finely chopped shallots 

I teaspoon finely 

chopped parsley 

I cup canned unsweet- 
ened pineapple juice 

y 2 teaspoon herb 
bouquet* 



Sauce 



4 tablespoons, or y. 

cube, butter 
broth from fish 
2 tablespoons flour 



I yolk of egg 
garnish : chopped 

parsley, slice 

pineapple, 

slices of lemon 



Butter a baking pan or dish, place the shallots in it and the fillets of 
fish on top of the shallots; sprinkle with parsley, salt and pepper and 
add the pineapple juice and stock. Place the herb bouquet (tied in a piece 
of cheesecloth) in the liquid, cover with a buttered paper and put on 
the top of the stove. Bring to the boiling point, then put into a moderate 
oven (350 F.) and let simmer until the fish is cooked. Remove fish to a 
platter. 

To" prepare sauce : melt butter, add flour and stir well until cooked ; 
add the broth from the fish (adding enough extra broth or water to 
make two cups) and let cook at least five minutes. Then add the slightly 
beaten yolk of egg and cook one more minute. Pour sauce over the 
fillets, sprinkle with parsley and garnish with triangles of hot pineapple 
and slices of lemon. Six servings. 

PINEAPPLE SABAYON 



2 egg yolks 

l / 2 cup canned unsweet- 
ened pineapple juice 
1 teaspoon vanilla 



2 tablespoons sugar 
pinch of salt 
1 teaspoon lemon juice 
few drops rum flavoring 



*Herb bouquet usually consists of one sprig each of parsley, thyme, 
marjoram, rosemary; one leaf of sage and about one eighth leaf of bay 
leaf. If used by the teaspoonful the fresh herbs are chopped, or else 
they are dried and crushed. Herb bouquet may be purchased in the 
crushed or powdered form under the name of Herb Bouquet or Mixed 
Herbs. 



196 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Beat yolks of eggs until thick and creamy, add sugar and place in top 
of double boiler and continue to beat. Add the pineapple juice, salt and 
flavoring. Remove beater and stir well with a wooden spoon for two 
minutes longer. 

Keep water in bottom of the double boiler below the boiling point or 
the mixture will curdle. 

Serve hot in small sherbet glasses and with several ladyfingers on the 
plate. This may also be used as a sauce for bread or fruit pudding. One 
large or two small servings. 

TROPICAL SHERBET 

2 /z cup canned unsweet- 2 green maraschino 

ened pineapple juice cherries, chopped 

34 cup shredded coconut coarse 

2 red maraschino y 2 tablespoon each of 

cherries, chopped chopped almonds, 

coarse roasted; pecans, 

34 cup sugar Brazil nuts, wal- 

3 egg whites nuts and cashew 

nuts 

Mix pineapple juice and sugar, stir until dissolved. Freeze to a mush 
in refrigerator tray or freezer. Fold in stiffly beaten egg whites and other 
ingredients and finish freezing. Stir several times during freezing if 
sherbet is in refrigerator tray. Serve in sherbet glasses with wafers or 
ladyfingers. Six to eight servings. 

PINEAPPLE SAUCE FOR FRITTERS OR 

PUDDINGS 

2 cups canned unsweet- lemon rind 

ened pineapple juice 5 tablespoons sugar 
juice of 1 lemon 2 teaspoons cornstarch 

1 tablespoon water 

Boil the pineapple juice with a piece of lemon rind. In another pan 
melt the sugar to a golden brown color, then add the pineapple juice and 
boil for a few minutes. Mix cornstarch with water and stir into sauce to 
thicken it. Boil for five minutes. Add lemon juice and strain. This sauce 
may be served hot or cold with puddings or fritters. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 197 

IDAHO 

Menu and recipes from Marion Hepworth, State Home Demonstra- 
tion Leader for the State of Idaho, Moscow. 

Southern Idaho cheese canapes 

Pend d'Oreille smoked whitefish 
Celery hearts Spiced sweet pickles 

Lewiston spiced whole Royal Anne cherries 

Snake River grilled rainbow trout or Salmon River trout 

Fayette Valley peas 

Weiser Valley Jonathan apple sherbet 

Twin Falls whole-wheat rolls 

Choice of 

Southern Idaho roast lamb with apricot sauce 
North Idaho elk steaks with Emmett Valley spiced peaches 

Idaho pheasant with currant jelly 

Idaho fried young chicken with Boise Valley peach honey 

Roast Idaho turkey with celery dressing and brandied apricots 

Baked Eastern Idaho potato with butter 
Idaho whole cooked onions 

Boise Valley lettuce and stuffed prune salad 

Idaho peach sherbet or Cherry ice cream 
Honey wafers 

Idaho beet sugar mints Salted Idaho English walnuts 



ROAST LEG OF LAMB 

Do not remove the "fell," that thin papery covering over the outside. 
Sprinkle the roast with salt and pepper and place, skinside down and 
cutside up, on a rack in an open roasting pan. Place the roast in a 
moderate oven (300 F. to 350 F.). Do not cover and do not add any 
water. Allow about thirty-five minutes per pound for roasting. 



APRICOT SAUCE 

Two cups of cooked apricot juice and fruit. Rub some of the apricots 
through the colander ; reserve some halves for garnish. Add three fourths 



198 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

cup of sugar; put on the stove and cook slowly. Baste the leg of lamb 
with this and use as a sauce when served at the table. Put in the 
reserved halves or whole apricots to be used for garnish and let cook 
with the same. 

ELK STEAK 

Steak should be thick. Season with salt and pepper. Roll in flour. 
Have pan with hot grease. Add steak. Brown on both sides. Then add 
small amount of hot water and allow steak to steam until cooked to 
desired doneness. 

ROAST PHEASANT 

Clean and dress bird. Wash thoroughly. Rub inside with seasoning 
(salt and pepper). 

Rub well with fat. Breast may be covered with strips of bacon or salt 
pork. Chop a few onions, small amount of celery ; add a few mixed pickle 
spices. Brown pheasant and cook until done. If desired, pheasant may 
be basted with liquid in the pan. Gravy can be made if desired. Wild 
fowl is usually not stuffed. 

ROAST TURKEY 

Dress, clean, stuff and truss. Place on its side on rack in dripping pan ; 
rub entire surface with salt and spread breast, legs and wings with one 
third cup of butter, rubbed until creamy and mixed with one quarter 
cup flour. Dredge bottom of pan with flour. Place in hot oven (450 F.). 
When flour on turkey begins to brown reduce heat (350 F.) and baste 
every fifteen minutes until turkey is cooked (about three hours). For 
basting, use one half cup butter melted in one half cup boiling water 
and after this is used, baste with fat in pan. Pour water in pan during 
the cooking, as needed, to prevent flour from burning. During cooking 
turn turkey frequently so that it may brown evenly. If turkey is brown- 
ing too fast cover with buttered paper to prevent burning. Remove string 
and skewers before serving. Garnish with parsley and curled celery. 

CELERY STUFFING 

1 cup fine dry bread 1 tablespoon parsley 

crumbs }i teaspoon savory sea- 
J4 cup chopped celery soning 

1 tablespoon butter % teaspoon celery seed 

1 tablespoon minced J4 teaspoon salt 

onion few grains pepper 

Cook celery, onion and parsley in butter three minutes. Add other 
ingredients. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 199 



WHOLE COOKED ONIONS 

Cook small whole onions in salted water until almost tender. Drain 
and add seasoning and cream. Simmer in cream until onions are very 
tender. 

APPLE SHERBET 

4 cups applesauce I cup sour cream, 

1 34 CU P S sugar whipped 

]/ 2 cup lemon juice I cup water 

Boil sugar and water ten minutes. When cool, add sauce and lemon 
juice. Freeze to a mush, add whipped cream and continue freezing. 

PEACH CREAM SHERBET 

Measure two cupfuls of mashed fresh peaches and cover with one 
cupful of sugar. Let stand for three hours to ripen, fold in one cupful of 
cream whipped stiff, and freeze. Garnish, when serving, with chopped 
maraschino cherries. In case you desire to use canned peaches the amount 
of sugar should be reduced to three fourths cupful. 

CHERRY ICE CREAM 

2 cups thin cream or i cup sugar 

I cup thin cream and I 2 cups chopped cherries, 
cup milk canned in syrup 

Add the sugar to the cherries, let stand for fifteen or twenty minutes. 
Strain if desired, add the cream, and freeze. 

SPICED PEACHES 

6 lbs. peaches 4 ounces stick cinnamon 

3 lbs. sugar 2 ounces whole cloves 
1 pint water 1 ounce ginger 

1 pint vinegar 

Clingstones make the best pickle, slightly underripe. Drop peeled 
peaches into a syrup made of water and half as much sugar. Boil five 
minutes. Cool quickly and allow to stand for two to three hours, then 
remove peaches. Add vinegar, rest of sugar and spices (in bag) to the 
syrup and boil for ten to fifteen minutes. Again add peaches and cook 
until tender and syrup is thick, about one half hour. Cook quickly and let 
stand a few hours or overnight. Remove spice bag. Pack; a piece of 
cinnamon and a clove or two without the bud or berry may be added* 
Pour reheated syrup over peaches. Seal, store. 



200 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 
PEACH HONEY 

Grind not too»ripe peaches with a food grinder, adding equal parts of 
sugar, and cook until clear. 

Another Idaho menu is this one served at the Waldorf-Astoria in 
New York on December 8, 1938, for "the distinguished sons and the 
products of the Gem State." William M. Jeffers was the host. 

Menu 

Smoked Snake River sturgeon 
Canape of whiteflsh Lake Pend d'Oreille 

Aperitifs 

Puree of Twin Falls beans 

Caldwell celery 

Silver Creek rainbow trout 

Chateau de Mittelwihr, 

Traminer, 1929 

Choice of 

Primitive Area venison Sawtooth Range lamb 

Roast mountain turkey 

Sun Valley peas 

Chambertin, 1929 

Hot rolls of Weiser flour 

Sweet cider sherbet from Idaho Spitzenbergs 

Jerome County pheasant 

Red currant jelly 

Lanson, 1928 

Baked Idaho russets with golden Gem State butter 

Boise Valley hearts of lettuce 

Fayette Valley apple pie with Pocatello cheese 

Wendell honey ice cream 

Lone Pine Idaho Brandied pears 

Demitasse 

Prunier fine champagne 
Liqueurs 



STATES' EVIDENCE 201 

ILLINOIS 

Menu and suggestions from Grace B. Armstrong, Extension Nutri- 
tionist of the Co-operative Extension Work in Agriculture and Home 
Economics, State of Illinois, Urbana. 

"The three foods which, I suppose, are raised in largest quantities in 
this state are pork, corn and soybeans. They are rather typical of the 
state. Large quantities of peaches are raised in the southern part of the 
state, and a great many tomatoes are raised and canned in this state. In 
the western part we have many apples and one county, especially, is 
known for its apples. 

"I suggest as a menu an Illinois tomato cocktail, Corn Belt roast pork, 
Illinois vegetable soybeans as one vegetable, and any other good green 
vegetable. Corn bread. Frozen peaches and cream for dessert. There are 
many freezer storage lockers in this state, and more are being built all 
the time. 

"Of course soybeans when used as a vegetable are gathered before 
they are matured and then must be shelled, much the same as peas. Then 
they are cooked in boiling water, which is salted, and may be served with 
a cream sauce or melted butter. 

"When freezing peaches, I have my cartons ready and the syrup made 
and cooled. Then I slice the peaches directly into the cartons and cover 
with syrup at once and cover the carton at once, taking it immediately 
to the locker plant. When I get them out of the locker I turn them 
upside down until they are almost thawed, and serve with cream." 

INDIANA 

Menu from Dr Una Robinson, who is in charge of foods in the 
Department of Home Economics, Miss Katherine Waller, Institution 
Management Specialist, and Elizabeth Stevenson of Indiana University. 

Menu 

French Lick canapes 

Puree of Paragon peas Croutons 

Relishes 

Wawasee bass charcoal broiled with lemon butter 

Browned potato balls 

Broiled Indiana fresh ham 

Mixed country greens Baked Scott County tomatoes 

Brown County cider ice 

Spring Mill corn sticks Sheridan butter curls 

Wabash melon and peach salad with cheese straws 

Paoli persimmon pudding with whipped cream 
Limberlost mints Coffee Native walnuts 



202 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

PAOLI PERSIMMON PUDDING 

i quart persimmons i teaspoon baking 
Y$ cup sugar powder 

2 tablespoons butter i teaspoon soda 

i cup buttermilk I teaspoon cinnamon 

2 eggs i teaspoon salt 
i^ cups flour (approxi- 
mately) 

Cream butter and sugar together. Add eggs and beat thoroughly. Add 
persimmon pulp. Add alternately milk and dry ingredients sifted to- 
gether. Bake in greased pan in moderate oven. Cut into squares. Serve 
with whipped cream. Serves ten. 

FRENCH LICK CANAPES 

I cup ground cooked J4 CU P coffee cream 

white meat chicken salt and white pepper, to 
garlic, if desired taste 

Spread crackers thickly with chicken mixture on which place chopped 
mushrooms mixed with mayonnaise. Garnish with egg yolk. 

Or: 

Combine chicken mixture with sweet pickle relish, spread on crackers, 
sprinkle with hard-cooked egg yolk. Cap with a slice of stuffed olive. 

IOWA 

Menu from Dr P. Mabel Nelson, Head of the Foods and Nutrition 
Department, Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts of 
Ames. 

Menu 

Clear tomato bouillon 
Crackers 

Roast loin Iowa pork 
Green apple sauce 
Mashed potatoes Pan gravy 

Buttered garden peas 

Head lettuce and tomato salad with french dressing 

Butterhorn rolls 

Pumpkin pie with whipped cream 

Iowa blue cheese 

Coffee 



STATES' EVIDENCE 203 

Another Menu 

Frozen fruit frappe 

Cheese sticks 

Oven-fried Iowa milk-fed chicken 
Mashed potatoes Giblet gravy- 

Corn on the cob 

Ground cherry preserves 

Chopped cabbage and green relish salad 
Hot biscuits 

Black walnut ice cream Honey cookies 

Assorted Iowa cheeses 

Coffee 



BLACK WALNUT ICE CREAM 

2 cups scalded milk 2 /z cup chopped black 

3 e gg yolks walnut meats 
I cup sugar I cup heavy cream 
few grains salt J4 tablespoon vanilla 

Make custard of milk, eggs, sugar and salt. Add the finely chopped 
nuts to custard, cool, then add one cup of heavy cream, beaten until stiff, 
and vanilla. Freeze and mold or pack until ready to serve. 



OVEN-FRIED CHICKEN 

Prepare and cut up a four- or five-pound chicken as for frying ; brown 
the pieces well in a frying pan, using a mixture of butter and shorten- 
ing. Season with salt and pepper while frying. When nicely browned 
pour in enough hot water to partially cover the chicken, cover the pan 
tightly and bake in a moderate oven (350 F.) about two hours, or until 
the chicken is very tender. Turn the pieces once while baking. When 
done, remove the chicken to a hot platter. Make a gravy by adding flour 
to the fat and juices remaining in the pan, stir over low heat for a few 
minutes; then add milk and cook, stirring constantly, until thick, smooth 
and glossy. Season to taste and let cook slowly ten minutes longer before 
serving. 



204 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



KANSAS 

Menu and recipes from Dorothy Olson, Kansas State College, Man- 
hattan. 

"I have tried to make this menu as typical of Kansas as I could. In 
doing this I have secured information from different departments of 
Kansas State College." 

Menu 

Jayhawk hors d'oeuvres 

Wichita watermelon U. S. Center cucumber 

pickles pickles 

Carrot consomme Julienne 

Smoky River Channel catfish saute 

Eldorado sauce 

Choice of 
Broiled Great Plains sirloin steak 
Stuffed Pottawatomie pork chops 

Kansas fried chicken 

Abilene sweet potatoes glace or 

Baked Kaw Valley potatoes in half shell 

Broiled Wyandotte tomatoes 

Shawnee spinach salad with Saline bacon dressing 

Kanred cracked-wheat muffins 

Leavenworth corn-bread sticks 

K-State butter rosettes Sandhill wild plum jelly 

Deep-dish Atchison apple pie with Flint Hills cream 

Arkansas Valley cheese 

or 

Sunflower State strawberry ice cream 

Cimarron peanut cookies 

Black walnut Dust Bowl sorghum taffy 

Candied persimmon leather 

Demitasse 



KANSAS FRIED CHICKEN 

Dress and cut up a young chicken. Season with salt and pepper, and 
dredge with flour. Place a generous amount of fat in a heavy skillet. 
When hot, lay in chicken and cook until brown, then reduce heat, 
cover, and cook very slowly until tender. Kansas fried chicken is crisp 
and brown, yet tender and delicate in texture. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 205 



ABILENE SWEET POTATOES GLACE 

Cook six sweet potatoes until tender. Peel and cut into lengthwise 
pieces. Place in a well-oiled baking dish and spread with two tablespoons 
brown sugar and one tablespoon butter which have been combined. Add 
a small amount of water and bake in 350 F. oven. Baste several times. 

BAKED KAW VALLEY POTATOES 
IN HALF SHELL 

Choose medium-size Kaw Valley potatoes. Wash well, rub with 
butter. Bake in a hot oven (400 F.) one hour or until tender. Cut into 
halves and scoop out contents. Mash; season with salt, pepper, butter 
and hot milk. Pile in shell, leaving tops rough. Sprinkle with grated 
cheese. Bake until tops are browned. 

LEAVENWORTH CORN-BREAD STICKS 

2 cups corn meal 1 teaspoon salt 

1 teaspoon soda 34 CU P sugar 

2 cups thick sour milk 2 well-beaten eggs 

2 tablespoons melted fat 

Sift dry ingredients together. Add milk to beaten eggs and melted fat. 
Combine mixtures. Put batter in oiled pans. Bake in hot oven (400 F.) 
about twenty-five minutes. 

SMOKY RIVER CHANNEL CATFISH 

SAUTE 

Dredge catfish in mixture of one half cup flour, one half cup corn 
meal, one teaspoon salt and one quarter teaspoon pepper. Fry until tender 
in small amount of fat. 



ELDORADO SAUCE 

To one cup mayonnaise dressing add four tablespoons chopped pickle, 
one teaspoon chopped onion, one tablespoon chopped green pepper and 
two tablespoons chili sauce. Mix ingredients. 

STUFFED POTTAWATOMIE PORK CHOPS 

Select center loin chops cut three quarters inch thick. Slit. Stuff with 
dressing and fasten sides together with toothpicks. 



206 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



DRESSING 

4 cups dry bread, cut i-i>4 cups boiling 

into */2-inch cubes water 

I egg, beaten 5 tablespoons melted fat 

Yz tablespoon pepper 1 tablespoon salt 

1 tablespoon finely 1 tablespoon sage 

chopped onion 2 tablespoons finely 

chopped celery 

Add seasoning to dry bread. Add combined hot water and fat to 
bread. Mix and add beaten egg. 

SHAWNEE SPINACH SALAD 

Soak spinach in salt water. Wash to remove all foreign particles. 
Shred. Arrange on lettuce cups and garnish with two tablespoons Saline 
salad dressing. 

SALINE SALAD DRESSING 

5 slices bacon 3^3 tablespoons flour 
Yz cup sugar 1 teaspoon salt 

2 /z cup vinegar 2 /z cup water 

Fry bacon, cut into small pieces. Add flour and stir. Mix and heat 
other ingredients in double boiler. Add bacon. 

KANRED CRACKED-WHEAT MUFFINS 

1 cup cracked wheat 1 cup flour 

3 teaspoons baking 2 tablespoons sugar 

powder 2 /z cup milk 

1 egg y 2 teaspoon salt 
3 tablespoons melted fat 

Sift dry ingredients together. (Use cracked wheat which does not go 
through sieve.) Add milk to egg and fat. Combine mixtures. Put batter 
into oiled muffin pans. Bake in a. hot oven (425 F.) for fifteen to twenty 
minutes. 

SANDHILL WILD PLUM JELLY 

Wash plums which are not too ripe. Cover with cold water and cook 
slowly until soft. Strain through double cheesecloth. Strain juice thus 



STATES' EVIDENCE 207 

obtained through a flannel bag wrung dry from hot water. Measure out 
five cups of juice. Boil ten minutes, add three and one third cups sugar, 
and boil until it gives a jelly test. Pour into sterilized glasses and cool. 

CANDIED PERSIMMON LEATHER 

Spread a thin layer of ripe persimmon pulp on waxed paper. Dry. 
Remove seeds. Add another layer of pulp and repeat until desired thick- 
ness is obtained. Make a syrup of one and one half cups sugar and three 
quarters cup water. Add persimmon strips and cook. Drain and roll each 
piece in granulated sugar. Candied persimmon may be used in fruit 
cakes. 

DEEP-DISH ATCHISON APPLE PIE 

24 cup flour 2 tablespoons shortening 

2-2 i y 2 tablespoons cold water 



Mix as for pastry. 



FILLING 



8 Atchison apples 24 CU P su g ar 

1 teaspoon cornstarch 1 teaspoon cinnamon 

y 2 teaspoon nutmeg J /g teaspoon salt 

1 tablespoon butter 

Peel apples. Cut into one eighth inch slices. Combine mixed dry in- 
gredients with sliced apples. Arrange in well-buttered casserole. Add 
three quarters cup water. Drop butter on top. 

Place pastry on floured board. Roll to one eighth inch thickness. Cut 
into one-half-inch strips and place on apples, forming a latticework. 
Brush pastry with one teaspoon sugar dissolved in two tablespoons milk 
if golden brown crust is desired. 

CIMARRON PEANUT COOKIES 

y cup fat ]/ 2 cup sugar 

1 egg J4 CU P evaporated milk 

1 teaspoon lemon juice 1 cup flour 

1J/2 teaspoons baking y 2 teaspoon salt 

powder 1^2 cups ground peanuts 

Cream fat and sugar. Beat in egg, add milk and lemon juice. Add dry 
ingredients. Stir in peanuts. Drop from spoon onto slightly oiled baking 
sheet. Bake in moderate oven (350 F.) about ten minutes. 



208 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

BLACK WALNUT DUST BOWL 
SORGHUM TAFFY 

3 cups sugar i cup sorghum molasses 

i cup hot water i tablespoon vinegar 

y 2 teaspoon cream of y 2 cup butter 

tartar y 2 teaspoon vanilla 

J4 teaspoon soda i cup chopped black 

walnuts 

Cook sugar, sorghum, water and vinegar. When mixture boils, add 
cream of tartar. Add butter and soda when nearly done. Cook until 
brittle when tested in cold water. Pour onto oiled plates. Cool. Add 
flavoring and nuts, and pull. 

KENTUCKY 

Menu and recipes from Marie R. Barkley, Assistant Professor of 
Home Economics, University of Kentucky, Lexington. 

"I am submitting a winter menu with some recipes, and a summer 
menu with some recipes. My idea was to give recipes for those dishes 
which I thought most typical of Kentucky. I should like to make one 
suggestion about the serving of the Christmas dinner and that is that 
the eggnog is usually served in the living room just before the dinner is 
served." 

Kentucky Christmas Dinner 

Eggnog 

Roast Bluegrass turkey 

Old Kentucky ham, hickory cured 

Celery hearts Cranberry jelly 

Fluffy potatoes, browned Buttered asparagus tips 

Hot beaten biscuits 

Grapefruit salad with pomegranate seeds garnish 

French dressing 

Ambrosia 
Fruit cake Coconut cake 

Coffee 

EGGNOG 

12 egg yolks i quart whole milk 

iyi cups sugar y> pint cream, whipped 

i quart coffee cream flavor with nutmeg and 
i quart Bourbon cinnamon 



STATES' EVIDENCE 209 

Beat egg yolks until light and lemon-colored, add the sugar gradually 
and beat thoroughly. Add the whisky and stir well, then the whole milk 
and coffee cream, and fold in whipped cream last. 

BAKED HAM 

Wash ham thoroughly and soak overnight in enough water to cover. 
Drain. Place rindside up on rack in large kettle with tight-fitting cover 
and add sufficient water to cover the ham. To this cooking water add 
one pound of brown sugar, one pod of red-hot pepper and a clove of 
garlic. Simmer, but do not boil, allowing twenty minutes to the pound 
for the cooking time. When done leave ham in the cooking water to 
cool. When cool place in shallow pan and remove the rind. Cover with 
a mixture of brown sugar, bread crumbs and dry mustard. Decorate with 
whole cloves and place in oven to brown. 

AMBROSIA 

6 large oranges y 2 cup sugar 

i cup fresh grated coconut 

Wash, wipe and pare the oranges as you would an apple, removing 
white portion with skin so that pulp is exposed. Remove sections with 
a sharp knife, cutting close to membrane on both sides. Place sections in 
refrigerator to chill. When ready to serve arrange sections on dessert 
plate in shape of a wheel, sprinkle with sugar and pile coconut lightly 
on top. Eight servings. 

FRUIT CAKE 

3 pounds raisins i dozen eggs 

3 pounds currants 24 CU P dark molasses 
Y\ pound citron with y 2 teaspoon 

I pound dates soda dissolved in it 

J4 pound figs I teaspoon each of 
I pound butter cloves, allspice and 

1^2 pounds brown sugar cinnamon 

1 3^2 pounds flour (brown 3 teaspoons nutmeg 

1 pound, use y 2 1 pint whisky 

pound plain) y 2 teaspoon lemon ex- 
tract 

Soak the fruit overnight in one cup of the whisky. Line the cake mold, 
both sides and bottom, with one layer of well-greased paper. Cream the 
butter and sugar and add the eggs, four at a time, beating after each 
addition. Then add the browned flour, the liquid, molasses and the white 



210 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

flour with the spices. The fruit is added last and thoroughly mixed. Place 
in a twelve-pound mold and bake for six hours at 300 F. 

Kentucky Dinner 

Chilled melon balls 

Oven-broiled spring chicken 

Rose radishes Celery hearts 

Fresh corn pudding Buttered fresh garden peas 

Hot soda biscuits 

Fresh peaches, baked 

Chilled tomato stuffed with cucumber, celery, bell pepper 

Mayonnaise 

Fresh strawberry ice 

Angel-food cake 

Coffee 

FRESH PEACHES, BAKED 

Use clingstone variety. Pare eight peaches and leave whole. Place in a 
baking dish and add one cup of sugar, sprinkled over the top. Add 
sufficient water to cover half the depth of the peaches. Place in an oven 
at 375° F. and bake until tender, then add two tablespoons butter and 
continue to cook until the syrup has thickened and the peaches are deli- 
cately brown. 

FRESH STRAWBERRY ICE 

1^2 cups sugar 2>4 cups strawberry 

3^2 cups water juice and pulp 

J4 cup lemon juice 

Boil the sugar and water together for five minutes. Set aside to cool. 
Then add the strawberry juice and pulp. Freeze with a dasher-and- 
crank type of freezer, using eight parts by measure of ice to one of salt. 
When frozen to a firm smooth consistency, pack and allow to stand for 
one hour before using. Sixteen servings. 

LOUISIANA 

Menus and recipes from Estelle Fournet, Food Preservation Specialist 
of the State University at Baton Rouge. 

"I have worked up two menus typical of the best homes and restau- 
rants of the South Louisiana area. Some of these foods are served 
regularly in the select New Orleans restaurants. 

"The recipes were selected from the best sources available in this 
state." 



STATES' EVIDENCE 211 



Menu 



Shrimp remoulade 

Onion soup paysan 

Celery, olives, radishes 

Broiled pompano with sauce maitre d'hotel 

Potato quenelles Sweet pepper salad Creole 

Hot individual French loaves 

Chicken saute aux champignons 

Brussels sprouts au beurre Pineapple fritters au rhum 

Biscuit glace Petits fours 

Toasted Louisiana pecans, raisins 

Crackers 

Cafe noir 



Menu 

Crab-meat cocktail, sauce Pass Christian 

Consomme supreme 

Pickles, celery 

Oysters a la Rockefeller 

Beets piquante Brussels sprouts au beurre 

Hot French loaves 

Pigeons a la Crapaudine 

Artichokes a la Barigoule 

Yams Louisiane 

Endive salad 

Fresh Ponchatoula strawberries with whipped cream 

Angel-food cake 

Cheese, toasted crackers 

Cafe noir 



SHRIMP REMOULADE 

ioo fine river shrimp large bunch of celery 
2 dozen allspice and celery tops 

2 blades of mace I dozen cloves 

4 sprigs each of thyme, I red pepper pod 

parsley and bay cayenne, black pep- 
leaf per, salt 

Select fine large river shrimp for this purpose. Into a pot of water 
put a great quantity of salt, almost enough to make a brine. Pepper, a 
great bunch of celery and celery tops, chopped fine ; chop also the 



212 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

parsley, bay leaf, thyme, the cayenne and red pepper pod, mash the all- 
spice, mace and cloves. When this has boiled so that all the flavor of the 
herbs has been thoroughly extracted, put in the shrimp. Let them boil 
ten minutes and then set the pot aside and let the shrimp cool in their 
own water. 

The tails are picked free of the shell, cleaned of the vein and chilled. 
(Canned shrimp may be used.) 

SAUCE REMOULADE 

Chop up watercress, parsley, a tiny bit of garlic, a bit of onion, as 
finely as possible. Then mash it all into a pulp. Add a tablespoon of 
powdered mustard to this and beat olive oil into it drop by drop, beating 
all the time, adding the oil till there is a sauce of moderate consistency. 
Then add a little vinegar, pepper and salt. 

Marinate the chilled shrimp with the sauce. Serve on a lettuce leaf 
with toasted crackers. 



CRAB-MEAT COCKTAIL 
SAUCE PASS CHRISTIAN 

Use white crab meat only, carefully picked. A little celery may be 
chopped up with it. The crab should be chilled. 

i cup mayonnaise i tablespoon of tomato 

I teaspoon of anchovy catsup 

paste salt, pepper, paprika 

I tablespoon of Worces- 
tershire 

Dissolve the anchovy paste in the Worcestershire sauce. Vinegar may 
be used instead. Mix the ingredients together and chill thoroughly. Pour 
the mixture over the chilled crab meat and garnish with short celery 
stalks. 



ONION SOUP PAYSAN 

6 large onions olive oil 

grated Parmesan cheese sliced Swiss cheese 

7 cups of water salt, pepper, cayenne 
toast chopped parsley- 
Skin the onions and brown in butter. Slice and put them in a saucepan 

with just enough olive oil to keep them from burning. Let them cook 
until brown, and then cook some more till they are nearly black and 
another minute would burn them. Stir at intervals. It needs about 



STATES' EVIDENCE 213 

twenty minutes. Have the water boiling in a pot, put in the fried onions, 
the parsley and seasoning and let boil twenty minutes. Two minutes 
before removing add the sliced Swiss cheese, about twelve thin slices. 

Have plates ready with squares of thin toast, heaped with grated 
Parmesan cheese. Pour the soup over the cheese and toast and serve at 
once. Will serve six. 

CONSOMME SUPREME 

I pound beef I tablespoon butter 

I chicken water 

chopped ham, onions, carrots, bay leaf, thyme, 
parsley, celery, salt, pepper, tabasco 

Dice the chicken and beef, immerse in cold water and heat very, very 
slowly for three or four hours. 

Chop up the ham, onions and carrots, cook them in butter and add to 
the stock. Chop the celery and herbs and add them with the seasoning, 
leaving all to the ministration of moderate heat for an hour. Then strain, 
cool and skim off fat. 

Now add the following : whites of two eggs, lightly beaten, the shells, 
chopped celery and seasoning, juice of one half a lemon, two tablespoons 
of cold water. Boil for five minutes. Strain and season. It may be used 
immediately or allowed to cool and reheated when desired. 

POTATO QUENELLES 

6 potatoes I tablespoon butter 

2 eggs 

Boil the potatoes, peel and mash very fine. Add the butter and minced 
parsley, and a half onion minced very fine. Add the yolks of the eggs, 
beaten very light, and then form the potatoes into balls and throw them 
for two minutes into boiling water. Take out, brush with the whites of 
the eggs, roll lightly in powdered bread crumbs and fry in boiling lard. 
Drain and serve with fish, meat or any sauce. 

SWEET PEPPER SALAD, CREOLE 

4 tomatoes 2 green peppers 

I large onion French dressing, plain 

Slice the tomatoes, onion and green peppers nicely and thin; arrange 
on a dish, placing a layer of tomatoes, an alternate layer of onion and 
green pepper and tomatoes mixed. Dress either before bringing to the 
table or at the table with French dressing. This is a great Creole family 
salad and a very healthy one. 



214 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



OYSTERS A LA ROCKEFELLER 

2 dozen oysters spinach 

bread crumbs parsley, green onion tops, 
y 2 pound of butter lemon, salt, pepper, 

bacon cayenne 

Wash fresh oysters and clean them thoroughly. Put each oyster on its 
shell. Chop up the shallot tops and parsley and mix them well with the 
butter, adding salt, pepper and cayenne. A few drops of absinthe added 
will result very pleasantly. 

Put some of this mixture on top of each oyster, then bits of minced 
bacon, then a little cooked spinach. Over this sprinkle sparingly bread 
crumbs, browned and buttered. 

Run the oysters in a hot oven and let them stay till they begin to 
swell a little — about five minutes. 

In New Orleans restaurants the shells are set in a shallow pan which 
has ice-cream salt in it to preserve the heat, and the oysters are served in 
it, about three quarter dozen to each pan. Very crusty bread is recom- 
mended to go with it. 

BEETS PIQUANTE 

2 bunches beets 3 tablespoons butter 

3 tablespoons cream 3 tablespoons vinegar 
3 tablespoons flour i tablespoon sugar 

I cup hot water salt, pepper, cayenne 

First, the usual cleaning and boiling. Beets must not be cut, of course, 
as that causes bleeding and loss of color. Slice. 

Stir the flour in gradually to the melted butter, then thin it by slow 
addition of hot water, always with stirring. The vinegar, then the cream, 
finally the sugar and seasoning; there is a sauce in which to stir the 
beets, to their advantage. 

BRUSSELS SPROUTS AU BEURRE 

I quart brussels sprouts J4 cup butter 

celery salt 

pepper parsley 

Clean the sprouts, soak them in cold water and boil till they are 
tender. Just a little celery, minced fine, in the boiling process enhances 
the flavor. 

Put butter in a large saucepan, put in the sprouts with a little chopped 
parsley, salt and pepper, give them a good fire and shake them smartly 
at intervals. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 215 

Creamed : the addition of three quarters cup of milk to the butter in 
the saucepan just before the sprouts are added produces an agreeable 
dish too. A dash of nutmeg should be added for this. 

CHICKEN SAUTE AUX CHAMPIGNONS 

1 fine spring chicken thyme, parsley, bay leaf 
]/ 2 can mushrooms 2 chopped onions 

2 tablespoons butter i clove garlic 

l / 2 square-inch ham, to i glass Madeira or 
season sherry wine 

Cut into joints and season a nicely cleaned chicken. Put it in a sauce- 
pan with two tablespoons of butter and let it simmer for about ten 
minutes, browning slightly. A mushroom sauce is never dark. Add two 
nicely chopped onions and let these brown slightly; then add one half of 
a square inch of ham, chopped very fine indeed. Add thyme, parsley and 
bay leaf, following carefully the order given in adding the ingredients. 
A minute later add the garlic which has been minced very fine. Let all 
brown together for ten minutes. Cut the mushrooms into halves, put 
them with the water into the pot, stirring well. Let them simmer five 
minutes. Then add a wineglassful of sherry or Madeira, stir and cover 
the pot closely so that it can smother well. If the sauce appears too thick 
add about a half cup of broth or boiling water. Season to taste, and let 
all cook very slowly for an hour longer over a steady fire. The secret of 
smothering chicken is to let it cook slowly so that the seasoning may 
permeate the flesh, and the heat by slow degrees render it tender and 
most palatable. 

ENDIVE SALAD 

I pint of curly endives French dressing 

I teaspoon of chervil, chopped very fine 

Prepare the endives in the same manner as the lettuce. When ready to 
serve add the chervil and the French dressing. If endives stand, like 
lettuce they will wilt after being dressed. Serve immediately. 

PIGEONS A LA CRAPAUDINE 

4 pigeons yolk of egg 

I cup milk i tablespoon butter 

salt and pepper, to taste a tomato sauce 

This is the famous Creole dish, and the object is to so dress the pigeons 
that they will resemble little frogs, hence the name "Pigeons a la 
Crapaudine." 

Clean the pigeons nicely, inside and out, then carefully cut the breast 
from the loin joints without separating entirely. Raise the breast up from 



216 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

the shoulder joints and pass it over the head of the pigeon without 
separating it from the shoulders. Then press it down very firmly with 
your hands or a masher. Have ready the yolk of one egg, well beaten in 
a cup of milk. Season well with salt and pepper. Soak the pigeons in it 
well so that they will absorb the milk and be thoroughly impregnated. 
Roll over and over so that they will gather up the seasoning. Then pass 
them through bread crumbs, rolling and then patting each pigeon with 
your hands so that the crumbs will hold. Brush each with a little melted 
butter. Have ready a double broiler, well heated but on a slow fire. 
Place the pigeons on it, broiling very slowly. Broil for fifteen or twenty 
minutes, allowing from seven to ten minutes to each side, and serve with 
tomato sauce. (See recipe.) 

TOMATO SAUCE 

1 dozen tomatoes I sprig each of thyme 
]/ 2 tablespoon butter and bay leaf, 

2 cloves garlic minced fine 
i tablespoon flour sherry, to taste 

salt, pepper and cayenne, to taste 

Take one dozen large tomatoes, or one can, and put in a pot to boil 
with one half teaspoon of butter. Add salt and pepper to taste and one 
pint of water. Let it cook for about ten minutes and add minced thyme, 
parsley and bay leaf, very fine, and two cloves of garlic, minced fine. 
Let it boil, and when well boiled take from the fire and mash through a 
sieve, reducing to a pulp. Take a tablespoon of flour and put in a sauce- 
pan and add a half spoon of butter. When it blends and browns nicely 
add the tomato juice, season nicely to taste, and when ready to serve add 
chopped parsley as a garnish. Serve with meat, fish or game. 

ARTICHOKES A LA BARIGOULE 

3 quarts boiled arti- i onion, minced 

chokes y 2 square-inch ham 

2 cloves garlic 34 can mushrooms 

I tablespoon butter salt and pepper, to taste 

Strip off the coarse outer leaves, or better still cut the stalks close 
with a pair of scissors and trim the sharp points from the leaves, re- 
moving about a quarter of an inch from each. Cut the stalks about an 
inch from the bottom. Throw in cold water and wash well, adding a 
little vinegar to draw out any lurking insects. Have on the stove a pot 
of boiling water and add a teaspoonful of salt. Throw in the artichokes 
and boil gently. 

When the leaves begin to be tender, and it is possible to pull out a leaf 
without difficulty, take the artichokes off the fire. Pull off a few of the 



STATES' EVIDENCE 217 

coarse leaves and then scoop out the artichoke without touching the 
"fond," or bottom meat, and without breaking the outer scales or leaves 
from the sides and around. The artichoke must be apparently whole and 
undisturbed. 

Then chop an onion, or rather mince it very fine, and mince two 
cloves of garlic and half a square inch of ham very, very fine. Take a 
quarter of a can of mushrooms and mince them fine. Mix all this 
together as a stuffing and season well with salt, pepper and cayenne. 
Put a tablespoonful of butter in a frying pan and fry the dressing in it 
for about five or ten minutes. Take off the fire and stuff each artichoke 
from the center, which you will have scooped, beginning just above the 
heart or "fond" of the artichoke. Pour over each a spoonful of broth or 
consomme, or water; sprinkle lightly with bread crumbs; put a dot of 
butter on each and set in the oven and bake for five minutes, till the 
crumbs are nicely browned. Serve immediately, using if you wish a 
drawn butter sauce, but it is unnecessary. 

BISCUIT GLACE 

1 pint whipping cream ^cup granulated sugar 

2 eggs i teaspoon vanilla 

vim and vigor 

Beat the sugar well into the yolks. Whip the cream. 

Mix in a little of the whipped cream, then add the mixture to the 
cream. (Without the prescribed vim and vigor the yolks go sadly to the 
bottom and all is lost.) Add the vanilla and the stiffly beaten whites. 
Then into a mold with all of it and let it freeze at least three hours — 
the longer, the better. 

Ladyfingers or macaroons may be added. 

STRAWBERRY MOUSSE FRAPPE 

I quart berries i pint cream 

powdered sugar 

Pick, wash and halve the berries; cover them with powdered sugar 
and let them be an hour or two. Then strain them. 

Whip the cream, mix it with the berries and a little of the juice. It is 
delicious frozen. 

Peaches or macaroons may be used with the whipped cream instead of 
strawberries. 



218 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



MAINE 

Menu from Lena Wyman, Department of Home Economics^ Farm- 
ington State Normal School, Farmington. 

Menu 

Sardine canapes 

Clam bouillon 

Broiled Penobscot salmon 

Venison roast Whipped Aroostook potatoes 

Squash Scalloped Maine golden bantam corn 

Hearts of lettuce 

Blueberry pie Demitasse 

ROAST VENISON 

Lard venison plentifully with fat salt pork. Rub with well-seasoned 
flour. Sear in oven at 450 F. for twenty minutes, then reduce the 
temperature to 300 F. for the remainder of roasting time. Cook cov- 
ered until almost finished; roast twenty-five minutes per pound if rare 
meat is desired, or thirty minutes per pound for medium roast. Serve 
with sauce in the pan. 

BLUEBERRY PIE 

Make a flaky piecrust using two cups flour, one teaspoon salt, two 
thirds cup cold fat, ice-cold water (about six to eight tablespoons). 

Sift flour and salt. Add cold fat by cutting in with pastry blender or 
two knives, leaving it in pieces about the size of small peas. Sprinkle ice 
water on the mixture, using as little as possible. Mix lightly with a fork. 
Form into a ball ; chill, roll, making two crusts for the pie. 

Line a deep piepan with pastry. Fill with blueberries and seasoning, 
using the following proportions: 

2y 2 cups blueberries y 2 cup sugar 

}i teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons flour 

Mix blueberries, flour, sugar and salt. Cover with pastry. Bake in a 
hot oven (425 F.) about forty-five minutes, or until crust is delicately 
browned. 

MARYLAND 

Menu and discussion from Claribel Welsh, Head of Foods and 
Nutrition, University of Maryland, College Park. 

"The enclosed menu is an elaborate one and not all the courses would 
be served in the typical Maryland home but rather at banquets of Mary- 
land people. The foods included are widely used on the Eastern Shore 
and most of them appear in their dinner menus. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 219 

"The Chincoteague oysters may be served as a cocktail or on the half 
shell. The Diamondback terrapin may be served as an entree or a soup. 
When used as an entree the crab is served as a cocktail or a soup. 

"The cucumber slices served with the soft-shelled crab are fresh slices 
of the cucumber — not more than two or three on a plate. The ham 
served with the Maryland fried chicken is an old ham soaked overnight, 
boiled fifteen minutes to the pound, cooled in its own liquor, then 
skinned and the fat surface covered with brown sugar, stuffed with 
cloves, a half cup of vinegar poured over it and baked thirty minutes in 
a moderate oven. 

"The fried corn-meal mush is used more on the Eastern Shore than 
the corn fritters which often accompany the chicken. The corn-meal 
mush is made of white corn meal and then molded, cut in finger-length 
strips and fried in deep fat. Only two or three of these are used on the 
plate. 

"The cream gravy is made by using the drippings of fat and essence 
from the fried chicken, adding cream or top milk and then thickening 
with a flour-and-milk paste. The baked stuffed tomatoes are stuffed with 
fine soft bread crumbs, butter, parsley and salt. The syllabub, while 
listed in some cookbooks as a beverage, is used as a light dessert on the 
Eastern Shore. It is made of cream, seasoned with sherry wine and sugar, 
beaten stiff in a small table churn and served in tall glasses." 

Menu 

Chincoteague oysters 
Diamondback terrapin 

Choice of (depending upon the season) 
Soft-shelled crab on toast with tartare sauce and cucumber slices 

or 

Deviled crab 

Maryland fried chicken 

Sliced Maryland ham 

Fried corn-meal mush 

Cream gravy 

Mashed white potatoes 

Peas Asparagus 

Baked stuffed tomatoes 

Maryland beaten biscuits 

Butter 

Choice of 

Plum pudding with brandy sauce 

Lady Baltimore cake with ice cream 

Lady Baltimore cake with boiled custard 

Syllabub 

Demitasse 



220 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



DIAMONDBACK TERRAPIN 

Throw terrapin in water and let them be cleansed from all dirt — 
about one hour. Plunge into boiling water for ten minutes, remove and 
take off toenails, rubbing off the skin from shell, head, neck and legs. 

Put into fresh boiling water and cook until tender (the legs). When 
done set off to cool and open the shell. Detach meat from shell, being 
careful to remove the stomach and gall bladder which are thrown away, 
also the lower intestines. Cut up all other parts into small pieces, allow- 
ing one half pound of butter to a terrapin. Season with salt, cayenne 
pepper and one half gill of sherry to each terrapin. Only use water the 
terrapin is last cooked in for essence. 

SYLLABUB 

Season rich milk with sugar and wine but not enough to curdle it. 
Fill the glasses nearly full and crown them with whipped cream seasoned. 

MASSACHUSETTS * 

Menu and recipes from May E. Foley, Extension Nutritionist, Agri- 
culture and Home Economics, Amherst. 

Menu 

Clam chowder 

Watermelon pickle 

Boston baked beans 

Harvard beets 

Dressed lettuce 

Blueberry muffins 

Apple pandowdy 

Coffee 

CLAM CHOWDER 

I quart clams, after re- i onion, diced 

moving from shells 3 tablespoons butter 

clam juice 3 cups scalded milk 

1 slice fat salt pork 1 teaspoon salt 

2 cups potatoes, pared few grains pepper 

and diced 

Pour two cups of cold water over the clams to cleanse. Double a 
piece of cheesecloth and strain both water and clam juice through. Chop 
hard portions of clams. Cut pork into bits and try out. Add onion and 
cook until yellow. Add water and strained clam juice, and when boiling, 
add potatoes. Cook ten minutes. Add chopped clams and cook until 



STATES' EVIDENCE 221 

potatoes are tender. Then add soft part of clams and cook three minutes 
more. Add milk, butter and salt. This chowder may be slightly thick- 
ened if desired. 

BOSTON BAKED BEANS 

1 quart (i}i lb.) small *4 CU P molasses, dark 

pea beans y 2 teaspoon mustard 

y A pound fat salt pork boiling water 

i tablespoon salt 3 tablespoons granu- 

lated sugar 

Pick over beans, cover with cold water and soak overnight. Drain, 
cover with fresh water, heat slowly (keeping water below boiling point) 
and cook until skins will burst, which is best determined by taking a few 
beans on the tip of a spoon and blowing on them, when skins will burst if 
sufficiently cooked. Drain beans. Scald pork and scrape, remove one 
quarter-inch slice and put in bottom of bean pot. Cut through rind of 
remaining pork every half inch, making cuts one inch deep. Put beans 
in pot and bury pork in beans, leaving rind exposed. Mix salt, molasses 
and sugar, add one cup boiling water and pour over beans; then add 
enough more boiling water to cover beans. Cover bean pot and bake six 
to eight hours in slow oven (250 F.), uncovering the last hour of 
cooking so that the rind may become brown and crisp. Add water as 
needed. 

Note : Another method that is satisfactory is to wash beans thoroughly 
with cold water on the morning after they have been soaked. Put into 
bean pot and proceed as in the above method. This method will require 
longer baking. 

HARVARD BEETS 

5 large beets % cup sugar 

y 2 tablespoon corn- ]/ 2 cup vinegar 

starch y 2 cup water 

or seasoning 

2 teaspoons flour 

Cook beets in boiling water. Peel and cut in small pieces. Mix sugar 
and cornstarch; gradually add vinegar and water, stirring well. Cook 
until clear. Season and add beets. Let stand over a low fire for about 
fifteen minutes before serving. 

Note: If canned beets are used substitute one half cup liquid from 
the can for the one half cup water. 

DRESSED LETTUCE 

(Dressed at table by the hostess, as follows) 

Having cut two heads of lettuce all up, she puts it into a bowl, and 
with her fingers she sprinkles all over it a small teaspoonful of salt and 



222 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

half a teaspoonful of pepper; she then adds three tablespoonfuls of oil 
and one of vinegar; and now with the spoon and fork she turns the 
salad lightly in the bowl till well mixed ; the less it is handled the better. 
Some persons add onions and garlic; and sometimes to improve the ap- 
pearance of the salad they may add, with taste and care, the flower of 
the nasturtium. 

BLUEBERRY MUFFINS 

I egg 2 cups flour 

y 2 cup sugar 4 tablespoons baking 

2-4 tablespoons fat powder 

1 teaspoon salt 2 /z cup milk 

1 cup blueberries 

Beat egg; cream with sugar. Add melted fat and cream again. Add 
water. Sift all dry ingredients together. Combine two mixtures. Add 
blueberries which have been dredged in flour. 

APPLE PANDOWDY 

2 quarts sliced apples ]/ 2 cup granulated sugar 

(7 to 8 — 6 oz.) % teaspoon salt 

34 teaspoon cinnamon J4 teaspoon nutmeg 

3/2 cup molasses 34 CU P water 

3 tablespoons butter 

Line a casserole with piecrust. Mix sugar, spice and salt together 
and pour over apples; when well distributed, fill casserole. Add mo- 
lasses, butter and water. Cover with piecrust and tuck edges together, 
press to sides of casserole. Place in oven (425 F.) and bake for three 
quarters of an hour, decrease temperature to 325 ° F. When crust has 
browned slightly and apples are tender, remove from oven. Take a 
silver knife and chop up the mixture, being sure that the piecrust is 
thoroughly mixed with apples. If dry or not sufficiently sweetened, add 
more water and molasses. Return to oven and bake one and one half 
hours at 325 ° F. When finished, the pudding will look very much like 
old-fashioned Brown Betty. Serve hot with butter. This pudding can 
be warmed over ; in fact, it is even more delicious on the second or third 
day. 

COFFEE 

A Recipe from the Sixteen Hundreds 

"Allow a large tablespoonful for each person, and one for the pot. 
Put dry coffee in a pot over the fire, and stir it while heating, then pour 
the boiling water over it, and set the pot to where it will keep hot (but 
not boil) that it may settle. When it hath so stood for ten minutes, then 
it is ready for drinking." 



STATES' EVIDENCE 223 

Menu 

Boiled salt cod with pork scraps and milk gravy 

Potatoes boiled in skins 

Succotash 

Old-fashioned Yankee coleslaw 

Brown bread 

Baked Indian pudding 

NEW ENGLAND SALT COD DINNER 

8 boiled potatoes i cup water 

6 medium-sized beets ]/ 2 cup flour 

6 medium-sized onions 3 cups milk 

1 pound fat salt pork 2 pounds boneless salt 

cod 

Boil the potatoes, drain and shake them over dry heat until mealy. 
Boil and dice the beets. Slice the salt pork and cut into fine cubes. Try 
them out very slowly ; do not let them burn. Drain and return one half 
cup of the fat to the frying pan. Add one half cup of flour to the hot 
fat and stir over the fire until it bubbles. Add one cup water and stir 
until smooth. Add three cups milk slowly, stirring until smooth and 
glossy after each addition of milk. Season to taste with salt and pepper. 
Keep hot in a double boiler and beat smooth just before serving. 

Soak the codfish in warm water for several hours, changing the water 
at least four times. Just before serving time move the saucepan to the 
front of the stove and simmer gently until the fish will flake if broken. 
Take up on a hot platter. Recipe makes eight servings. 

PILGRIM SUCCOTASH 

2 cups cooked beans 1 teaspoon salt 

(lima or kidney) 2 tablespoons butter 

2 cups cooked corn 1 teaspoon sugar 

(cut from cob) 34 CU P milk 

Melt the butter. Add the beans and corn with a little water and the 
seasonings. Stir in the milk as water is absorbed. Heat thoroughly but 
do not boil after milk is added. Serve very hot. 






224 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

OLD-FASHIONED YANKEE COLESLAW 

i cup milk I tablespoon butter 

iy 2 tablespoons flour i egg 

y 2 teaspoon salt 2 quarts cabbage, 

y 2 tablespoon mustard shredded 

34 cup vinegar 2 tablespoons sugar 

Scald three fourths cup of milk. Measure and sift flour, salt and 
mustard together and make a smooth paste with remaining cold milk. 
Add to hot milk and cook thoroughly. Heat vinegar and add slowly to 
dressing after it has thickened. Beat egg with sugar and add to dressing, 
stir while adding. Add butter. Pour hot dressing over cabbage. Serve 
slaw hot, or chill and serve cold. 

MICHIGAN 

Menu from Beatrice V. Grant, Michigan State College, Department 
of Foods and Nutrition, East Lansing. 

Menu 

Iced hearts of gold canteloupe 

Huron navy bean soup 

Melba toast 

Muskegon celery hearts Saginaw Valley cucumber pickles 

Boyne City smelts Lake Superior whitefish 

Braised Ontonagon venison 

(See page 113 for recipe) 

Spiced grape jelly 

Roast lamb 

Brown gravy Red currant and gratiot mint jelly 

Upper Peninsula potatoes baked in the half shell 

Cadillac potatoes Duchess style 

Baby lima beans Green beans 

Van Buren asparagus Buttered globe onions 

Quick rolls (Michigan flour) 

Grand Rapids leaf lettuce Michigan State greenhouse tomatoes 

French dressing Michigan Neufchatel cheese wafers 

*Cherry pie Blueberry pie 

Sweet clover honey mousse 

South Haven peach cardinal 

Romeo peach fritter with Michigan beet-sugar sauce 

Demitasse 

*Fresh or frozen Michigan cherries 



STATES' EVIDENCE 



225 



MINNESOTA 

Menu and recipes from Mildred King, Instructor in Institution Man- 
agement, University of Minnesota, St Paul. 



Menu 

Smoked Lake Superior ciscoes 

Arrowhead potato chips 

Duluth celery 

Cream of St Paul mushroom soup 

Bush Lake hothouse tomatoes 

Hennepin County hearts of lettuce 

Minnesota blue cheese French dressing 

Broiled Lake of the Woods wall-eyed pike 

Maitre d'Hotel Red River Valley russets 

Roast Minnesota turkey 

Wild rice dressing 

Mashed Askov rutabagas 

Minnesota hard-wheat flour rolls 

Sweet cream butter 

Halleck honey 

Latham red raspberry pie 

Wayzata strawberry ice cream 

Gopher and Minnesota cheddar cheese 

w T ith crackers 

Coffee 

Chaska beet sugar Minnesota sweet cream 



CREAM OF MUSHROOM SOUP 



4 pounds fresh mush- 
rooms from St 
Paul Caves 

3 gallons whole milk 

2 l / 2 cups flour 



3 gallons stock, chicken 

or veal 
I pound butter 
l / 2 cup salt 



Wash fresh mushrooms. Do not peel. Cut in thin slices and fry in 
one quarter pound butter until tender. Heat milk and add hot stock. 



226 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Melt three quarters pound butter and make roux with flour. Pour into 
hot liquid and cook until thickened. Add cooked mushrooms and all 
their liquid. Add salt just before serving. Garnish with finely cut 
parsley. Serves from fifty to sixty. 



ROAST MINNESOTA TURKEY 

AND 

WILD RICE DRESSING 



One 1 8-pound Minnesota turkey 



(30 servings) 



Rub with melted butter and salt. Roast four hours in 275 ° F. to 
300 F. oven. 

I pound wild rice 2 quarts water 

Steam for one hour. All the water will be absorbed. Add butter, salt 
and pepper. Place in baking pan and pour over some of brown stock 
from the roast turkey. Bake thirty minutes in 350 F. oven. 



FRENCH DRESSING 

WITH 

MINNESOTA BLUE CHEESE 

1 cup salt 3 teaspoons mustard 

5 tablespoons paprika 2}4 quarts vinegar 

1 cup lemon juice 5 quarts oil 

1 cup catsup 

Mix above ingredients well. Crumb one pound Minnesota Blue 
Cheese and blend into dressing. 

Minnesota Blue Cheese is a Roquefort type of cheese made by the 
University of Minnesota. Gopher cheese is a Trappist type cheese, also 
made by the University of Minnesota. 



BROILED LAKE OF WOODS 
WALL-EYED PIKE 

Dip fillets of wall-eyed pike in a milk-and-egg mixture, then in a 
mixture of one half fine bread crumbs and one half fine corn meal. Place 
in a well-greased baking pan and bake in broiler oven. 

Serve with drawn lemon and butter sauce. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 227 

Lake Superior ciscoes are salted and smoked by fishermen on the 
north shore of the lake. 



MISSISSIPPI 

Menu from Dorothy Dickins, Home Economics Research, State 
College. 

An Easter Dinner 

Fried chicken with rice and gravy 
Hot biscuit with butter 

Coffee or iced tea 

(depending on weather) 

Green vegetable salad 

(Lettuce, scallions and fresh mustard greens) 

New Potatoes and English peas 

Fresh strawberry ice cream (boiled custard foundation) 



FRIED CHICKEN — SOUTHERN STYLE 

Clean, singe and cut in pieces for serving two young chickens. Plunge 
in cold water, drain but do not wipe. Sprinkle with salt and pepper 
and coat thickly with flour, having as much flour adhere to chicken as 
possible. Cook chicken slowly in fat until tender and well browned. 

Pour off surplus fat, leaving only enough in pan for gravy. Make a 
thickening of flour and water and stir in fat; let brown and add milk 
or cream and stir until of creamy consistency. Do not remove crackles 
from chicken in pan when making gravy. Salt to taste. 



STRAWBERRY ICE CREAM 

I }^ cups milk i egg, beaten separately 

Yz cup sugar y 2 cup cream 

Make a soft custard of the milk, sugar and egg yolk, adding stiffly 
beaten whites last. When cold, add cream, either plain or whipped. Pour 
into freezer can and turn crank until mixture is thick but not hard. 
Add two cups of crushed strawberries, sweetened to taste. Complete 
freezing. 



228 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



MISSOURI 

Menu and recipes from Jessie Alice Cline, Professor of Home Eco- 
nomics, University of Missouri, Columbia. 

"I have talked to many native Missourians and many visitors in our 
state to determine what each thought our most typical Missouri Dinner 
Menu to be. In view of this, I submit the following: 



Typical Missouri Dinner 

Chilled watermelon balls 

or 

Fruit cup of mixed Missouri fruits 

Springfield fried chicken Missouri style with cream gravy 

Ray County mashed potatoes 

Green beans cooked with salt pork 

or 

Lafayette County corn on the cob 

Hot fluffy biscuits from Missouri soft-wheat flour 

Mixed vegetable salad 

(include tomatoes) 

Relishes of cucumber pickles 

Cottage cheese and tart jelly 

Southwest Missouri strawberry shortcake 

or 

Stark's delicious apple pie 

Coffee 

Augusta wines 



"Roast Ozark turkey should be included ; also Old Boone County ham. 

"Fried chicken in Missouri is prepared by disjointing a 2^2 to 3-pound 
bird. Each piece is coated with flour which has been seasoned with salt 
and pepper. The pieces are then fried slowly in a small amount of lard 
(just enough to prevent sticking) for twenty to thirty minutes, until 
each piece is tender and a golden brown color. During the cooking each 
piece is turned frequently. 

"The pieces are removed from the heavy frying pan as they become 
done, and when all are removed a milk gravy is made by using equal 
measure of flour and fat in which the chicken was fried and one cup 
of milk for each two tablespoons of flour. The giblets may be cooked 
and diced and added to the gravy." 



STATES' EVIDENCE 229 



MONTANA 

Menu and comments from Mollie Allen Strand, Assistant State 
Supervisor of Home Economics Education, Bozeman. 

"Most of our Midwest and Western states raise practically the same 
products. There is still wild game such as elk, deer, pheasants and 
prairie chickens. The Western states, of course, have better fish than 
found in Midwestern. Montana is especially noted for its fine trout. In 
doing a little research along the line of food, in the earlier history of 
Montana, I find that huckleberries were always considered a fine treat. 

"A typical menu of the early miners was: Miners' bread (sourdough 
or flapjack), fish, venison, some corned venison for use after freezing 
season, potatoes, ham and occasionally a piece of summer sausage and 
service (pronounced sarvice) berry. Our huckleberries make delicious 
pies and muffins — favorite with us, as the blueberry is with people from 
the State of Maine. 

"The mining and stock-growing industries brought classes of people 
to Montana who were progressive, energetic and always 'on the move.' 
For that reason whatever was being served or worn in the East or in 
San Francisco soon found a market in our state, particularly in our 
mining cities such as Butte and Helena. In Butte alone, as everyday 
fare, we find such foods as "Bucket" steaks — known as club or Del- 
monico steaks in the East ; pastries and saffron bread in the home of the 
Cornish; boiled dinners and Irish stews; Scotch shortbread; assorted 
sausages for German and Scandinavian people; Truzzolini's famous hot 
tamales and ravioli in the Italian settlements. 

"In a journal published in 1887 I find that excellent peas were grown 
in the Gallatin Valley ; now we raise the finest to be had anywhere and 
they are canned in Bozeman. Our western sections of the state (Kali- 
spell and the Bitter Root Valley) raise excellent cherries, both sweet 
and sour; the Mcintosh red apple is grown in the Bitter Root Valley. 

"As early in the state history as the War of the Copper Kings there 
wasn't a delicacy to be found in New York or San Francisco that was 
not served at some political or social dinner in Butte. Montana has 
always been able to have the best served anywhere, even to foods im- 
ported from Europe. However, I shall submit some suggestions that I 
am sure any Montanan would enjoy seeing on a New York menu card. 
As to recipes, I shall just give the Barbecued Beef, prepared every year 
on the Montana State College campus by Mr Frank Harrington. We 
feed about fifteen hundred people for our high school week banquet. 
The beef is prepared the same way the large stock ranches prepare it for 
the roundup crews. This recipe was given by the Anceny Flying D 
Ranch. 



230 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Montana Foods 

Small fruits (berries) in chokecherry juice or dandelion wine 

Barbecued beef or 
another commonly used form of beef and a very popular choice 
Prime ribs of beef 

Montana trout, either whole or fillet, rolled in corn meal and flour 

and fried 

In September — Wild duck 

In November and December — Elk steak or venison roasts 

Pheasants 

Montana Turkey 

B. K. Peas (Gallatin Valley) 

Fresh vegetable salads (all vegetables are grown here or can be had by 
our quick transportation in refrigerated cars or trucks) 

Rolls from Montana flour 

Huckleberry muffins or Biscuits and honey 

Chokecherry jam or sweet cherries in currant jelly 
(currant jelly is a good substitute for Buffalo berry jelly) 

Our Netted Gem potatoes (similar to those served on the Northern 
Pacific Diner) — weigh about I pound for each dinner service. 

Sweet cream butter 

Baked Mcintosh red apple 

or 

Huckleberry pie 

Coffee 

"Cube sugar is not served at a Montana products meal. We have three 
sugar plants but we do not make cube sugar. 

"Raviolis are served with steak or chicken dinners out here. Most any 
Montanan would be glad to see Truzzolini's hot tamales. We have 
Southerners, too, who would expect hot biscuits and Montana Clover 
honey, corn bread and pork backbone; luteflsh for our Scandinavians; 



STATES' EVIDENCE 231 

caviar and borsch for our Russians; sauerkraut, weiners and lager for 
our Germans; and for our French — what have you? We are familiar 
with them all !" 



BARBECUED BEEF 

Pit 

Sixty inches deep, thirty-six inches wide, length in proportion to 
volume of meat. 

For five hundred pounds meat, pit should be twenty feet long. Fire 
pit with fir wood until coals are built up to within eighteen inches of 
ground level. Level off coals and cover surface with dry fine sand. Place 
meat on sand. Cover pit with sheet metal and then pile dirt over 
metal to hold in the heat. Minimum of twelve hours should be allowed 
after placing meat in pit. 

Meat preparation 

Bone and roll the meat. Salt and wrap in cheesecloth to keep meat 
clean when placed on sand. Individual pieces of meat should not exceed 
twenty to twenty-five pounds. 

The above will serve twelve hundred to fifteen hundred people, one 
third pound beef to person. 

COWBOY SAUCE 

2 pounds butter I teaspoon red pepper 
iy 2 quarts water 2 tablespoons Worces- 
i cup vinegar tershire sauce 

i l / 2 tablespoons mustard 2 tablespoons tabasco 
J4 cup sugar sauce 

3 tablespoons salt 3 tablespoons pepper 
3 tablespoons chile pow- 4 teaspoons paprika 

der 1 onion, chopped fine 

1 clove garlic 

Mix together and boil thirty minutes. Sufficient sauce for fifteen to 
eighteen barbecued chickens, or about the same amount by weight of 
meat. 



232 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

NEBRASKA 

Menu from Margaret Fedde, Chairman of Home Economics De- 
partment, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 

Menu 

Logan Valley wild grape juice cocktail 

Cornhusker Victory vegetable soup 

Broiled Platte River catfish 

with Sunshine hollandaise sauce 

Roast Keya Paha turkey with savory stuffing 

Ak-Sar-Ben prime 4-H baby beef au jus 

Baked Alliance cobblers 

Varsity butter Carrots a la Bryan 

Hi-bred golden sweet corn on cob 
Sweetheart rolls made with Imperial flour 

Sandhill chokecherry jelly 

Home-grown shredded lettuce with sliced 

Pershing tomatoes 

Land O' Sunshine mayonnaise 

Morton Orchard spiced crab apples 

Republican Valley watermelon pickles 

Tri-County green onions Niobrara Globe radishes 

Individual Otoe County cherry pie a la mode 

Nebraska Jonathan apple pie with Lincoln cheese 

Coffee Grand Island beet-sugar cubes 

VICTORY VEGETABLE SOUP 

1 cup young carrots, 1 cup green beans, cut 

diced lengthwise 

1 cup fresh peas 1 cup mushrooms 

1 cup celery, diced 1 teaspoon salt 

J4 cup minced onion 2 quarts beef stock 

Cook the vegetables in beef stock until tender. Add mushrooms which 
have been cooked in one tablespoon butter. Season with salt and serve 
hot. 

SANDHILL CHOKECHERRY JELLY 

Prepare the jelly stock by adding one and one half cups water to each 
quart of chokecherries. Cook, stirring frequently, until all the choke- 
cherries are broken. Strain through a jelly bag. 

This stock may be used with either commercial pectin and sugar or 
with equal parts of chokecherry and apple jelly stock, using three 
quarters cup sugar for each cup of juice- 



STATES' EVIDENCE 233 

CARROTS A LA BRYAN 

Put two tablespoons of melted butter in a casserole, then two cups of 
shredded young carrots. Season with salt, then one half cup finely sliced 
white onions, then two cups of shredded carrots; season with salt and 
two tablespoons of butter on top. 

Cover and bake in oven at 400 F. for one hour. If desired, this may 
be cooked on top of stove, but add one quarter cup water. Cover and 
cook over low heat for forty-five minutes or until carrots are tender. 

NEVADA 

Menu and comments from Sarah L. Lewis, Head of Home Eco- 
nomics Department, University of Nevada, Reno. 

"A Home Economics class of the University of Nevada has worked 
out this menu, using Nevada products." 

Menu 
Fish cocktail 

Carrot sandwiches Celery curls 

Puree of Northern Nevada pinto bean soup 
Baked Pyramid boned trout on watercress 

Nevada baby beef Nevada range lamb with Nevada 

hearts of gold-spiced cantaloupe 
Roast Norbest fallon turkey Ham loaf with spiced cider 

with currant jelly frappe 

Northern Nevada russet potato 

Hot biscuits Nevada sage honey 

Southern Nevada asparagus 

Southern Nevada beet salad 

Deep apple pie Ice cream 

Demitasse 

BAKED PYRAMID BONED TROUT 
ON WATERCRESS 

Bone the cleaned fish, leaving the heads on. Use an earthenware 
baking dish, lay the trout in it, add two tablespoons of water, the juice 
of a lemon, salt, pepper, chopped chives and finely minced watercress. 
Bake in the hot oven (375 F.) ten minutes; meanwhile boil as much 
double cream as is needed for the sauce. After the ten minutes' cooking, 
pour this over the fish, sprinkle thickly with buttered bread crumbs, and 
let all brown a few minutes in the oven. Serve on a hot platter garnished 
with bouquets of crisp, cold watercress. 



234 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



NEW HAMPSHIRE 

Menu and recipes from Mrs Helen F. McLaughlin, Home Eco- 
nomics Department Head, University of New Hampshire, Durham. 

New Hampshire Shore Dinner 

Clam or fish chowder 

Crackers Celery Sour pickles 

Steamed Hampton River clams 

with 

Clam bouillon and drawn butter 

Broiled rock cod with fried clams 

Broiled lobster with potato chips 

Corn on the cob Tomatoes and cucumber salad 

Rolls 
Apple pie with cheese Ice cream 

Coffee 

New Hampshire Dinner 

Honeydew melon 

Cold jellied consomme 

or 

Hot watercress chicken bouillon 

Winnepesaukee lake trout with lemon parsley butter 

New Hampshire broilers 

Shoestring potatoes 

Blueberry muffins Watercress and tomato salad 

with French dressing 

Hepler's Hybrid eggplant 

Deep-dish apple pie with University of New Hampshire 

vanilla ice cream 

Coffee 

Ski Snacks 

Raised buckwheat griddle cakes with New Hampshire 

maple syrup 

Broiled homemade sausage 

Coffee 

Raised waffles with New Hampshire maple syrup 

Broiled bacon 

Coffee 






STATES' EVIDENCE 235 



Church Supper Menu 

Chicken pie or meat loaf or other cold meat 

Scalloped potatoes 

Mixed vegetable salad Whole wheat and white rolls 

Pickles 
Washington pie Coffee 

RAISED BUCKWHEAT PANCAKES 

I cup scalded milk i cup boiling water 

y 2 teaspoon salt i cup bread flour 

i cup buckwheat flour 2 tablespoons molasses 

Yi teaspoon baking soda J4 cup lukewarm water 

Mix scalded milk and boiling water; when lukewarm, add salt and 
crumbled yeast cake. Beat well — then stir in flours and beat well. Let 
rise overnight. Just before baking stir in the molasses, soda and water 
(mixed together). Bake on hot griddle greased with salt pork. 

DEEP-DISH APPLE PIE 

8 large or io medium- i cup brown sugar 

sized apples y 2 cup flour 

y 2 teaspoon cinnamon 2 tablespoons water 

y 2 cup melted butter 

Peel, core and slice apples in eighths. Arrange in bottom of buttered 
baking dish and put two tablespoons of water over them. Mix sugar, 
flour and cinnamon together and sprinkle over top of apples. Pour 
melted butter on top. 

Bake at 350 F. from one and one half to two hours. 

Serve hot or cold with plain or whipped cream. 

LOBSTER STEW 

I medium lobster, boiled 1 quart rich milk 

34 cup butter 1 teaspoon salt 

I cup celery infusion (made by stewing celery leaves and 
coarse outer celery stalks together in water) 

Pick out lobster meat and cut in small pieces. Saute in butter until 
color comes out of lobster into the butter (but do not brown). Scald 
milk — add celery stock, lobster meat and salt. Serve in deep bowls. The 
colored red fat floats on top and makes the stew look very attractive. 



236 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



NEW JERSEY 

Menu from Marie Doermann, Extension Service, State of New Jersey, 
New Brunswick. 



Me 



nu 



Bivalve oyster cocktail 

Consomme of Rutgers tomatoes 

Warren celery Essex radishes 

Cape May mixed sea-food grill 

or 

Millville squab on toast 

Choice of 

Cumberland milk-fed broilers 

Flemington capon 

Sussex white turkey 

Salem asparagus Camden baked onions 

Gloucester sweet potato balls 

or 

Green Mountain shoestring potatoes from Mercer 

Ocean cranberry sherbet 

Mixed green salad from Bergen 

Monmouth brandied peaches Angel cake 

Burlington Stayman apple pie 

Pemberton blueberries with Sussex cream 

Demitasse 

GLOUCESTER SWEET POTATO BALLS 

2 cups hot mashed sweet y 2 teaspoon salt 

potatoes i teaspoon grated orange 
2 tablespoons butter rind 

Y&, teaspoon nutmeg i tablespoon orange juice 

J4 teaspoon paprika i egg, well beaten 

Add all the ingredients to the hot mashed potatoes and mix well. If 
the mixture is too dry add one to two tablespoonfuls of milk. Cool 
and shape into balls. Then dip in beaten eggs to which one tablespoon 
of water has been added and a pinch of salt. Now roll in finely sifted 
bread crumbs or in rolled cereal flakes. Fry in deep fat (39°° F.) until 
a delicate brown and drain on paper. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 237 

MIXED SEA-FOOD GRILL 

3 oysters, rolled in bacon half small bluefish 

2 soft-shelled crabs lemon points 

tartare sauce 

Wrap oysters in bacon and fasten with toothpicks. Bone bluefish, 
sprinkle with few drops lemon juice and salt. Dip cleaned crabs in 
melted butter, sprinkle with lemon juice, salt and pepper and roll in 
flour. Place oysters, crabs and bluefish on a hot broiler and broil eight 
to ten minutes. Turn the oysters and the crabs to brown evenly. Serve 
on a large plate with the tartare sauce in a low cup in the center of the 
plate. Arrange fish attractively, garnish with lemon points and parsley. 

NEW MEXICO 

Menu and comments from Zelpha Bates, State Supervisor, Home 
Economics Education, State College. 

A typical "Mexican" menu as served in New Mexico, 

Enchiladas con huevos — Enchiladas with eggs 

Tortillas* dressed with grated cheese and grated onion, seasoned 
with red chile sauce (a special sauce for this purpose — not to be con- 
fused with the relish sold as "chile sauce"), topped with fried egg. 

Tacos — A tortilla sandwich filled with chopped meat or chopped beans 
and chopped lettuce, seasoned with green chile or red chile sauce. 

Frijoles fritos — Brown Mexican frijole beans, boiled until tender, then 
fried in fat and seasoned with onion and chile. 

Tamales — A combination of masat and meat, usually pork or chicken, 
seasoned with red chile, rolled into corn shucks and steamed. 

Tortillas — Corncake, thin, toasted or fried until crisp. 

Salad — Chopped cabbage or lettuce, served with oil dressing, often 
seasoned with garlic or green chile or both. 

Canned pineapple — A usual part of the dessert served with this menu. 

Biscochos — Small sweet spiced cakes, very short, diamond-shaped. 

Coffee Dill pickles 

"This menu is a typical Spanish-American menu, enjoyed by both 
Spanish-Americans and Anglos in this state. The dishes listed are com- 
monly served in the homes of the Spanish-speaking element and in 
restaurants catering to people who like 'Mexican' foods. The daily 
diet of the English-speaking element is very similar to that in other sec- 
tions of the country." 

*Tortilla — A thin round corncake, cooked or toasted on a flat iron sur- 
face, usually the top of a stove, made of masa, not of corn meal. 
tMasa — An unleavened paste or dough made of corn treated with lye 
and then ground fine. 



238 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



NEW YORK 

Menus and comments from Helen Monsch, Head of Department of 
Foods and Nutrition, New York State College of Home Economics 
at Cornell University, Ithaca. 

"Mrs Boys and other members of the Foods and Nutrition Depart- 
ment have co-operated in working out menus using New York State 
products. To be sure none of these products is confined to New York 
State alone. However, you will note that we have underscored in the 
menu the foodstuffs that are characteristic of New York State, though 
they may be characteristic of other states as well. 

"Since Cortland apples, buckwheat pancakes and maple syrup are so 
characteristic of New York State we have included a breakfast as well 
as a dinner menu." 

Breakfast 

Baked Cortland apples 

Buckwheat cakes Maple syrup 

Sausage 

Milk and coffee 

Dinner 

Tomato soup 

Celery Grape jelly Radishes 

Roast Long Island duckling with spiced peaches 

Mashed potatoes Buttered carrots 

Cabbage salad with sour cream dressing 

Hot rolls 

New York State apple pie sweetened with honey 

Milk and coffee Herkimer County cheese 



RAISED BUCKWHEAT GRIDDLE CAKES 

2~y 2 cups boiling water i teaspoon salt 

1^4 yeast cakes 4 teaspoons sugar 

2 tablespoons warm J4 cup wheat flour 

water 34 teaspoon soda 
2 J / 2 cups buckwheat 

flour 

Use only two cups boiling water at the first mixing. While it is cool- 
ing to lukewarm dissolve yeast in lukewarm water. Reserve also the 
soda and three teaspoons of the sugar. Add rest of ingredients to luke- 



STATES' EVIDENCE 239 

warm water, let stand in fairly warm place twelve hours (overnight). 
Then add the other one quarter cup boiling water (cooled to lukewarm) 
with soda and sugar dissolved in it. Bake at once, like any cakes, reserv- 
ing about one half cup as "seed." This process can be continued in- 
definitely if the "seed" is kept in a cool place. If it begins to sour cover 
with cold water, let stand twenty-four hours, pour off water, proceed 
as usual. Use the "seed" in place of yeast after the first day. 



BUCKWHEATS WITH BUTTERMILK 

2 cups buckwheat 2 cups buttermilk 

l / 2 cup wheat flour I tablespoon fat 

I teaspoon soda i tablespoon sugar 

]/ 2 teaspoon salt 

Mix and sift dry ingredients. Add milk slowly and beat till smooth. 
Add melted fat and beat till smooth. Add melted fat and beat again. 

HONEY APPLE PIE 

pastry i teaspoon butter 

4 to 5 cups sliced apples I teaspoon flour 

y 2 teaspoon cinnamon 2 /z cup honey 

Line pie tin with pastry. Fill with sliced apples. Sprinkle with cinna- 
mon, sift the flour over and dot with butter. Wet edges of undercrust 
and cover with uppercrust in which have been made three or four slits 
for the escape of steam. Bake until the apples are very tender. As soon 
as the pie is removed from the oven pour the warmed honey slowly into 
the slits in the crust and allow the pie to stand for at least half an hour 
before serving. 



NORTH CAROLINA 

Menu and comments from Margaret M. Edwards, Head of Home 
Economics, the Woman's College of University of North Carolina, 
Greensboro. 

"This menu seems typical of the various areas of North Carolina. We 
have the Coastal Region, the Sandhill Region, the Piedmont Region 
and the Mountain Region. Each section is known for certain types of 
food — the Coastal Region for its sea food, truck farms and corn ; Sand- 
hill for its berries and peaches; the Piedmont for general produce; and 
the Mountain Region for its apples, honey and ham. One of our classes 
in meal study suggests that this menu typifies the best that North Caro- 
lina can offer." 



240 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Menu 

Shrimp cocktail 

Watermelon pickles Pickled peaches Artichoke pickles 

North Carolina fried chicken and cream gravy 

Candied yams Green beans, bacon 

Buttermilk biscuits and butter 

Coleslaw 

Strawberry shortcake Whipped cream 

Coffee 

BUTTERMILK BISCUITS 

(18 to 24 two-inch biscuits) 

3 cups flour ^2 teaspoon soda 

1 to 1/2 teaspoons salt 6 tablespoons shortening 

4 teaspoons baking 1 cup buttermilk 

powder 

Sift dry ingredients. Work in shortening with fingers, fork, pastry 
blender or two knives until like very coarse corn meal. Add liquid all at 
once and stir quickly until mixture thickens. Place dough on a lightly 
floured board and roll or pat out one half to one inch in thickness. If a 
fine grain is desired they should be kneaded for about one half minute. 
Cut with floured cutter and place biscuits on a baking pan. Allow to 
stand at room temperature fifteen minutes or longer before baking. 
Bake twelve to fifteen minutes at 425 ° F. 

CANDIED YAMS 

(4 servings) 

4 boiled sweet potatoes 2 /z cup brown sugar 

Ys cup butter 

Peel potatoes and slice lengthwise into half-inch slices. Arrange one 
half of sliced potatoes in a buttered baking dish. Sprinkle with one half 
the sugar and add one half the butter cut in bits or melted. Repeat and 
top with remaining sugar and butter. Bake in moderate oven (375° F.) 
until brown on top. 

NORTH DAKOTA 

Menus and recipes compiled by Ruth M. Dawson, Extension Nutri- 
tionist of State College Station, Fargo. 

"The menu entitled 'Typical Menu Used in North Dakota' is one 
which you can find typical of any restaurant or hotel with few variations 
from the ordinary run of food. The 'Menu from North Dakota Foods,' 
with attached recipes, was made up to represent foods grown or pro- 
duced in this state, with emphasis on special varieties developed here." 



STATES' EVIDENCE 241 

Menu from North Dakota Foods 

Choice of 

Iced Dakota sweet watermelon 

Iced Sephyr muskmelon 

Buffalo berry cocktail 

Bison tomato juice 

Cream of Sunshine sweet corn soup 

Red River tomato bouillon 

Chicken Durum noodle soup 

Missouri River catfish with drawn butter 

Saute of White Plymouth Rock chicken livers 

Durum macaroni with cheese 

Roast prime ribs of Bison beef with sand cherry ice 

Buffalo steak with Bison tomato sauce 

Roast North Dakota mallard with wild rice 

Roast North Dakota Tom turkey with Highbush cranberry ice 
Sauteed ham with eggs 

Whipped North Dakota Bliss Triumph potato 

Baked Irish cobbler potato 

French-fried Bliss Triumph potato 

Glazed buttercup squash 

Golden Gem corn on cob 

Buttered Mary Washington asparagus tips 

Young alfalfa sprouts salad with French dressing 

Allred tomato and cucumber salad with mayonnaise dressing 

Carrot and cabbage in lime mold with creamed dressing 

Rolls from North Dakota Rival wheat 

Chokecherry jelly 

Pixwell gooseberry jam 

Spiced Red River crab apples 

Juneberry pie 

Strawberry rhubarb pie 

Ruddy raspberry sherbet 

North Dakota sweet clover honey custard 

Coffee 



242 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



STUFFING FOR TOM TURKEY 

Allow about one and one quarter to one and one half cups of day-old 
bread crumbs (measure it loosely) for each pound of turkey. 

An 8-lb. turkey takes about 12 cups bread; a 10-lb., 14 cups; 
a 12-lb., 16 cups; a 15-lb., 18 cups. 
Recipe for plain dressing with variations: 

i loaf day-old bread or y 2 pound melted butter 

12 to 14 cups bread y 2 cup finely minced 
crumbs onion 

2 teaspoons salt J4 teaspoon pepper 

i l / 2 teaspoons poultry 1 cup finely chopped eel- 
seasoning ery tops or finely 

1 egg (may be omitted) diced celery 

Break dry bread into small pieces, add seasonings, celery and slightly 
beaten egg. Melt butter in skillet, add onion and simmer until tender. 
Stir this into the bread mixture and blend thoroughly. Use to stuff 
a 10-lb. turkey. 

Variations 

olives — 1 cup, cut fine giblets — cut fine 

sausage — 1 lb., ground apples — 1 cup, diced, 
raisins — 1 cup dried apples 

chestnuts — 1 cup may be used 

oysters — 1 cup (small) mushrooms — 1 cup 

WHOLE GLAZED SQUASH 

1 buttercup squash 3 tablespoons butter 
% cup brown sugar 1 tablespoon water 

Bake squash. When baked, peel back the rind and remove it. Make a 
heavy syrup of the sugar, butter and water by boiling it slowly three to 
four minutes. Apply the syrup to all sides of the peeled squash, return 
it to the oven and bake for an additional fifteen minutes to form a 
glazed surface. Delicious with English bacon or thin slices of ham. 

ICEBOX ROLL DOUGH 

2 compressed yeast cakes 2 /$ cup sugar 

J4 cup lukewarm water 2 eggs, well beaten 

(8o° F.) 2 teaspoons salt 

2 cups boiling water flour to make stiff dough 
2 /z cup lard (sifted) 



STATES' EVIDENCE 243 

Soak yeast in lukewarm water. Pour the boiling water over the lard 
and sugar. Cool to lukewarm, then add the yeast, beaten eggs, salt and 
flour to make a stiff dough. Let rise until double in bulk, punch down 
once and put in a cold place. Use as needed. Let rise two hours in a 
warm place before baking. This recipe can be used for any of the fancy 
rolls and made up at once. 



PIXWELL GOOSEBERRY JAM 

Wash two pounds of gooseberries, just cover with water and boil 
gently until the skins are soft, the berries broken and the whole is a 
pulpy mass. Measure and add three quarters the volume of sugar. Con- 
tinue boiling until thickened. Pour into sterile jars and seal. 



STRAWBERRY RHUBARB PIE 

1*4 cu ps sugar 2 l A CU P S diced straw- 
3 tablespoons flour berry rhubarb 

2 egg yolks (may be % teaspoon salt 

omitted) i tablespoon butter 

Mix sugar, flour and salt together. Blend with beaten egg yolks (if 
used) and add to cleaned diced rhubarb, stirring until rhubarb is well 
coated. Fill an unbaked shell with this mixture and dot surface with 
butter. Place top crust and bake in hot oven (450 F.) for fifteen min- 
utes, then lower heat to 375 ° F. for twenty-five minutes. If egg yolks 
are used the pie may be baked without a top crust and topped with a 
meringue made with the egg whites, four tablespoons granulated sugar 
and one eighth teaspoon salt. 



BAKED HONEY CUSTARD 

4 cups scalded milk 8 tablespoons strained 

4-6 eggs North Dakota 

Y\ teaspoon salt honey 

nutmeg 

Scald milk in double boiler, add honey. Beat eggs and add hot milk 
mixture, stirring rapidly. Add salt and mix well. Pour into buttered 
custard cups. Sprinkle lightly with nutmeg. Set cups in a pan of warm 
water, place in oven. Bake at a low temperature (300 F.) until when 
a knife is inserted into the custard it comes out clean. Remove cups from 
water immediately. Serve hot or cold. 



244 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Typical Menu Used in North Dakota 

Tomato juice 

Fruit cup 

Celery Olives Radishes 

Puree of bean soup 

Mixed vegetable soup 

Consomme 

Roast prime ribs of beef au jus 

Roast leg of lamb with applesauce 

Roast Tom turkey with cranberry sauce 

Tenderloin steak 

Ham and eggs 

Baked potatoes 

Whipped potatoes 

French-fried potatoes 

Creamed corn 

Buttered peas and carrots 

Baked squash 

Combination salad 

Pineapple and cottage cheese salad 

Lettuce salad with Thousand Island dressing 

Hard rolls Bread 

Apple pie Cherry pie Banana cream pie 

Sherbet and cake 

Ice cream and cake 

Tea Coffee Milk 

OHIO 

Menu from Hughina McKay, Chairman of Foods and Nutrition 
Division, School of Home Economics, the Ohio State University, 
Columbus. 

"I have discussed the matter with various ones on the resident staff 
of the Foods and Nutrition Division, as well as with the members of 
the extension service and we agree that it is difficult to say one menu or 
another is typical of Ohio. We agree that the following, which, with 
the exception of condiments and coffee, could be prepared entirely from 
Ohio-produced foods, might be used." 

Menu 

Tomato juice 

Roast pork with applesauce 

Mashed potatoes Buttered string beans 

Coleslaw 

Bread and butter 

Cherry pie Beverage 



STATES' EVIDENCE 245 



COLESLAW 

Trim the wilted leaves from a firm head of cabbage. Half the head 
will make about four servings. Place the cut side on a board and slice 
into very thin shreds, using a long sharp knife. Mix with cream dress- 
ing. 

DRESSING 

3 tablespoons cream i tablespoon vinegar 

I tablespoon sugar y 2 teaspoon salt 

few grains paprika 

Beat ingredients together. This amount is enough for two good-sized 
servings. Mix with finely shredded cabbage. 

ROAST PORK 

Select a loin or a fresh ham. Place in an open pan. Insert thermometer 
in thick part of muscle. Place in an oven of 350° F. and cook to an 
internal temperature of 185 F. 



OKLAHOMA 

Menu 

Watermelon balls 

Fried chicken Biscuit Cream gravy 

Corn pudding 

Lettuce wilted with hot vinaigrette dressing 

Green tomato relish Damson jam 

Fresh persimmons Saltines Cream cottage cheese 

Coffee 



LETTUCE WILTED WITH HOT 
VINAIGRETTE DRESSING 

Fry thin slices of bacon and strain the fat. Add one third as much 
vinegar as there is hot fat, heat and pour over the lettuce; some add 
grated onion, salt, pepper and a little chopped chives to this. 



246 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



OREGON 

Menu and comments from Nancy Morris, Director Oregonian Home 
Institute, Portland. 

"Here in the West we do not have a great supply of traditional recipes 
which have been handed down for many generations as they do in New 
England or some parts of the South. We do have good food and cooks 
who know how to prepare and serve it to the best advantage." 

Menu 

Apple juice cocktail 

Razor clam bisque 

Baked Columbia River salmon with egg sauce 

Choice of 

Roast Oregon turkey with Yaquina oyster stuffing 

Oregon cranberry jelly 

Roast Oregon lamb with mint sauce 

Broiled steak of Eastern Oregon baby beef 

with spiced Oregon prunes 

Oregon-grown peas, beans or corn 

Hot biscuits Wild blackberry jam 

Baked Oregon pears a la mode 

Vinaigrette Oregon celery salad 

Oregon apple pie with Tillamook cheese 

Baked Oregon pears a la mode 

Maraschino cherry cake 

Small black coffee 

Salted Oregon walnuts and filberts 

RAZOR CLAM BISQUE 

24 razor clams whole cloves 

1 cup water whole allspice 

1 small onion, minced 1 quart milk 

sprig parsley, minced 4 tablespoons flour 

Wash clams, then put into large saucepan with the water. Cover and 
steam over low heat until shells open easily. Remove clams from shells, 
chop and combine with other ingredients except milk and flour. Simmer 
thirty minutes in the broth in which the clams were steamed, adding the 
spices. Most people prefer about two whole cloves and two whole all- 
spice and perhaps a dash of mace. Scald milk and add flour which has 
been mixed to a smooth paste with just a little cold water. Cook ten 
minutes, stirring continually, then strain clam mixture into it. Serve 
with a topping of a spoonful of whipped cream if desired. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 247 

YAQUINA OYSTER STUFFING 

i cup turkey fat, diced i teaspoon pepper 

I large dry onion i teaspoon sage 

I cup diced celery 2 tablespoons chopped 
10 to 12 cups stale bread parsley 

crumbs I pint oysters 

y/2 teaspoons salt oyster liquid 

Fry diced turkey fat until brown and tried out. Add onion and celery 
and cook until tender but not brown. Add other ingredients, using 
enough oyster liquid to make stuffing moist but not soggy. Stuff into 
turkey, leaving plenty of room for expansion. Allow about one cup bread 
in stuffing for each pound of dressed weight of bird. 

OREGON CRANBERRY JELLY 

1 quart cranberries 1 cup water 

(about 1 pound) 2 cups sugar 

Wash and pick over berries and cook with the water until berries 
burst. Press through sieve and add sugar. Stir until dissolved and cook 
just until it barely boils. As first bubbles of boiling appear, remove from 
heat and pour into molds. Do not overcook, or jelly will not stiffen. 

VINAIGRETTE OREGON CELERY SALAD 

Slit celery hearts in two, clean and trim, then steam until tender but 
still firm. Make sauce as follows : 

3 tablespoons vinegar 1 tablespoon salt 

6 tablespoons salad oil 1 tablespoon chopped 

,J4 teaspoon paprika green pepper 

1 tablespoon chopped pimiento 

Beat oil with vinegar and seasonings until well mixed. Add other in- 
gredients and pour over the cooked celery. Let stand in a cool place at 
least thirty minutes. Serves four. 

MARASCHINO CHERRY CAKE 

2 cups sugar 34 teaspoon salt 

J4 cup butter 1^2 teaspoons vanilla 

l /2 cup milk 3*/2 cups cake flour 

Yz cup maraschino 3 teaspoons baking 

cherry juice powder 

34 cup chopped mara- 6 whites of eggs 
schino cherries 
Cream butter and sugar well. Sift dry ingredients together and add 

to creamed mixture alternately with the milk and cherry juice. Add 



248 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

vanilla and chopped cherries and mix well. Fold in stiffly beaten egg 
whites. Pour into three medium-sized greased layer-cake pans and bake 
in a 350 F. oven for about forty minutes or until center of the cake is 
springy to the touch. 



PENNSYLVANIA 

Menu, recipes and comment from Phyllis K. Sprague, Associate Pro- 
fessor of Home Economics, the Pennsylvania State College, State 
College. 

"The interrelated capitals of Pennsylvania Dutch cookery are Phila- 
delphia, Reading, Lancaster, Allentown and Bethlehem ; in the country 
surrounding these cities we find various individual features. The Dutch 
farm from a food point of view is almost self-sustaining. Winter foods 
include preserves, dried and smoked foods and other provisions which can 
l)e stored for months. 

"The Pennsylvania Dutch diet from our modern sedentary point of 
view seems very heavy. One quaint bit of hospitality of the Pennsylvania 
Dutch is the celebrated custom known as the 'Seven Sweets and Seven 
Sours.' These famous sweets and sours consist of homemade pickles and 
preserves. Among them will be found pickled red beets and eggs, chow- 
chow, mustard pickles, pickled red cabbage, apple butter, rhubarb jam, 
strawberry jam, spiced peaches, quince honey, ginger pears. 

"A Sunday dinner in a Pennsylvania Dutch home might include the 
following" : 



Me 



nu 



Chicken noodle soup 

(with homemade noodles of course) 

Roast chicken 

Baked ham 

Spaetzle and pot roast 

Schnitz un Knepp 

Stuffing 

Kartoffel Kloesse 

Candied sweet potatoes 

Knabrus Lima beans Schwenkfelder Squash 

Bacon peas Dutch Welshkorn oysters Sliced tomatoes 

Fruit gelatin 

Canned peaches Canned cherries 

Sweet sugared rolls 

Cinnamon kuchen 

Shoo-fly pie Angel-food cake Dutch doughnuts 

Coffee 



STATES' EVIDENCE 249 

NOODLES 

]/ 2 teaspoon salt about i cup flour 

2 eggs 

Beat eggs, add salt and as much flour as can be worked into the eggs. 
Knead well, cover and let stand thirty minutes. Roll out thin and spread 
on cloth to dry. Cut in narrow strips. 

ROAST CH ICKEN 

I roasting chicken bread filling 

(about 4-6 pounds) salt and pepper 
butter 1 cup thick sour cream 

Thoroughly clean and wash chicken. Rub inside and out with salt and 
pepper which have been mixed together. Then rub inside of chicken 
generously with butter. Fill with "bread filling." Place in roasting pan 
in a hot oven (400 F.) and roast about two hours, basting about every 
fifteen minutes with spoonfuls of sour cream. If a thicker gravy is desired 
one tablespoon flour can be added to liquid in pan after chicken is roasted. 

BAKED HAM 

1 ham (10 pounds) 1 cup brown sugar 

34 cup flour 1 teaspoon dry mustard 

Y& cup maple syrup 3 tablespoons water in 

whole cloves which ham has been 

boiled 

Wash ham and cover with boiling water and let cook on top of stove 
for four hours. Let ham stand in liquid overnight. Next day remove 
fatty rind, make gashes across the surface of ham and stick in whole 
cloves. Make a paste of the sugar, flour and mustard by adding the syrup 
and water. Spread over ham and place in roasting pan. Bake uncovered 
in a hot oven (400 F.) for forty-five minutes. 

SPAETZLE AND POT ROAST 

3 eggs 1 quart flour 
Y^ teaspoon salt pot roast 

Prepare pot roast in standard regular way as always. Make the 
Spaetzle to be served with it in the following manner: Mix flour and 
salt in enough water to make a paste. Mold in the shape of thick noodle 
slabs, three inches long and a quarter inch or more thick. Boil them in 
salted water for ten minutes. Then take out and fry them in hot butter 



250 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



until brown. Pour over them the eggs, beaten, and fry again for three 
or four minutes. Sauerkraut is a good additional item for this meal. 



SCHNITZ UN KNEPP 



3 pounds ham 

i quart dried apples 

2 tablespoons brown 

sugar 
2 cups flour 
milk enough to make 

fairly moist stiff 

batter 



4 teaspoons baking pow- 
der 
J4 teaspoon pepper 
i egg, well beaten 
3 tablespoons melted 

butter 
I teaspoon salt 



Pick over and wash dried apples. Cover with water and let soak over- 
night or for a number of hours. In the morning cover ham with cold 
water and let boil for three hours. Add apples and water in which they 
have been soaked and continue to boil for another hour. Add brown 
sugar. Make dumplings by sifting together the flour, salt, pepper and 
baking powder. Stir in beaten egg, milk and shortening. Drop batter by 
spoonfuls into hot liquid with the ham and apples. Cover kettle and 
cook dumplings for fifteen minutes. Serve piping hot on large platters. 



I egg 
6 potatoes 

lYz tablespoons butter 
I onion chopped 
I stalk celery, diced 
3 slices bread, cut in 
cubes 



STUFFING 

i green pepper, chopped 
2 teaspoons salt 
i teaspoon pepper 
y 2 teaspoon paprika 
i tablespoon parsley 



Boil potatoes in skins, peel and mash. Then beat egg and mix with 
potatoes, together with salt and pepper. Melt butter and brown onion in 
it, also bread cubes. Then mix this together with celery, parsley and 
pepper and cook until tender, after which add potatoes. 

This stuffing is not only for any fowl but may also be put into bread 
pans and browned in the oven and served with the fowl, or at any other 
time. 



KARTOFFEL 

9 medium-sized potatoes 
3 eggs, well beaten 
I cup flour 
Yz cup bread crumbs 
I teaspoon salt 



KLOESSE 

y 2 pound butter 

y 2 cup bread crumbs 

i teaspoon chopped 

onion 
y 2 teaspoon nutmeg 



STATES' EVIDENCE 251 

Boil potatoes in jackets until soft, remove skins and put potatoes 
through ricer. Spread on towel for few minutes to remove moisture, then 
put them in a bowl and add salt. Add eggs, flour, two thirds cup bread 
crumbs and nutmeg. Mix thoroughly. Form mixture into dry balls (if 
mixture is too moist add more bread crumbs). Drop the balls into boiling 
salted water. When balls come to surface allow them to boil for three 
minutes. Remove one from liquid and cut open ; if center is dry they are 
sufficiently cooked. Remove balls from liquid and pour over them a dress- 
ing made as follows: brown butter in a skillet, add one half cup bread 
crumbs and onion and cook for several minutes. 

KNABRUS 

onions cabbage, cut fine 

salt and pepper 2 tablespoons butter 

Butter a large cooking kettle well and fill with alternate layers of 
cabbage and sliced onions. Cover kettle and place over low flame and 
steam until vegetables are tender. Season with salt and pepper and 
butter. 

LIMA BEANS S C H W E N K F E L D E R 

i pound lima beans i tablespoon butter 

4 potatoes y 2 teaspoon paprika 

I pint milk 

Boil beans and when almost done add potatoes, diced. When finished, 
drain and add paprika, milk and butter. Serve hot. 

BACON PEAS 

2 pounds fresh peas (or 3 slices bacon 

I can sifted peas) I onion 

I teaspoon sugar salt, pepper 

Add to peas the sugar and bacon diced (not fried) and onion, diced. 
Cook until tender in limited amount of water. Let this water boil down 
pretty far. 

DUTCH WELSHKORN OYSTERS 

I pint corn off cob (or 3 tablespoons flour 

well-soaked Shaker 1 teaspoon salt 

dried corn) 34 teaspoon cayenne 

4 eggs % teaspoon black pepper 



252 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

If using corn from cob, not only slice kernels but scrape pulp closely 
from cob. Add two beaten eggs and flour, pepper, salt, cayenne. Beat 
yolks of two more eggs, then add well-beaten whites and flour enough to 
make stiff batter. Fry in butter in small pancake form; serve sizzling 
hot. 

CINNAMON KUCHEN 

I yeast cake ]/ 2 teaspoon salt 

y 2 cup butter i egg 

J4 cup sugar $y 2 cups flour 

Scald a pint of milk and when partly cooled add yeast, dissolved, and 
three and one half cups flour. Beat well, let rise for two hours. Then 
cream butter and sugar, add salt, beat egg into it and add remainder of 
flour, enough to stiffen. Let rise for an hour. Cut into four sections, roll 
out each to inch thickness. Place in pie tins, let rise another hour. Then 
dent top with a number of dents, brush with melted butter, sprinkle with 
brown sugar, sift cinnamon over it and bake twenty-five to thirty min- 
utes in medium hot oven. 

SHOO-FLY PIE 

I cup molasses 2 cups sugar 

4 cups flour y 2 teaspoon cream of 

y 2 cup butter and lard tartar 

y 2 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon baking 

soda 

Dissolve molasses in one cup water. Mix all other ingredients and form 
into crumbs. Pour molasses mixture into pans lined with piecrust, then 
spread crumbs evenly on top. Sprinkle with cinnamon and bake in 
moderate oven. 

DUTCH DOUGHNUTS 

Boil and mash three or four large potatoes in water enough to make 
three cups. To this add one quarter teaspoon salt, one cup yeast (or one 
cake dissolved), one cup sugar, one half cup lard, enough flour to make 
a stiff batter. Cover well, keep in warm place overnight. In the morning 
add two eggs, work into soft dough, let rise, cut into cakes, let rise again, 
cook in deep fat. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 253 



PUERTO RICO 

Menu, recipes and comments from Berta Cabanillas, Assistant Pro- 
fessor in Home Economics, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras. 

"I am giving you five Puerto Rican menus and recipes. I have in- 
cluded from the simplest one-dish luncheon to the Sunday dinner. As to 
our holiday food, I am sending also a menu for supper served on Christ- 
mas Eve at midnight. 

"Puerto Rico is an American possession in the Caribbean Sea, the 
smallest of the Greater Antilles. Because of its location it is considered 
the link between North and South America. 

"Beautiful blue waters encircle this island of eternal spring, mild 
climate, verdant hills and winding roads. Its people are progressive and 
hospitable, very proud of their four centuries of Spanish civilization ; 
language, customs, traditions are typically Spanish. 

"Puerto Rican food is simple, unpretentious, but satisfying to those 
who can appreciate the native foods in terms of Puerto Rico's agricul- 
tural resources. Cookery is a combination of Spanish and native dishes, 
some of them brought by Spanish conquerors, while others have been 
inherited from Indians or borrowed from near-by countries. Such delica- 
cies as arroz con polio, pasteles, bienmesabe are typically Puerto Rican, 
while others are patterned after Spanish dishes, as, for instance, the 
sancocho and cocido, but whether imported from Spain or adopted, all 
of them constitute a tropical contribution to the richest and oldest art: 
the art of cookery." 

Explanation of Terms 

Dulce — Grated or sliced fruits cooked in a thick syrup. 

Plantain — Baking banana. 

Annatto seeds — Seed of tropical small tree, used to give color to food. 

Fritters — Made of vegetables, flour or corn meal and fried in small or 

large amount of fat. 
Pasteles — Dish prepared with grated vegetables such as plantain and 

yautia and stuffed with pork. 
Yautia — Kind of tropical tubercle like sweet potato. 
Mazapan — Spanish almond paste (marchpane). 
Nougat — Sweet almond, very hard paste. 
Herbs — Pot marjoram (oregano). Parsley (perejil). Coriander 

(cilantro). 

One-Dish Luncheon 

Sancocho Vegetable stew 

Pan Bread 

Jalea de guayaba Guava jelly 

Queso de la tierra Cottage cheese 

Cafe Coffee 



254 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



SANCOCHO (VEGETABLE STEW) 

i pound beef 2 tablespoons fat 

]/ 2 pound pork y 2 teaspoon achiote 

1 onion (1 ounce) 1 ear sweet corn 

1 tomato (3 ounces) y 2 pound potato 

1 green pepper (1 ounce) y 2 pound name 

2 ounces ham y 2 pound yautia 

2 ounces salt pork y 2 pound sweet potato 

1 sprig parsley 1 plantain 

1 sprig coriander 1 ripe plantain 

1 small sweet pepper 1 chayote 

1 chorizo (Spanish 1 tablespoon salt 

sausage) 2 quarts water 

Cut beef and pork into small pieces. Place in water for one half hour, 
then place over the fire. Add onion, tomato, pepper, sweet pepper, salt 
pork, cut into small pieces, and seasoning herbs. Let boil for about one 
or two hours. 

Remove from fire and strain. Add beef and pork and salt to broth. 
Cut vegetables into small pieces about three quarters inch. Cut sweet 
corn and chorizo in one-half-inch slices and add to broth. Let boil slowly 
until all vegetables are cooked. Half an hour before serving, the green 
plantain may be removed, mashed and shaped into balls and added to 
sancocho. Number of portions, eight. 

The consistency of sancocho is that of a thick soup. It is served in a 
soup plate and eaten as a soup. This is served as a main dish. Care 
should be taken so that the vegetables keep their shape. For coloring add 
achiote to two tablespoons fat and heat until color is extracted. Beef 
used may be flank or plate. 



JALEA DE GUAYABA 

(Guava Jelly) 

2 pounds guavas 1 quart water 

sugar 

Wash guavas, remove the ends and cut into quarters. Place in sauce- 
pan, add water and boil until guavas are tender. Strain in jelly bag, 
drain but do not squeeze the bag. Measure the juice. Add three quarters 
cup sugar for every cup of juice. Boil gently until it jells. Pour in jelly 
glasses and cool. 

Number of servings, twelve. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 



255 



Arroz con gandules 

Relleno de amarillo 

Pan 

Dulce de coco 

Cafe 



Luncheon 



Rice with pigeon peas 

Stuffed ripe plantain 

Bread 

Coconut preserve 

Coffee 



ARROZ CON GANDULES 

(Rice with pigeon peas) 



3 ounces ham 
i ounce salt pork 
I onion ( i ounce) 
I tomato (4 ounces) 
1 pepper ( 1 ounce) 



2 cups pigeon peas 

1 pound rice 

I teaspoon annatto seeds 

5 cups water 

1 tablespoon salt 



2 ounces fat 

Cook pigeon peas until tender. Cut ham, salt pork, onion, tomato and 
pepper into small pieces. Fry slightly in two tablespoons fat. Add pigeon 
peas. 

Wash rice, add to pigeon peas and cook for few minutes. Cook annatto 
seeds in three tablespoons fat until color is extracted, strain and add to 
rice. Add rest of fat and water. Let cook slowly until rice is cooked and 
all water is evaporated. 

Number of servings, six. 

RELLENOS DE AMARILLO 

{Stuffed Ripe Plantain) 
3 ripe plantains 
Boil ripe plantains and mash them. 



FILLING 



y 2 pound pork 
1 ounce ham 
1 ounce salt pork 
1 onion ( 1 ounce) 
1 tomato (2 ounces) 
1 green pepper 
( 1 ounce) 
J4 cup water 
1 tablespoon fat 



y 2 tablespoon salt 
2 leaves coriander 

1 sprig parsley 
j4 cup olives 

2 tablespoons capers 
2 tablespoons raisins 
y 2 teaspoon annatto 

seeds 
fat 



256 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Chop finely ham, salt pork, pork, onion, tomato, pepper and cook 
in one tablespoon fat; add hot water and salt. Chop coriander and 
parsley very fine, cut olives, capers and raisins and add to pork. Add 
one half teaspoon annatto seeds/Take about one third cup of mashed ripe 
plantain, place on floured plate and spread flat into a circle. Put one 
tablespoon filling in the center and bring edges together to shape into a 
ball. Fry in deep fat until light brown. Drain on brown paper. Number 
of servings, nine. 



DULCE DE COCO 

{Coconut Preserve) 

4 cups grated coconut 2]/ 2 cups water 

i 1 /* cups sugar i piece ginger or 

cinnamon 

Add water and sugar and cook until coconut is tender and syrup is 
medium thick. Chop ginger slightly and add before retiring from fire. 
Number of servings, ten. 



CAFE 

(Coffee) 

8 tablespoons coffee i cup boiling water 

Pour water one quarter cup at a time. Let drip slowly and repeat until 
all water is added. Coffee is served with hot milk instead of cream. 
Dilute with hot water for after-dinner coffee or to serve with cream. 

Use French coffee drip or tricolator. Coffee must be ground fine. 
Yields from one half to three quarters cup. 

Luncheon 

Carne mechada con papas Larded meat with potatoes 

Surullitos de maiz Corn-meal fritters 
Arroz bianco Boiled rice 

Habichuelas coloradas Kidney bean stew 
Pan Bread 

Ensalada de habichuelas String bean 

tiernas salad 

Dulce de lechoza Lechoza preserve 
Cafe Coffee 



STATES' EVIDENCE 257 

CARNE MECHADA CON PAPAS 

(Larded Meat with Potatoes) 

2 ounces ham % teaspoon pepper 

2 ounces bacon 2 pounds rump or tender 

3 ounces onion lamb 

J4 cup olives 2 cups hot water 

J4 teaspoon marjoram iyi pounds potatoes 

leaves y 2 cup tomato sauce 

1 clove garlic 2 ounces fat 
i l / 2 tablespoons salt 

Cut ham and bacon in strips. Cut onion and olives into very small 
pieces. Grind garlic and marjoram leaves in a mortar. Make several 
diagonal insertions with a sharp pointed knife along the grain of the 
cut and lard it with bacon and condiments. Fry meat in fat ; when brown 
on both sides add two cups hot water, salt and potatoes cut in halves. 
Let cook slowly. When meat is almost done add tomato sauce. Let cook 
slowly five minutes. When meat and potatoes are tender, slice meat and 
serve with potatoes. Pour some of the gravy over the meat. Number of 
portions, eight. 

SURULLITOS 

(Corn-meal Fritters) 

i cup corn meal l / 2 cup hot milk 

2 tablespoons flour 1 tablespoon butter 

1 teaspoon salt ]/ 2 cup grated cottage 

cheese 

Mix and sift corn meal and flour. Add salt. Add hot milk and butter 
to corn meal to make a dough. Add grated cheese and mix well. Shape 
into cylinders about three inches long and one inch wide with pointed 
ends. Fry in deep fat. Number of portions, nine. 

HABICHUELAS GUISADAS 

(Kidney Bean Stew) 

2 cups kidney beans 1 ounce tomato 
2 quarts water 2 ounces pepper 
2 ounces ham 1 clove garlic 

1 ounce salt pork 1 sprig parsley 

1 onion (1 ounce) J /% teaspoon coriander 

2 tablespoons fat leaves 

1 tablespoon salt 



258 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

Soak beans in water for few hours. Place in water, cook over mod- 
erate heat until tender. Cut ham and salt pork into small pieces and saute 
well. Add fat and onion, pepper and tomato, cut into small pieces, cook 
for few minutes, add to beans. Chop garlic and herbs and add to beans. 
Add salt. Cook slowly until tender and most of the water is evaporated. 
Number of servings, ten. 

ARROZ BLANCO 

(Boiled Rice) 
6 cups water 2 cups rice 

4 teaspoons salt 6 tablespoons fat 

Pick over rice and wash well. Boil water, add salt and rice. Cook 
slowly at a low temperature until kernels are soft and all the water has 
evaporated. Add fat. Number of portions, six. 

Kernels must be completely cooked, dry and separate. 

DULCE DE LECHOZA 

(Lechoza Preserve) 
I lechoza ( i pound, 2 cups sugar 

io ounces) 2 cups water 

Peel pawpaw and slice into pieces three inches long and three quarters 
inch thick. Soak for five minutes in water to which one teaspoon alum 
has been added. Remove from fire and wash well. Place pawpaw, sugar 
and water in kettle. Cook until pawpaw is tender and part of the syrup 
is medium thick. Alum may be omitted if desired. Number of servings, 
twelve. 

Sunday Dinner 
Pure de yautia Yautia puree 

Manchego en escabeche Pickled fish 

Arroz con polio Rice and chicken 

Amarillos al sarten Stewed ripe plantain 

Pan Bread 

Ensalada de tomate Tomato salad 

Flan de pina Pineapple custard 

Cafe Coffee 

PURE DE YAUTIA 

{Yautia Puree) 
I pound flank 2 ounces ham 

\]/i quarts water sprig parsley 

i tomato (2 ounces) yi teaspoon coriander 

y 2 onion (y 2 ounce) leaves 

1 pepper (^2 ounce) y 2 pound yautia 

2 tablespoons butter 



STATES' EVIDENCE 259 

Cut meat; add to cold water. Let stand one hour. Place over the fire 
and add salt, onion, tomato, pepper, ham, cut in pieces, and herbs. Boil 
for about one hour and then strain. Wash and peel yautias, cut in cubes, 
add to soup and cook until soft. Rub yautias through a strainer and 
add to soup. Add butter. Boil gently before serving. Garnish with cubes 
of stale bread fried in olive oil. Number of servings, six. 



PESCADO EN ESCABECHE 

(Pickled Fish) 

2 pounds fish 10 pepper corns 
I cup olives 5 cups olive oil 

3 bay leaves i cup vinegar 

salt 

Cut fish in slices, dry and rub salt in. Fry in olive oil. Cut onion in 
slices, fry slightly in olive oil together with pepper corns, bay leaves and 
olives. Add vinegar last. Place fish in a bowl and pour over the olive 
oil and other condiments. To keep for a long time, put in a preserving 
jar tightly covered and place in refrigerator. Number of servings, ten. 

Haddock, shad, sawfish or snapper may be used. 

ARROZ CON POLLO 

(Rice and Chicken) 

I small chicken 3 tablespoons fat 

(2 pounds) i sprig parsley 

1 pound rice 4 ounces ham 
2/2 cups hot water 1 ounce bacon 
y/2 tablespoons achiote 4 teaspoons salt 

fat 2 tablespoons olive oil 

12 olives 1 pepper (3 ounces) 

2 tablespoons capers 1 onion (2 ounces) 

1 tomato (3 or 4 ounces) 

Dress the chicken and divide into pieces. Cut the ham, bacon, tomato, 
pepper, onions and parsley into small pieces. Melt the fat in an iron 
kettle and add the ham and bacon. Cook for two or three minutes. Add 
vegetables, chicken, and cook for five minutes or more depending on 
amount and tenderness of the chicken. Add the washed rice, cook for 
three minutes and add hot water and the achiote fat and stir thoroughly. 
Cook over low fire until rice is tender and all the water has evaporated. 
Add olives and capers. Serve hot, garnish with strips of pimiento and 
peas. Number of servings, six. 



260 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



AMARILLOS AL SARTEN 

{Stewed Ripe Plantain) 

2 ripe plantains i J4 cups hot water 

t/x cup butter Y\ cup sugar 

I stick cinnamon 

Fry ripe plantain in butter until light brown. Add hot water, sugar 
and cinnamon. Cover and cook until bananas are soft. Number of serv- 
ings, four. 

FLAN DE PINA 

{Pineapple Custard) 

i cup pineapple juice I cup sugar 

4 or more eggs 

Grate pineapple and squeeze out juice. Add sugar and cook to a syrup. 
Let cool. Measure syrup and for each cup add four beaten eggs. Mix 
well and strain. Put some caramel in bottom of mold and pour in 
mixture. Bake as a custard. Number of servings, six. 



Cena de Nochebuena 

Pasteles 

Arroz con polio 

Almojabanas 

Ensalada de lechuga 

Pan 

Nueces Mazapan 

Turron alicante 

Bienmesabe 

Anis Vino tinto 



Christmas Eve Supper 

Pasteles 

Rice and chicken 

Rice cruller 

Lettuce salad 

Bread 

Nuts Marchpane 

Nougat 

Bienmesabe 

Anisette Red wine 



PASTELES 



3 pounds yautia 
8 green bananas 
% cup milk 
2 tablespoons salt 

2 tablespoons achiote 
I cup fat 
i pound pork loin 

3 ounces ham 
i ounce salt pork 

4 ounces tomato 

plantain leaves 



2 ounces onion 

i ounce green pepper 

2 tablespoons capers 

3 sweet peppers 
}i teaspoon coriander 

leaves 
i sprig parsley 
% cup water 
y 2 cup olives 
cup raisins 



STATES' EVIDENCE 261 

Peel banana, place in salt water for five minutes. Peel yautia. Grate 
bananas and yautia, squeeze banana to extract all water. Mix both and 
mash in mortar with pestle until very fine. Add milk and salt, mix well. 
Add achiote fat. Cut pork loin, ham, salt pork into small pieces. Saute 
for five minutes. Add tomato, onion, green and sweet pepper and season- 
ing herbs cut fine. Add two tablespoons of achiote fat, salt and water. 
Cook pork and vegetables for about fifteen minutes. Add olives, capers 
and raisins. This will be used as filling. Cut plantain leaves into squares, 
wilt them over the fire. Grease center of each square. Place about one 
third cup grated vegetables on each plantain leaf, spread with greased 
bowl of spoon in the form of a rectangle. Mark center. Put one heaping 
tablespoon of filling on one side of rectangle, fold over other half 
through center and press edges together, wrap like a package. Take an 
extra piece of leaf and wrap again to prevent water from getting into it. 
Tie carefully and cook in boiling salted water about forty-five minutes. 
Serve hot as main dish. Number of servings, twelve. 

BIENMESABE 

(Tastes Me Good) 

I coconut 2 cups sugar 

4 e gg yolks 2 /z cup water 

Grate the coconut. Add one and one half cups hot water and squeeze 
out the milk. Boil sugar and water until syrup threads from tines of 
fork. Mix coconut milk and beaten egg yolks. Add syrup to egg mixture 
slowly and cook in double boiler. Stir until it becomes slightly thick. 
Serve this over slices of sponge cake. 

ALMOJABANAS 

(Rice Cruller) 

1 cup flour i tablespoon butter 
y 2 cup water 3 teaspoons baking 

2 cups rice flour powder 

4 eggs 1 cup grated cottage 

1 cup milk cheese 

2 teaspoons salt 

Wet the flour with one half cup water and cover; let stand for two 
hours. To flour, add rice flour, whole eggs, one at a time, salt, milk and 
melted butter. Beat and mix well. Let mixture stand for one half-hour, 
then add baking powder and grated cheese. Fry by spoonfuls in deep fat. 
Yields about thirty "almojabanas." 

This may be served as an accompaniment to beef stew or in the place 
of bread may be eaten with jam or jelly. 



262 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



RHODE ISLAND 

Menus and comments from Edith Andrews, Associate Professor of 
Home Economics, Rhode Island State College, Kingston. 

"I am enclosing two typical Rhode Island menus, one for breakfast, 
the other a dinner. You will notice Johnnycakes appear in each. The only 
difference would be that for breakfast the batter would be thinner, so 
the cakes are quite thin and crisp, while for dinner they are somewhat 
thicker. 

Dinner 

Finnan haddie Boiled potatoes 

(cooked in milk) 
Drawn butter sauce "Nubbins" of crisp salt 

pork 

Sliced Bermuda or Spanish onions 

Rhode Island Johnnycake 

Apple pandowdy or Tapioca with lemon or orange sauce 

Coffee 



Breakfast 

Cut oranges (sugared and allowed to stand overnight) 
Fried salt mackerel Johnnycakes 

Coffee 

"The finnan haddie is soaked and then cooked in milk. It is all served 
on a platter. The potatoes and drawn butter and salt pork 'nubbins,' 
cooked until very crisp and a golden brown, served in separate dishes ; 
also the sliced onions. The finnan haddie is served on the individual 
plates when flaked with the milk, the potatoes are mixed with it, then the 
drawn butter and pork nubbins; not elegant but good. The onions are 
put on the plate with this. 

"There are numberless recipes for Johnnycake. The Newport method 
calls for the Johnnycake meal, made by Boyd's at Portsmouth, R.I. 
The meal is mixed with milk, cold usually, though it may be warm, 
never scalding ; about one teaspoon of salt to two cups of meal is added. 
It is impossible to give the exact amount of milk, about one and one 
half cup to one and one fourth, depending on how thick one wants the 
cakes. For breakfast it would be quite a thin batter, for other meals a 
medium batter. This is cooked on a griddle, with just enough fat to keep 
from sticking. They cannot be baked very fast or the meal will not be 
cooked. Proportions and directions on package." 



STATES' EVIDENCE 263 

APPLE PANDOWDY 

6 Rhode Island cinnamon 

greenings baking-powder biscuit 

I cup sugar dough 

2 tablespoons butter 

Pare, core and cut apples into about eighths; put them in a shallow- 
pan, sprinkle with sugar and cinnamon and dot with butter. Roll biscuit 
dough to about one half inch thickness, cover apples with this and bake 
at 375° F. about a half an hour, or until apples are tender. To serve, 
invert on serving dish so apples are on top. Serve with rich cream or 
hard sauce. 

The tapioca is a combination of the pearl and minute tapioca. Water is 
used as the liquid. Molded with the pearl tapioca at the bottom of the 
mold and served with lemon or orange sauce. 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Menu from Mary E. Frayser, Home Economist at Winthrop College, 
Rock Hill. 

A Typical South Carolina Dinner Menu 

given by Mrs John Hargrove to 

Miss Frayser 

Rock Hill, S.C. 

Berkeley County tomato juice 

Southern fried chicken 

Charleston rice 

Cream gravy 

Monetta buttered asparagus 

Lake City string beans 

with salt pork 

Fort Motte artichoke relish 

Whole-wheat biscuit 

Beaufort lettuce hearts 

Ambrosia 

Mother's pound cake 

Coffee 

Orangeburg salted pecans 

AMBROSIA 

8 oranges i coconut 

3 ripe bananas sugar to taste 

Peel oranges and remove pulp from segments. Grate coconut, milk 
and sugar. Let stand in cold place several hours. Add sliced bananas just 
before serving. Add crushed pineapple if desired. Serve in compotes. 



264 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



STRING BEANS WITH SALT PORK 

4 pounds beans 3-inch square salt pork 

1 pint cold water 

Add pork to cold water to bring out flavor. String beans and add to 
boiling pork. If tender boil slowly for an hour. Beans that have been 
pulled for several days will take longer cooking time. The tender beans 
freshly picked are delicious this way. Add some melted butter and salt 
to taste. 

SOUTH DAKOTA 

Menu and comments from Helen McGregor Cooledge, Head of 
Home Economics Department, University of South Dakota, Vermillion. 

"Being new here in South Dakota, I felt rather incompetent to make 
my own decisions as to a typical South Dakota menu. I have consulted 
a number of old settlers and others whom I thought should know what 
was typical. Also in the semester examination for the Sophomore Foods 
class — Food Study and Menu Making — I gave my girls the problem. 
Pooling their ideas and the discussion held later when the papers were 
returned, we decided that this is a beef country and roast beef is most 
typical. 

"Roast pork and applesauce is a close second to the roast beef, and 
chicken is considered the meat for a company dinner. 'Tis true we have 
pheasant hunting in the fall but pheasants are not native. The old 
prairie chicken that was once native is now about extinct, thanks to the 
hunters. 

"We have quite a Scandinavian population — Norwegian and Swedish 
— and I went to a 'Ludefisk supper' that was unique to me and suffi- 
ciently unique to draw a sizable crowd annually. I went so far as to 
locate a woman who knew all about these typical Scandinavian dishes 
and how to spell them, but decided that this was unique rather than 
typical. 

"So here goes for a typical South Dakota menu with native roast beef 
as the center. 

Menu 

Home-canned tomato juice 

Roast beef with brown gravy (and good gravy) 

Mashed potatoes Green string beans Scalloped corn 

Home-canned watermelon or beet pickles 

Lettuce with oil dressing 

Wild cherry, plum, currant or crab-apple jelly 

Home-baked bread Home-churned butter 

Apple or "Pieplant pie" with cheese or whipped cream 

Coffee or milk 



STATES' EVIDENCE 265 

"The recipes — not so different from those used in other states. We are 
really quite cosmopolitan out here. 

"In compiling these recipes, I called Mrs C. J. Gunderson, a native of 
Vermillion, born and reared here and has spent all her life here. Since 
I sent you the South Dakota menu she has told me of another fruit for 
jelly that is even more typical and unique for South Dakota — the 
buffalo berry. So it should head the list of the South Dakota jellies — or 
if you use only one, this should be the one. I hardly think any other state 
will use it. These berries grow along the Missouri River and no further 
south than Sioux City, Iowa, which is forty miles east of us here. These 
berries are picked and sold by the folk who live along the river. They 
also frequently stem them before selling them. If not, the stemming is 
the first step in the jelly making." 



BUFFALO BERRY JELLY 

Stem the berries (if not already stemmed), then wash thoroughly. 
Cover with water. Cook a long time until soft. Drain off the liquid. The 
juice is rich in both pectin and acid, so half and half is the right 
proportion of sugar and juice, i.e., use one cup sugar to one cup juice. 
Bring fruit juice rapidly to boiling point.* At a certain stage in the 
boiling the juice becomes white. Many folk don't understand this and 
think it is spoiled or that something is wrong, but it is typical of the 
buffalo berry. Continue the boiling and the juice will turn a beautiful 
brick red. The sugar is added after the first ten minutes of boiling and 
the boiling continues until the jelly test is reached. 

*Boil, skimming as necessary. 



BUFFALO BERRY BUTTER 

Run the pulp left from the first cooking through a colander until 
nothing is left but the seeds. Cook and recook this pulp — sometimes as 
many as three times. Add sugar to taste, one to two pounds per gallon 
of pulp. Stir to prevent burning and cook until thick like apple butter. 
It will be a beautiful red butter of excellent flavor. In fact, it is difficult 
to say which is the better, the buffalo berry jelly or the buffalo berry 
butter. 

"This same lady makes a lovely chokecherry jelly about in the same 
way, but felt that this was a real South Dakota berry. She is saving some 
of her own make to serve when she invites me to dinner at her house 
sometime. 

"I called Mrs Marie Anderson, who came to this state from Sweden 
when she was a little girl, for her ideas on "pieplant" pie. She has made 
it the custard way given by most cookbooks but she says the typical way 



266 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

is with a flour or cornstarch thickening to hold the juice and a two-crust 
pie as follows: 

PIEPLANT PIE 

2 cups rhubarb I cup sugar 

2 tablespoons cornstarch % teaspoon salt 

or plain piecrust, enough 

3 tablespoons flour for two crusts 

Cut off the root end of the stem, also the leaf end. Wash and cut into 
half-inch pieces. If skin is tough it may be peeled off, but if tender it 
should be left on for color. Line a deep pie plate with a lower crust. 
Sprinkle with a bit of the cornstarch or flour. Add the fruit to the pie 
and sprinkle all with a mixture of the cornstarch, salt and sugar, as in 
the recipe. Cover with a generous top in which an open design has been 
cut to allow extra steam to escape — or a lattice top is good for so juicy 
a pie. Bake in a hot oven about half an hour until pieplant is soft and 
crust is a golden brown. 

"This is the real old-fashioned way. Mrs Anderson's mother always 
made pieplant pie and Mrs Anderson learned it from her. Probably an 
extra tablespoon of flour or cornstarch would be used in that first 
sprinkling. Some add two tablespoons butter to this recipe." 



TENNESSEE 

Menu and recipes from Jessie W. Harris, Director of School of Home 
Economics, the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. 

Tennessee Dinner 

Frosted Blakemore strawberries 
Broiled Reel Foot Lake brim 

Choice of 

Tennessee Valley spring lamb 

or 

Broiled hickory-smoked Tennessee Country ham 

Tennessee wonder beans 

Candied Nancy Hall sweet potatoes 

Spoon bread 

Sweet pickled Indian peaches 

Home garden salad 

Sogo ice cream 

Black walnut brownies 

Coffee 



STATES' EVIDENCE 267 



SPOON BREAD 

1 cup corn meal I teaspoon baking 

2 cups buttermilk powder 

]/ 2 teaspoon salt i>4 tablespoons butter 

^ to i teaspoon soda 2 eggs 

Beat eggs well, add milk, sift in meal, baking powder and salt; add 
soda mixed with a tablespoon of water. Heat butter in a baking pan, 
taking care to butter pan well with it. Pour butter into batter, then 
turn mixture into the pan and bake in a moderately hot oven (400 F.) 
for thirty to forty-five minutes. Serve from dish in which baked. Sweet 
milk may be used instead of buttermilk in which case omit soda. 



CANDIED SWEET POTATOES 

Boil six medium-sized potatoes (sweet) until almost tender, peel, cut 
in halves lengthwise or slice, place in baking dish. Cook together one cup 
brown sugar and one half cup water for five minutes. Add one table- 
spoon butter. Sprinkle potatoes with cinnamon. Pour the sauce over the 
potatoes. Bake until brown in moderate oven (350 F.). 



BROWN I ES 

y 2 cup flour 1 egg 

1 cup sugar, light brown ^4 teaspoon vanilla 

or granulated 2 squares chocolate, 

]/2 cup melted fat melted 

y 2 cup broken black walnut meats 

Combine ingredients in order given and mix well. Spread in a well- 
greased shallow pan and bake in slow oven (300 F. to 350 F.) thirty 
to forty minutes. Remove from oven and mark off in squares while 
warm. Cool in pan. 



SOGO ICE CREAM 

This is a sorghum-flavored ice cream. 

HOME GARDEN SALAD 

Leaf lettuce, watercress, sliced spring onions and radishes with French 
dressing. 



268 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

TEXAS 

Menu 

Half of avocado filled with caviar 

Rancho spiced beef Pickled mangoes 

Fried young carrots Broccoli 

Whole-wheat crackers 

Mexican salad 

Hot pecan pudding with grapefruit sauce 

Mexican coffee 

See pages 145 and 149 for barbecued beef recipe and Mexican salad. 



HOT PECAN PUDDING WITH 
GRAPEFRUIT SAUCE 

4 tablespoons ground pe- 2 tablespoons butter 

can kernels (use 2 or three tablespoons 
heaping spoonfuls) crumbled cake 

2 tablespoons granulated crumbs (use heap- 

sugar ing spoonfuls) 

1 cup milk 2 eggs 

enough rich, flaky pie 

pastry to line a deep 
pudding dish 

Cream the butter and sugar together. Beat in the eggs, then the cake 
crumbs and pecans. Stir in the milk after it has been warmed a little in 
the top of the double boiler. 

Line the pudding dish with the pastry, fill with the mixture and bake 
in a hot oven (400 F.) twenty minutes. Serve hot with this sauce: use 
one glass of grapefruit marmalade. Thin this in an enameled or agate 
ware saucepan with a mixture of equal parts of hot water and white 
wine, to a sauce consistency. Add about two tablespoons of chopped pecan 
kernels. Have hot ; pour over the pudding. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 269 



UTAH 

Menu and comments from Christine B. Clayton, Dean of Home 
Economics, Utah State Agricultural College, Logan. 

"Utah is famous for her excellent lamb, wonderful celery, fine apples 
and tomatoes. 

"The following is a typical Utah dinner menu for the fall and winter 
season" : 

Menu 

Utah tomato juice with cheese wafers 

Roast lamb, Utah style Browned potatoes 

Hot applesauce with chopped mint 

Buttered new carrots and peas 

Utah celery hearts 

Light rolls Butter 

Pumpkin pie in graham-cracker crust with whipped cream 



APPLESAUCE WITH SPEARMINT 

6 apples (medium size) 6 tablespoons chopped 

J4 cup water fresh spearmint 

l / 2 cup sugar few grains salt 

Wash and cut apples into pieces, removing only stem and blossom end. 
Cook covered in small quantity of water until soft. Press through 
strainer or sieve. If sauce seems too thin cook down with the cover off. 
Sweeten to taste. Add spearmint. Serve hot with lamb. 



ROAST LAMB, UTAH STYLE 

Have leg of lamb skinned. Sprinkle with salt. Spread over the roast 
a paste made of the following : 

4 tablespoons brown 2 tablespoons dry- 

sugar mustard 

4 tablespoons flour water to make medium- 

thick paste 

Place in uncovered roaster. Roast at 350 F. for the first hour, then 
reduce to 300 F. for remaining time. 

Time — thirty minutes per pound. Add one half cup of hot water to 
pan after first half-hour of roasting. 



270 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



VERMONT 

Menu from Beula M. Terrill, Department of Home Economics, the 
University of Vermont, Burlington. 

Menu 

Clear tomato soup 
Souffleed Montpelier Celery curls 

crackers 

Fried brook trout 
Tartare sauce Ripe cucumber pickles 

Roast Vermont turkey 

Bread stuffing Gravy 

Green Mountain potatoes Mashed turnip 

Whole-wheat rolls 

Wild grape jelly 

Molded salad of Macintosh red apples and cabbage 

Whipped cream dressing 

Cheese straws 

Vanilla ice cream with maple-butternut sauce 

Sponge cake 

Pumpkin pie with cheese 

Coffee 

JELLIED SALAD, VERMONT STYLE 

Soak I tablespoon gelatin in 

Yz cup cold water for ten minutes 

Yz cup hot water 2^4 tablespoons lemon 

J4 cup sugar juice 

y 2 teaspoon salt 

When mixture begins to thicken add 

J4 cup shredded cabbage y 2 cup diced red apples, 

leaving peel on 

Turn into molds, chill, serve on lettuce with cooked salad dressing. 

MAPLE-BUTTERNUT SAUCE 

Heat maple syrup and evaporate to consistency that will make medium- 
soft ball in cold water or will stand on ice or snow without sinking in. 
Add broken nuts and serve warm. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 271 



VIRGINIA 

Menu and comments from Lillian A. Cummings, Home Economics 
Department, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg. 

"I asked the College Steward, Y. O. Kent, to give me the menu which 
I thought most typical at the college dining hall when special groups 
were served. The following is one which I will always associate with 
Virginia and the college. I have not made any attempt to rewrite the 
menu. The chicken, ham and oysters were all served on the same menu 
and I should place them together." 

College Refectory Banquet 

Fruit cocktail 
Celery Pickles 

Candied yams String beans (snaps) 

Corn pudding 
Fried spring chicken Smithfleld ham 

Fried York River oysters 
Lettuce, tomato and pepper salad 
Hot rolls Tea biscuits 

Ice cream and cake 

Coffee 
Cigars and cigarettes 



CORN PUDDING 

I pint milk i tablespoon sugar 

3 eggs, slightly beaten i teaspoon salt 

i tablespoon melted i cup corn 
butter 

Scald milk. Combine all other ingredients. Add milk gradually to egg 
mixture, stirring constantly. Pour into buttered baking dish. Set baking 
dish in a shallow pan of water. Bake at 300 F. for about forty-five 
minutes until set. 



SMITHFIELD HAM 

Wash ham carefully. Soak overnight and wash again. Put ham into 
roaster and fill with water. Bake at 350 F. Add additional water as 
water boils off. At intervals turn ham over. When an inserted fork slips 
out easily the ham is done. 

Take out of oven and when it has cooled remove skin. Sprinkle with 
' rown sugar, cinnamon and bread crumbs. Stick cloves into top. Brown. 



272 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



WASHINGTON 

Menu and recipes from Margaret E. Terrell, Director of Dining 
Halls and Residences, University of Washington, School of Home Eco- 
nomics, Seattle. 

State of Washington Menu 

Olympia oyster cocktail 

Puree of Pasco golden bantam 

Seattle Cheese-teaser 

Carrot flakes Jumbo olives Celery hearts 

Barbecue of Puget Sound Sockeye salmon 

Choice of 

Yakima young Tom turkey with water chestnut dressing 

Oven-fried Skagit County pheasant with wild rice 

Queen City cream schnitzel 

Ham fillet with Rainier Valley fireweed honey and pineapple 

Baked Washington gem potatoes 

San Juan salt-air peas or Walla Walla asparagus tips 

Puyallup Boysenberry sherbet 

Spokane County life-of-wheat muffins Enumclaw butter 

Iceberg lettuce hearts with savory dressing 

Tacoma Meadow sweet ice cream 

Wenatchee apple pie with Darigold cheese 

Nine-layer butter sponge cake with chocolate filling 

Demitasse 

OLYMPIA OYSTER COCKTAIL 

4 quarts oysters y 2 cup lemon juice 

I quart diced celery i teaspoon tabasco sauce 

I cup tomato catsup 2 tablespoons Worcester- 

shire sauce 

Wash oysters and remove all bits of shell. Combine. Chill (serve very 
cold). Should make five quarts. 
Eighty servings, one quarter cup. 

PUREE OF PASCO GOLDEN BANTAM 

6 cans corn y 2 cup butter 

6 quarts milk y 2 cup flour 

salt and pepper to taste 

Put corn through grinder. Add milk, butter, flour and seasonings. 
Cook and strain. 
Forty-five servings. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 273 



HAM FILLET 

Slice ham one half inch thick and three and one half inches across. 
Cover ham fillet with crushed pineapple diluted with pineapple juice 
and one tablespoon honey for each fillet. Bake forty minutes. 

QUEEN CITY CREAM SCHNITZEL 

Cut veal steak one half inch thick, in pieces for serving. Salt and 
pepper, roll in flour. Heat fat in frying pan, add paprika until red and 
partially fry one large sliced onion. Add meat to the above mixture and 
cook until uniformly brown. Add one half cup thick sour cream slowly, 
cover pan, let cook one half-hour at 350 F. Add a little water and 
serve. 

WATER CHESTNUT DRESSING 

4 quarts crumbs 1 tablespoon salt 

1 cup melted butter y 2 teaspoon pepper 

1 tablespoon seasonings 1 quart chestnuts 

Follow regular dressing recipe. 

WHEAT GERM MUFFINS 

2 cups flour */£ cup wheat germ 
2 teaspoons baking 1 cup milk 

powder 1 egg 

y 2 teaspoon salt 3 tablespoons melted 

2 tablespoons sugar butter 

Follow regular muffin recipe. Yield — ten medium-sized muffins. 

PUYALLUP BOYSENBERRY SHERBET 

1 quart Boysenberries 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

l /z cup sugar y 2 tablespoon gelatin 

1 cup water 

Put gelatin in top of double boiler and add one quarter cup of the 
cold water; let stand at room temperature for five to ten minutes so 
that the gelatin may absorb the water. Stir over boiling water until the 
gelatin has dissolved. Mash the berries and strain through wet cheese- 
cloth; add remaining water, sugar, lemon juice and gelatin mixture. 
Freeze. 

If fresh berries are used let the sugar stand over the berries for at 
least two hours and then proceed as directed. 



274 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



WEST VIRGINIA 

Menus from Ruth D. Noer, Head of Division of Home Economics, 
West Virginia University, Morgantown. 

Menu 

Morgan County tomato juice Wafers 

Choice of 

Baked tenderized West Virginia ham Roast turkey 

Fried chicken 

Baked Preston County potatoes or glazed sweet potatoes 

Green beans Asparagus tips French-fried onions 

Grimes golden apple salad 

Hot biscuits 

Mountain State blackberry jam 

Vanilla ice cream with black w T alnut cookies 

or 

Blueberry pie with Helvetian cheese 

Demitasse 

WEST VIRGINIA TRANSPARENT PIE 

1 cup sugar l / 2 cup butter 

2 eggs 

Cream the butter and sugar, beat the yolks and stir into the above 
mixture. Then beat the two whites and add to the mixture. Beat light, 
season with vanilla, lemon or any flavor you may like best. Bake slowly 
and when done spread on top of the pie the beaten whites of two eggs 
and add sugar to sweeten. Brown lightly. Whipped cream makes a good 
substitute for the whipped whites of eggs for top of pie. 

GRIMES GOLDEN APPLE SALAD 

2 cups Grimes golden y 2 cup dates (cut up) 

apple cubes (in %. cup hickory nut 

fall, when fresh, meats 

leave skins on) 

DRESSING 

l / 2 cup whipping cream J4 CU P orange marma- 

y 2 cup mayonnaise lade 

2 tablespoons orange y 2 tablespoon salt 

juice 
Whip cream, fold in mayonnaise and other ingredients. 



STATES' EVIDENCE 275 

FRENCH-FRIED ONIONS 

Rings of Spanish onions 

Soak in milk one half-hour. Dip in flour and fry in deep fat 370 F. 
Drain on absorbent paper and salt. Serve piping hot. 

Typical Family Meals for a Day 
Breakfast 

Preston County buckwheat cakes and Pocahontas 
County maple syrup 

Fried apples 

West Virginia sausage 

Coffee 

Dinner 

Fried ham 

Applesauce 

Mashed potatoes and brown gravy 

Green beans cooked with bacon 

Coleslaw 

Corn bread Mountain State blackberry jam 

Canned peaches and cake 

Coffee and buttermilk 

Supper 

Home-canned mustard greens 

Escalloped tomatoes 

Buttered carrots 

Cottage cheese Apple butter 

Salt-rising bread 

Milk 



276 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



WISCONSIN 

Menu and recipes from Abby L. Marlatt, Director of Courses in 
Home Economics, College of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison. 

"I am enclosing a typical menu for the State of Wisconsin and recipes 
for some of the dishes. These have been worked out by one of our in- 
structors, Mrs Madeline Mehlig." 

Wisconsin Dinner 

Hot spiced cider or Sauerkraut and tomato juice 

(Wisconsin apples) cocktail 

(Wisconsin cabbage and 
tomatoes) 

Port Washington caviar on Wisconsin potato chips 

Jefferson County little pig sausages 

Wisconsin pickles Raw carrot strips Radish roses 

Cream of vegetable (carrot, celery and potato) soup 

Columbia, Dane and Walworth counties 

Hot Wisconsin Nippy American Cheesets 

Wisconsin smoked ham Portage turkey Baked whitefish 

with cinnamon apples with wild rice (Sheboygan County) 

Baked potatoes with parsley-buttered 

Wisconsin potatoes 
Wisconsin peas Whole kernel golden bantam corn 

Wood County cranberry ice 
Wisconsin cabbage, beet and celery salad Blueberry muffins 

in watercress Wisconsin butter 

French dressing 

Door County cherry tarts Wisconsin honey cake 

Wisconsin apple crisp Assorted Wisconsin cheeses 

Coffee 

BLUEBERRY MUFFI NS 

2 cups flour 5 tablespoons Wisconsin 

3 teaspoons baking butter (very soft) 

powder (tartrate) i cup raw blueberries and 

4 tablespoons sugar 2 tablespoons sugar or 
J4 teaspoon salt I cup sweetened cooked 
i cup milk blueberries 

I egg (drained dry) 

Mix and sift dry ingredients. Add milk and egg beaten together, and 
before stirring add soft fat. Stir only enough to mix. Add blueberries 



STATES' EVIDENCE 



277 



at once and drop into buttered muffin tins. Bake in a preheated oven 
at 400 F. for about fifteen to twenty minutes, depending upon size of 
muffin. 

WISCONSIN APPLE CRISP 



1 quart sliced apples 

2 cups bread crumbs 

1 cup grated Wisconsin 
aged American 
cheese 



J4 teaspoon grated 

nutmeg 
J4 teaspoon cinnamon 
1 cup brown sugar 



Mix bread crumbs with sugar, nutmeg and cinnamon. Place alternate 
layers of apples with bread-crumb mixture and cheese in shallow pan. 
Cover entire mixture only with bread-crumb mixture — dot with butter 
and bake in preheated (350 F.) oven for forty minutes or until crispy 
and tender. Serve with a hard sauce made of powdered sugar (two 
cups) and Wisconsin cream cheese (one package), flavored with nut- 
meg and vanilla. 

CREAM OF VEGETABLE SOUP 



1 cup cooked potatoes 

(mashed) 
1 cup cooked carrots 

(mashed) 

or 
y 2 cup peas and 
]/ 2 cup carrots 
1 cup beef stock well 

seasoned 

(or two bouillon 

cubes in 1 cup 

water) 



% very small onion, 
grated very fine 
and browned in 
butter 

y 2 cup celery chopped 
fine and cooked 

4 cups milk 

4 tablespoons butter 

y 2 teaspoon salt 



Combine all ingredients. Serve hot with finely chopped parsley. No 
white sauce is needed as potatoes add sufficient starch. Serves six. 



CHEESETS 

Cut day-old unsliced bread into slices two inches thick. Cut each 
slice into four cubes. Dredge in melted Wisconsin butter, roll in 
grated Wisconsin hard nippy cheese and bake in preheated oven (300 
F.) until puffy and slightly browned (ten to fifteen minutes). 

Serve with soup, salad, or at teatime. 



278 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 

CRANBERRY ICE (TO SERVE WITH 

MEAT) 

4 cups cranberries 3 cups sugar 

4 cups boiling water y 2 cup lemon juice 

Boil cranberries and water until tender enough to puree. Strain 
through coarse sieve and add lemon juice and sugar. Let cool and freeze 
in rotary freezer. 

CHERRY TARTS 

Use plain paste recipe for tart shells. Make them on backs of muffin 
tins. For filling: 

Drain canned unsweetened Door County cherries. 

Thicken juice with cornstarch. Add three tablespoons sugar mixed 
with one tablespoon cornstarch for every cup of juice. Cook until thick. 
Chill and pour over cherries in shells. 

Serve with whipped cream. 

HONEY CAKE 

y 2 cup sugar 1 cup sifted cake flour 

y 2 cup honey 1 tablespoon lemon juice 

4 eggs 1 teaspoon grated lemon 

peel 

Mix sugar and honey, boil until syrup spins a thread. Pour syrup over 
stiffly beaten egg whites. Beat yolks until thick. Add grated peel and 
lemon juice. Fold egg yolk into meringue mixture. Sift cake flour over 
meringue and add very gradually. Best results obtained if one table- 
spoon sugar is mixed and sifted with the flour. 

Bake in ungreased pan fifty to sixty minutes in preheated oven 
(325° F.). 

WYOMING 

Menu from Evangeline Jennings, Acting Home Demonstration 
Leader, State of Wyoming, Laramie. 

Tomato juice and sauerkraut cocktail Cheese straws 

Roast lamb with mint sauce 

Baked potatoes 

Carrot salad 

Whole-wheat rolls Wild chokecherry jam 

Rhubarb custard pie 



STATES' EVIDENCE 279 

RHUBARB CUSTARD PIE 

( j medium-sized pie) 

1 cup sugar 2 cups rhubarb 

2 tablespoons flour 2 eggs, separated 
J4 teaspoon salt 4 tablespoons sugar 

Mix sugar, flour and salt; add rhubarb, and cook twenty minutes. 
Add mixture to beaten egg yolks. Cook until yolks thicken, stirring con- 
stantly (about two minutes). Cool and place in baked pie shell. Cover 
with meringue prepared with the egg whites and four tablespoons sugar. 
Bake in slow oven until delicately colored. 

Temperature: 300 F. Time: 20 minutes. Note: Honey meringue 
may be used for topping. 

WILD CHOKECHERRY JAM 

Clean and stem chokecherries. Wash thoroughly. Cook until fruit is 
tender, using one cup of water to one quart of fruit, and extract pulp 
by running through colander or fruit press. For one quart of choke- 
cherry pulp, add one quart of sugar. Boil rapidly to a jelly test; fill 
clean dry jars, wipe off sealing surface of jar, put on rubber and cover. 
Partly seal and process three to five minutes in water bath. Since the 
flavor of chokecherries is rather strong some prefer to use one third 
amount of chopped apples to two thirds chokecherry pulp. 



CHAPTER VII 

Coffee and Tea in America 



America is famous for its coffee — at least Americans think so, and 
while coffee in some other land may not seem like good coffee to the 
natives from the United States, there on a visit, the natives of that other 
land may think their brew of mocha or Java or chicory, or whatever 
it is, is the most perfect drink in the world. Well, let them. It's their 
drink — and here's ours. 

Use the pot and the method you prefer; use the grind suited to that 
method; and of course use the brand you have grown to depend on. 
Follow the exact directions given with the coffee maker you use. Also: 

Always use water freshly drawn for making coffee. Water that 
stands exposed or in pipes loses oxygen and tastes flat. This affects coffee 
flavor. 

Always measure both coffee and water each time coffee is made. 

Never allow coffee to boil. Actual boiling develops bitterness and 
destroys both flavor and aroma. The volatile oils which give coffee its 
delicate fragrance and flavor escape in steam as coffee boils, and changes 
take place which bring out a bitter or sour taste. The best temperatures 
for coffee making are below boiling (185 F. to 203 ° F.). Coffee boiled 
for even one minute is more bitter than coffee made at 203 ° F., just 
nine degrees below boiling. 

Always use a clean pot. Scald it just before using to remove all stale 
odors. This also preheats the pot, which is necessary for most all methods 
of coffee making. 

Remove grounds from coffee as soon as it is made. The used coffee 
grounds absorb aroma and if left in contact with the brew may give 
coffee a harsh unpleasant flavor. 

If possible, serve coffee immediately or keep hot on asbestos mat 
over low heat. Do not allow it to boil, for boiling causes loss of flavor 
and aroma. 

Serve only freshly made coffee. Never reheat. Reheated coffee is al- 
ways flavorless and disappointing. 

280 



COFFEE AND TEA IN AMERICA 281 

Scour the coffee pot to keep it clean — not just to get it clean. Sedi- 
ment on the inside of a pot affects flavor. In buying a pot, choose one 
that is easy to clean. 

Remember glass, stoneware and other vitrified wares have less influ- 
ence on coffee flavor than do metals. 

And iced coffee, American style, is as much of a distinctive contribu- 
tion to the world's cuisine as Turkish coffee or the Spanish coffee stirred 
with a cinnamon stick. This iced coffee habit in America has been re- 
sponsible for new developments in glassware and the encouraging of an 
afternoon coffee habit almost as pronounced as it is in Northern Europe — 
only with a difference. The difference is ice, lots of it, and also varia- 
tions on that theme. 

These are a few basic rules: make your coffee to be iced extra strong 
(four level or two heaping tablespoons to each cup of water), and pour 
your coffee hot and fresh immediately over lots of ice in a glass; but 
that's only the beginning. 

Freeze fresh coffee in your automatic refrigerator cube trays and use 
the frozen cubes for iced coffee. This prevents excessive dilution of the 
coffee by ice. 

Add a scoop of vanilla ice cream to each glass of iced coffee for a 
creamy flavor. Float whipped cream on top, if you like. 

Place two tablespoons of whipped cream on the bottom of the glass 
together with a scoop of chocolate ice cream — then add freshly made 
coffee which has been iced. 

Fold into whipped cream sweetened chocolate syrup or grated bitter 
chocolate. Top off a glass of iced coffee with a spoonful of the mixture. 

For different whipped cream toppings, add cinnamon and nutmeg, or 
a few drops of almond extract or grated orange rind to the cream. 

Try iced coffee the Mexican way. Below the Rio Grande they make 
hot coffee and then chill it quickly. To each quart (4 cups) of coffee, 
six tablespoons of fine or powdered sugar and three teaspoons of 
vanilla are added. The mixture is stirred well and poured into glasses 
about one fourth full of ice. 



SPANISH CREAM COFFEE 

I cup sugar 1 cup thin cream or eva- 

1 cup boiling water porated milk 

1 quart strong coffee vanilla ice cream 

Caramelize the sugar, add boiling water and stir until sugar is dis- 
solved ; boil two minutes and add coffee. Add cream or evaporated milk ; 
pour over cracked ice into tall glasses and top with a spoonful of ice 
cream. These quantities serve six. 



282 NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



ICED COFFOLATE 

J4 cup ground coffee dash of salt 

2 squares unsweetened 6 cloves 

chocolate I four-inch piece stick 

4 cups milk cinnamon 

J4 cup sugar i tablespoon flour 

I egg, well beaten 

Add coffee, chocolate, cloves, cinnamon and salt to milk and heat in 
double boiler until chocolate is melted. Strain and return to double 
boiler. Combine sugar and flour; add to chocolate mixture and cook 
until thickened, stirring constantly; then cook five minutes, stirring 
occasionally. Cool slightly and pour over egg. Chill. Pour over cracked 
ice in tall glasses. Makes one quart coffolate. 

BRAZILIAN CHOCOLATE 

2 squares unsweetened 3 tablespoons sugar 

chocolate dash of salt 

1 cup strong coffee 3 cups milk 

Add chocolate to coffee in top of double boiler and place over low 
flame, stirring until chocolate is melted and blended. Add sugar and salt 
and boil four minutes, stirring constantly. Place over boiling water. Add 
milk gradually, stirring constantly; then heat. When hot, beat with 
rotary egg beater until frothy. Cool. Pour over cracked ice or serve hot. 
Top with whipped cream, if desired. Serves four. 

TEA 

Since the days of the old clipper ships putting out for the East from 
new American ports, we have had tea to soothe tired nerves and stimu- 
late appetites and do all the other things for us for which tea lovers 
declare their favorite brew responsible. Modern American housekeepers 
have a wonderful choice of teas from India and China, green and black, 
cheap and costly. It is served as a beverage hot or cold in practically 
every home on the continent. Besides, it forms the base for unusual 
beverages especially popular in summer : tea as a base for fruit punches ; 
iced tea with lemon, orange or mint; tea with fruit nectars combined 
and chilled, and believe it or not, a rose petal floated on top ; tea frozen 
in cubes in automatic refrigerators and the cubes used to color and flavor 
fruit punches. 

No matter how handsome your beautiful old English tea service, or 
how proud you are of the modern silver set, use an earthenware or china 



COFFEE AND TEA IN AMERICA 283 

pot for the actual brew — and serve it any way you please afterwards. 
And use only freshly drawn water, heated to rapid boiling and poured 
at once on the tea in the chosen pot. Brew three to five minutes, serve. 
In this country milk or light cream is sometimes served with tea, Eng- 
lish fashion ; but more often, thin slices of lemon, or even orange ; or 
lemon stuck through with cloves, or just cloves alone; or a crushed mint 
leaf or two ; or a spoonful of rum ; and sugar or rock candy crystals or 
lemon-flavored sugar; cubes of sugar moistened with lemon juice and 
grated lemon peel, ditto for orange. 

Afternoon tea is increasingly popular in this country as a gesture of 
hospitality and as a pickup for tired office workers or tired housekeepers. 
Some use the old brown teapot from the five-and-ten, and it makes good 
tea; some use the brand-new heat-resistant glass tea kettles and teapots; 
some use imported china, porcelain or pottery; some follow Chinese tradi- 
tion and use the wares found in Chinatown and the handleless cups; 
some use samovars and tall glasses, Russian style. In New York you 
will find these in rapid succession. Elsewhere, the teapot grandmother 
left of the old Staffordshire or Minton set may still be in use, or one 
from one of those early Ohio potteries which helped furnish homes all 
over the country. 

Tea importers can supply anything from precious mixtures originally 
intended only for princes; or they can and do supply the chain stores 
with abundance of good tea at penny prices. 



CHAPTER VIII 

The Spice Shelf Today 



I once edited for the American Spice Trade Association a little book 
called Season to Taste and as it embodied some of my ideas on the im- 
portance of flavor in food I have obtained the permission of the associa- 
tion to make use of parts of the essay in this chapter. 

Good cooking is the combination of the science of nutrition and the art 
of seasoning. The science of nutrition comprises the sum total of human 
experience as to which and what of nature's gifts from field, forest and 
stream may be safely used for the sustenance of human life. That's pure 
science: knowledge gained by thousands of years of trial and error. The 
business of properly cooking and seasoning these products is quite another 
matter. That is an art — perhaps the greatest of all arts. From my present 
point of view, after many years of close association with the great crea- 
tive artists of this day and generation, poets, dramatists, sculptors and 
musicians, I make bold to say that a great cook is the greatest of all 
artists, and that the wand that he holds in his hand is dipped in the 
magic from those Spice Islands over the seas. 

Food without seasoning is like talk without reasoning. Many cliches or 
commonplaces of speech pass for thought and even more cliches of 
seasoning pass for the real article. Be that as it may, there is real 
authentic and scientific argument for well-seasoned meals. A pleasing 
aroma is one of the first aids to good digestion. It sets up an anticipatory 
flow of saliva ; it whets the appetite ; it puts the stomach into a happy 
receptive state. The spicy flavor, touching the palate when food is taken 
into the mouth, carries this receptiveness another step forward. We 
express all this in simple words — enjoying a meal. 

There is glamour in the very thought of spices. With each dash of 
cinnamon, nutmeg, clove or ginger, you add to your food a bit of the 
romantic East. You add adventure, too, for exploration, wars, conquests 
— all are bound up in spice history. Legends that go back to the for- 
gotten ages still cast their halo around the little packages of spice which 
fill our shelves today. A knowledge of spice lore stirs the imagination 
and spurs us to adventures in cookery, as the spices themselves spurred 
older generations to journeys over unknown seas into unknown lands. 

284 



THE SPICE SHELF TODAY 285 

Whether you are going to use an eighth of a teaspoon of spice or a 
full tablespoon depends entirely upon how cultivated a taste you have. 
In the matter of seasoning there is no better rule than "season to taste." 
Your neighbor may find that half a teaspoon of mustard added to the 
cream sauce satisfies her palate; you may prefer a full teaspoon, and you 
are both entitled to your preference. Moreover, the difference in amount 
will have no effect upon the chemistry of cooking. If you were to use one 
egg where a recipe calls for two you might run into trouble, but not so 
with spices. There you have a free hand, with your own judgment and 
taste as the sole determining factors. 

Recipes that have been handed down from an earlier, lustier genera- 
tion usually show this need for individual decision. They simply read 
"add pepper, mustard and paprika" or "spice with cinnamon, clove and 
nutmeg." Modern recipes that are built around exact, level measure- 
ments for their uniform perfection usually indicate a definite amount 
of the seasonings. These amounts are the home economists' ideas of what 
will please the average person. Rarely should they be decreased if any 
overtone of seasoning is to be evident in the finished dish. In many cases 
they may be doubled or tripled to give greater character to the recipe. 

Overseasoning, however, must be guarded against as well as under- 
seasoning. The result should be such that people say: "What have you 
put in to give this delicious flavor?" rather than "Urn, you've got ginger 
in this, haven't you?" Subtlety should be the keynote — make the results 
alluringly mysterious and never obvious or blatant. 

Just because spices are among the oldest known food accessories that 
is no excuse for making antiques of them. They don't improve with 
age! To get the best results in flavor and aroma spices should be full- 
bodied and fresh. Exposure to air, even for brief periods, or keeping 
them for years on end, comes under the heading of cruelty to spices. The 
oils upon which spices depend for their potency evaporate with exposure 
to air and deteriorate, over a period of time, even when not exposed. 
They can be likened to roses or other fragrant flowers which delight the 
senses while they are blooming but are only an eyesore when standing 
withered in a vase. 

To prolong the flavor and aroma value of spices, whole as well as 
ground, they should always be kept tightly covered when not in actual 
use. The minute that the nose test shows that they have lost their 
strength they should be replaced with fresh spices. 



286 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



SPICES 



NAME 


FOOD USES 


OTHER USES 


ALLSPICE Pimento offi- 
cinalis. Pea-sized 
fruit of a West In- 
dian tree. Flavor 
resembles a blend 
of cinnamon, nut- 
meg and cloves — 
hence its name. 


Whole — pickling, preparation of 
meats, gravies, boiling fish. 
Ground — baked goods, puddings, 
relishes, some fruit preserves. 


Used in West Indian 
cordial, Pimento Dram. 
Used powdered as 
moth preventive and 
scent for stored cloth- 
ing. 


ANISE Pimpinella ani- 
sum. Fruit of a small 
plant grown in 
southern Europe, 
also Tunis, India 
and Chile. Is much 
used in flavoring 
licorice. 


Sprinkled on coffee cakes, sweet 
rolls, etc. Good for cookies and 
candies. Added to sweet pickles. 
Widely used to make the cordial 
anisette. Use one teaspoonful, pow- 
dered, to pint of warm milk for 
sleep-producing nightcap. 


Used to flavor some 
cough medicines. Al- 
most all licorice prod- 
ucts are flavored with 
Anise. 


BAY LEAVES Folia 
lauris nobilis. Aro- 
matic leaves of spe- 
cies of laurel tree. 
Comes from eastern 
Mediterranean coun- 
tries. 


Used in pickling, stews, spiced 
vinegars, soups. Combines well 
with fish, boiled or in chowder. Use 
with any tomato mixture. One bay 
leaf whole or broken flavors a 
whole tomato casserole or a can of 
tomato soup. 


A decoction of the 
leaves is a healing 
wash for some skin 
troubles. The famous 
"laurel leaves" which 
crowned Greek heroes 
were bay leaves. 


CARAWAY SEED Car- 
um car<vi. Dried 
fruits of biennial 
plant. Is grown in 
northern Europe, 
notably Holland. 


Used in rye bread, sauerkraut, new 
cabbage. Sprinkle on French-fried 
potatoes; on pork, liver, kidneys 
before cooking. Mix with cream or 
other soft cheeses for canape 
spread and celery stuffing. Pearl 
with sugar for confection. Add to 
popcorn balls. 


Caraway seed supplies 
the important ingredi- 
ent for the cordial 
Kiimmel. 


CARDAMOM SEED 

Elettaria carda- 
momum. Small 
brown seeds which 
grow enclosed in a 
pod varying from % 
to i inch in length. 
Grown in India, 
Ceylon and Guate- 
mala. 


Whole (in pod) — used in pickling 
assortments. Decorticated (pod re- 
moved) — a seed to each demitasse 
or in Turkish coffee. 
Ground — used to flavor Danish 
pastry, sweet breads, coffee cakes. 
Serve with sliced oranges. Im- 
proves the flavor of grape jelly. 


Spicing wine; disguis- 
ing taste of medicines. 
Among Oriental peo- 
ple, chewed to sweeten 
the breath. New York 
bars furnish cardamom 
to kill liquor breath. 
Grandmother used to 
chew them in church, 
like peppermints. 



THE SPICE SHELF TODAY 



287 



NAME 



FOOD USES 



OTHER USES 



CASSIA Cinnamomum 
cassia. Commonly 
called "cinnamon" 
because the flavors 
so closely resemble 
each other, but from 
a botanically differ- 
ent plant. The part 
used as spice is the 
bark which is peeled 
off and cleaned. 



CASSIA BUDS. Dried 
flower buds of the 
Cassia tree. Grown 
in China. 



CAYENNE Capsicum 
minimum. Small red 
peppers ground fine. 
Grown mainly in 
Africa. 



Whole — pickling, preserving, flav- 
oring puddings, stewed fruits. 
Serve with clove-stuck lemon slices 
in hot tea. Used in hot wine drinks. 
Ground — baked goods, often in 
combination with allspice, nutmeg 
and clove. The principal mincemeat 
spice. Combine with mashed sweet 
potatoes; and with sugar for cin- 
namon toast. Dust on fried ban- 



Used to flavor some 
tobacco products, in- 
cluding snuff. 



Used in pickling. 



Good with meats, fish, sauces, used 
in moderation. A pinch is used by 
good cooks in all, even sweet, 
souffles. Good, used with care, in 
egg dishes. The real antidote for 
flatness. Not too much to burn, not 
too little to vanish. 



Chewed to sweeten 
the breath. 



The ground product is 
poured into ant nests 
to drive ants away. 
Some dog trainers 
shake it on rugs and 
other spots to keep 
animals away. 
A stimulant for the 
stomach. 



CELERY SALT. Made 
by combining 
ground celery seed 
with salt. 



Good with fish, clam broth, boiled 
or fried eggs, potato salad, etc. 
Valuable in salad dressings. 



Particularly fine in 
tomato and kraut 
juices. Doubles their 
goodness. 



CELERY SEED Apium 
graveolens. A mi- 
nute fruit resem- 
bling a seed. Grown 
in many countries, 
including France, 
India, Holland and 
the United States. 



Good with fish, potato salad, to- 
mato dishes, tomato soup. Mix with 
cream cheese colored with paprika 
for canapes and spreads. Use in 
pickling and salad dressings. 



Superb in Irish stews. 
Making a HIT in 
Hamburgers. 



CHILI PEPPERS Capsi- 
cum frutescens. The 
bright red variety 
has small, elongated 
pods and is grown 
in Japan. Mexico, 
California, our 
Southern States pro- 
duce other kinds. 



Mexican varieties are basic for 
chili powder. Others are used 
whole in pickling; found in usual 
assortments of pickling spices. Add 
one chili pepper to soup or stew or 
fish chowder. 



Planting Japan chiles 
produces small orna- 
mental bushes. 



288 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



SPICE S— Continued 



NAME 



FOOD USES 



OTHER USES 



CHILI POWDER. Made 
from Mexican chili 
peppers and blended 
spices. Can be se- 
cured either mild or 
"hot." 



Used to make Chili Con Carne and 
similar Mexican dishes. Good in 
shellfish and oyster-cocktail sauces. 
The outstanding seasoning for 
boiled and scrambled eggs. A good 
gravy and stew seasoning. Good 
with canned corn. 



The appearance of 
Chili flavored Hot 
Dogs and Bologna 
has been greeted with 
high enthusiasm. 
Something new under 
the sun. 



CINNAMON Cinna- 
momum zeylanicum. 
Thin, aromatic bark 
of the cinnamon 
tree. Not as full 
bodied as Cassia. 
Found mostly in 
Ceylon. 



See Cassia. Try the sticks in Ski 
Balls: hot strong tea with clove- 
stuck lemon slices plain or spiked 
with brandy or rum and sugar. 
Use long sticks to stir iced tea or 
fruitades. 



Used in pharmaceuti- 
cal preparations. Cey- 
lon Cinnamon is popu- 
lar in Chocolate and 
as a tea. 



CLOVES Eugenia cary- 
ophyllata. Nail- 
shaped flower bud of 
the stately clove 
tree. Originally 
found only in Neth- 

' erlands East Indies. 
Now also grown in 
Madagascar and 
Zanzibar. 



Whole — incomparable for pork 

(ham) roasts; pickling of fruits, 

spiced sweet syrups. 

Ground — baked goods, chocolate 

puddings; often used with ground 

cinnamon. 

Use in potato soup, in borsch and 

in stews. Stud lemon slices with 

cloves for tea. 



Pomanders: 
Stud heavily small 
thin-skinned oranges 
with cloves. Roll in a 
mixture of equal parts 
of powdered orris root 
and cinnamon. Wrap 
in tissue for a few 
weeks ; shake off pow- 
der. Use in closets 
and bureau drawers 
to discourage moths 
and for refreshing 
fragrance. 



CORIANDER Corian- 
drum sativum. Dried 
fruit of a small 
plant. Resembles a 
white pepper corn. 
Grown in Southern 
Europe and India, 
but mainly in Mo- 
rocco. 



Whole — in mixed pickling assort- 
ments. Use one teaspoonful to one 
apple pie with nutmeg and cinna- 
mon before adding top crust. Use 
a few seeds with a bit of ginger 
root, a whole clove, a few mustard 
and allspice seeds, a sprig of pars- 
ley and a bay leaf in pea soup. Add 
to gingerbread batter, to cookies, 
cakes and biscuits. Good in poultry 
stuffings and mixed green salads. 
Use in frankfurter rolls. 
Ground — in sausage making; also 
sometimes to flavor buns; to rub 
on fresh pork before roasting and 
to flavor gin. 



Crush one seed in 
each demitasse. 
The better brands of 
Gin are flavored with 
Coriander. That pre- 
dominant flavor in 
Hot Dogs is Corian- 
der. 



THE SPICE SHELF TODAY 



289 



NAME 



FOOD USES 



OTHER USES 



CUMIN (also spelled 
Cummin) Cuminum 
cyminum. Small 
dried fruit resem- 
bling caraway seed 
in shape. Comes 
from Mediterranean 
islands, Morocco 
and India. 



Large usage in making of chili 
powder and other Mexican type of 
cookery. An ingredient in curry 
powder. Boil seeds briefly and 
pound for cooking use. Rice and 
saffron dishes need generous cumin 
flavor. Good in soups, cheese, stuffed 
eggs. For canapes, mix chutney 
with snappy cheese and garnish 
with cumin seed. 



One of the oldest 

known spices. Several 

references to it in the 

Bible. 

Used in Cornwall for 

ritualistic tithe paying. 



CURRY POWDER. A 

blend of several 
spices. Native to In- 
dia, but increasingly 
popular in the 
United States. 



Used for curry sauce, in currying 
meat, fish, eggs. Makes a good 
cream soup with chicken-stock base. 
One teaspoonful to one can of to- 
mato soup rings a change. Try a 
dash in French dressing. Fine in 
scalloped tomatoes. 



The flavor of clam 
and fish chowders is 
much improved by 
curry powder. 



DILL SEED Peucedanum 
graveolens. Small 
dark seed of dill 
plant. Imported from 
its native India. 



Used for pickling. A small amount 
added to sauerkraut while cooking 
is good. Good in salads, in soups, 
especially borsch and bean. Try in 
fish and meat sauces, in gravies, in 
spiced vinegars. Sprinkle on green 
apple pie under top crust. 



Steeped in boiling 
water the "tea" re- 
lieves stomach dis- 
comfort. "Dill water" 
made as above was 
official in the British 
Pharmacopoeia. 



FENNEL Foeniculum 
vulgare. Small seed- 
like fruit with flavor 
somewhat like anise. 



Used with boiled fish; also in pas- 
tries. Popular in Scandinavian 
cooking. Its anise-like flavor en- 
livens apple pie. Especially liked in 
sweet pickles. 



Used to flavor many 
candies and liqueurs, 
and in manufacturing 
scented soaps. 



FINES HERBES. 



Chop separately ^2 onion, 2 shallots, 
2 sprigs of parsley, 6 spikes of 
chives, and 4 sprigs of chervil. Mix 
well before using. Comes ready 
mixed in dried form. Chervil may 
be omitted if not available, and 
green onion tops may be used for 
chives. 



Used for stews, soups, 
meat and fish stuffings, 
and for garnish. 
Excellent in omelet, in 
maitre d'hotel butter 
for serving with fish, 
especially mackerel, 
and grilled meats. 



GARLIC SALT. A com- 
bination of fresh 
garlic with salt. A 
powerful vegetable 
harnessed to do no 
more than desired. 



Used in meats, sauces, etc., where 
a mild garlic flavor is desired. 



290 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



SPICE S— Continued 



NAME 



FOOD USES 



OTHER USES 



GINGER Zingiber offi- 
cinale. Root of a 
tuberous plant 
grown mainly in 
Jamaica, British 
West Indies, West 
Africa, India and 
the Orient. 



Cracked — chutneys, conserves, pick- 
ling. Stew with dried fruits, apple- 
sauce, etc. 

Ground — cakes, especially ginger- 
bread, Indian pudding, pumpkin 
pie, cookies. Many canned fruits 
benefit by a dash of ginger, espe- 
cially canned pears. 



Powdered Jamaica 
ginger is a widely 
used remedy for many 
stomach ills. 
Flavors gingerale, 
ginger pop, ginger 
beer. 



MACE Cortex Myristi- 
cae fragrantis. 
Arillus or fleshy 
growth between the 
nutmeg shell and 
outer husk; orange- 
red in color. Flavor 
resembles nutmeg. 
From Netherlands 
East Indies and 
Grenada, British 
West Indies. 



Whole — especially good with fish 
and fish sauces ; pickling, preserv- 
ing. Excellent in stewed cherries. 
Add one blade to Welsh rabbit. 
One blade, chopped fine, flavors 
grape jelly, gingerbread batter. 
Chop fine and add to biscuit dough 
for serving with fruit salad. 
Ground — essential in all fine pound 
cakes; contributes its golden tone 
and exotic flavor to all yellow 
cakes. One teaspoonful to one pint 
whipped cream cuts oiliness and 
adds to delicacy, should be an in- 
gredient of all chocolate dishes; a 
dash in oyster stew is good. 



Perfume and incense 
ingredient. Used to 
flavor medicine. 



MARJORAM Origanum 
marjorana. Herb of 
the mint family. Im- 
ported mostly from 
France and Ger- 
many and Hungary. 



Delicious sprinkled over lamb be- 
fore cooking. In combination with 
other herbs used in stews, soups, 
sausage products, etc. Also in poul- 
try seasonings. 



There is a stimulating 
fragrance to mar- 
joram which may ex- 
plain the preference 
of Queen Bess for 
perfumes containing 



MIXED WHOLE SPICE. 
An assortment of 
a dozen or more 
whole spices, used 
chiefly in pickling. 



Used in the pickling and preserv- 
ing of meats, vegetables, relishes, 
etc Also to savor stews and 
gravies. 



MUSTARD (White) 
Brass i c a alba, 
(Black) Br a s si ca 
nigra. Small seed, 
widely cultivated 
but imported mainly 
from England, Eu- 
rope and the Orient. 
Some good varieties 
are now grown in 
the U. S. A. 



Whole — used to garnish salads, in 
pickling meats, and fish. 
Dry (also known as mustard flour) 
— used to flavor meats, sauces and 
gravies. Used in white sauce for 
fish. 

Prepared (blended with other 
spices and vinegar) — used with 
meats, cheese and in general cook- 
ery. 



Mustard flour, mixed 
with water to a paste, 
makes plasters used in 
breaking up chest 
colds. In a tub of 
warm water it makes 
a "mustard bath" — 
helpful in treating 
colds and fatigue. 
There are a number 
of other medicinal 
uses of mustard. 



THE SPICE SHELF TODAY 



291 



NAME 



NUTMEG Myristica 
fragrans. The ker- 
nel of a fruit also 
known by that name. 
Grown in Nether- 
lands East Indies 
and British West 
Indies. 



FOOD USES 



Whole — to be grated as needed. 
Ground — used in baked goods, 
sauces, puddings. Good sprinkled 
over certain vegetables such as 
cauliflower. Merges well with spin- 
ach. Topping for eggnog and cus- 
tards. Sprinkle on fried bananas, 
on bananas and berries with cream. 
Use in sweet potato souffle. 



OTHER USES 



Amateur sculptors 
make many fragrant 
trinkets of nutmegs. 



ONION SALT. Fresh 
onion combined with 
salt and dried. 



Used wherever a mild onion flavor 
is wanted, such as sauces, meats, 
gravies, chicken sandwiches. Ideal 
for that touch of perfection to a 
cup of consomme. 



OREGANO Coleus am- 
bornicus. Known 
also as Mexican 
sage. Grown in 
Mexico and in the 
Philippines, where 
it is known as Su- 
ganda. 



Used principally in making chili 
powder. A good seasoning for 
varying the flavor of pork dishes. 



Fresh leaves may be 
used in cooling drinks. 



PAPRIKA or sweet pep- 
per, usually made 
from Capsicum an- 
num. A sweet red 
pepper, ground after 
seeds and stems 
have been removed. 
Spain and Hungary 
are the chief pro- 
ducers. 



Has a mild flavor which is good 
with shellfish, fish, salad dressings. 
Can be used lavishly as a garnish; 
also with sweet corn on the cob. 
Mixed with butter to make paprika 
butter. For canapes, mix with 
cream cheese and celery salt. 



Particularly useful for 
enriching the flavor 
and color of catsup 
and other tomato con- 
diments; also tomato 
juice. An excellent 
source of Vitamin C, 
the anti-infective vita- 
min. 



PEPPER Piper nigrum. 
Black Pepper is the 
most generally used 
of all the spices. A 
small round berry 
picked before ripe 
which grows on a 
climbing vine in 
clusters, like cur- 
rants. The Nether- 
lands East Indies 
and India are the 
chief sources of 
supply. 

White Pepper is the 
mature berry from 
which the outer hull 
has been removed. 
It is less pungent 
than the black. 



Whole — (black or white) used in 
pickling, soups and meats. 
Ground — (black or white) used in 
meats, sauces, gravies; many vege- 
tables are improved by a sprink- 
ling of pepper. Important in curing 
"Virginia" style hams. The asser- 
tive ingredient in preparing pas- 
trami. 



Sprinkled in floor 
cracks and around any 
area to be protected 
from insects, black 
pepper is an effective 
repellent. Used in soap 
making and carnation 
perfumes. Spread lav- 
ishly on rugs to be 
stored or in woolens 
is a moth-repellent 
now widely used. 



292 



NEW YORK WORLD'S FAIR COOK BOOK 



SPICE S— Continued 



NAME 



FOOD USES 



OTHER USES 



POPPY SEED Papaver 
rhoeas. Seed of the 
poppy plant. Im- 
ported from Hol- 
land. About 900,000 
seeds to the pound. 



Topping for breads, rolls and 
cookies. Mix one pound ground 
seed with one-half pound sugar 
and one cup milk. Boil ten minutes, 
stirring constantly. When cool 
spread on pastry dough; dot with 
butter. 



A valuable edible oil 
pressed from poppy 
seed is used for mar- 
garine, salads, etc. 



ROSEMARY Rosmari- 
nus officinalis. A 
spicy herb, rather 
sweetish. Grows in 
southern Europe. 



Sprinkle on beef before roasting. 
Combine with basil and marjoram 
for Herb garni, especially in turtle 
soup. Use in lamb dishes, in soups 
and stews. Flavors fish and meat 
stocks. 



Combines well with 
gin drinks. Europeans 
stuff pillows with rose- 
mary often mixed with 
pine needles "for re- 
membrance''; it is 
said to insure faithful- 
ness. 



SAFFRON Crocus sati- 
<vus. Tiny stigma of 
a crocuslike flower. 
Takes 70,000 to 
make a pound. 
Grown in Mediter- 
ranean areas. 



Used principally for the pleasant 
yellow color it imparts. Saffron 
rolls and buns are a delight to 
Latin palates. Used in Latin coun- 
tries to color and flavor rice dishes. 



Saffron tea is a medi- 
cine. 



SAGE Salvia officinalis. 
Leaf of a low-grow- 
ing herb. Choicest 
comes from Yugo- 
slavia. Also Greece. 



Used in meat stuffings, head cheese, 
various pork products, particularly 
sausage, sage cheese. 



Steeped in hot water 
makes a medicinal tea 
often used to treat 
colds. 



SAVORY Satureia hor- 
tensis. Herb of the 
mint family. Grown 
in many climates. 
Imported from Aus- 
tria. 



Often combined with other herbs 
to flavor meats. Use in scrambled 
eggs, in salads, in soups. 



Used like rosemary, 
to stuff pillows. 



SESAME SEED Sesa- 
mum indicum. Small 
honey-colored seed, 
grown in Turkey, 
India and the Ori- 
ent. Not much left 
for export after na- 
tive consumption is 
taken care of. 



Delicious roasted nut flavor im- 
parted to rolls, breads, etc. The 
source of sesame oil. 



Principal ingredient in 
Oriental candy known 
as halvah. 



THE SPICE SHELF TODAY 



293 



NAME 


FOOD USES 


OTHER USES 


SWEET BASIL Ocymum 
basilicum. Annual 
plant cultivated in 
western Europe. 
Grows elsewhere. 
Leaves and tender 
stems, cleaned and 
dried. 


Used mostly to season tomato paste. 
Renowned for turtle soups. A little- 
known flavor, it well rewards the 
experimenter. Also use in tomato 
dishes with cooked peas, squash, 
string beans. 


Venerated by the Hin- 
dus; planted outside 
their temples and 
homes to insure hap- 
piness. 


THYME Thymus vul- 
garis. Garden herb, 
grown in many tem- 
perate climates. 
Much imported from 
France. Leaves and 
tender stems, cleaned 
and dried. 


Used in stews, chowders and stuff- 
ings for poultry. Often used with 
other herbs. 


Yields an element 
called thymol which is 
important in com- 
pounding of cough 
remedies. 


TURMERIC Curcuma 
longa. A root of the 
ginger family. Has 
a rich appetizing 
odor, and is bright 
yellow in color. 
Grown in India. 


Used with mustard generally be- 
cause the two spices blend particu- 
larly well. Important in curry 
powder and pickles. 
Creamed eggs are well flavored 
with it. 


Turmeric paper made 
by dipping paper into 
turmeric tea. 
Effective in alkalinity 
tests. 

Added to scrubbing 
water in the tropics 
for its clean fragrance. 



CHAPTER IX 

Temperatures and Cookery 



Deep Fat Frying Temperatures 

Time is usually given in recipes for frying at the temperature men- 
tioned in this table. Vary a little either way, if desired. 

The bread test referred to in old-fashioned cookbooks is the time in 
which a one-inch cube of bread turns a golden brown at the temperature 
named. 
Croquettes of cooked material, such as oysters, small fish, fish cakes, 

the great variety of patties also, 390 F. Bread test, 40 seconds. 
Fritters, doughnuts, uncooked mixtures generally, 360 F. to 370 F. 

Bread test, 60 seconds. 
Chops, cutlets. Bread test, 30 to 60 seconds. 

French-Fried Potatoes, 359 F. Bread test, a little under 40 seconds. 
French-Fried Onions and shoestring potatoes, 395 F. to 400 F. 

Ovens 

A Slow oven is 250 F. to 350 F. 
Moderate oven is 350 F. to 400 F. 
Hot oven, 400 F. to 450 F. 
Very hot, 450 F. to 550 F. 

Bread Times and Temperatures 

Loaves (yeast), 400 F. to 350 F. ; or Moderate; 45 to 50 minutes. 

Corn Bread, 400 F. ; or Hot ; 20 to 25 minutes. 

Rolls (yeast), 400 F. ; Hot; 15 to 20 minutes. 

Biscuits, 400 F. ; Hot ; 15 to 20 minutes. 

Muffins, 400 F. ; Hot to Moderate; 30 to 35 minutes. 

Popovers, 450 F. ; Hot to Moderate; 30 to 35 minutes. 

Time and Temperature Table for Cakes 

Loaves: 

Plain, 350 F. to 400 F.; Moderate oven; 40 minutes. 
With fruit, 350 F. ; Moderate ; depends on thickness. 

294 






TEMPERATURES AND COOKERY 295 

With molasses or chocolate, 350 F. ; Moderate ; depends on thickness. 

Rich fruit cake, 250 F. ; Slow or very slow oven ; one hour or more. 
Sponge Cake, Angel, 320 F. ; Slow; one hour. 
Layer Cake, 375 F. ; Moderate; 20 minutes. 

Small Cakes; cup cakes, 350 F. to 400 F. ; Moderate; 25 minutes. 
Cookies: 

With chocolate or molasses or much fruit, 375 F. ; Moderate; 15 to 
18 minutes. 

Drop, 425 F. ; Hot; 10 minutes. 
Wafers, 400 ° F. ; Moderate ; 20 minutes. 
Macaroons, 300 F. ; Slow; 20 minutes. 
Kisses, 300 F. ; Slow ; 45 minutes to one hour. 

Candy Temperatures 

A candy thermometer is advised in making candies and cake icings. If 
the recipe calls for: 
Soft Ball stage, it is 238 F. 
Hard Ball, 254° F. 
Soft 'Crack, 2 70 F. 
Hard Crack, 290 F. 
Caramelizing, 390 F. 

When caramelizing sugar for a recipe, put granulated sugar in a dry 
pan, heat and let the sugar melt and darken. 



INDEX OF RECIPES 

The chapter headings in the Table of Contents, pp. xi-xn, will guide the reader 
interested in menus and recipes from every state and section of the United States. 



Abalone steak, with butter sauce, 184 

Allspice, 286 

Almond: 

bread, 121 

kraenze, 122 

rice custard, 150 

rolls, 118 

soup and whipped cream, 126 
Ambrosia, 209, 263 
Anchovy sauce for broiled trout, 63 
Angel food, chocolate, 136 
Anise, 286; sticks, 121 
Apfelstrudel, 37 
Apples: 

and sweet potato scallop, 30 

baked, and sausage, 167; Vermont, 14 

buns, New York, 29 

crisp, 277 

pandowdy, 31, 222, 263 

pie, cob, 25; deep-dish, 235 

salad, and dressing, 274 

sauce, with spearmint, 269 

sherbet, 199 

trifle, 31 

turnovers, 166 
Applesauce with spearmint, 269 
Apricot sauce, 197 
Artichokes. See Vegetables 
Avocado and tomato salad, 150 
Avocado in the half shell, 158 

Bacon. See Meats 

Baked apple buns, New York, 29 

Baked apples, and sausage, 167; Vermont, 

Baked beans, Boston, 13, 221 
Baking, temperatures and times, 294 
Bama soup, 170 
Bamboo and shrimp, 155 
Bananas with raisins, baked, 164 
Bannocks. See Breads — quick 



Barbecue of porterhouse, 134 

Barbecued shote, 62 

Bay leaves, 286 

Bean-hole cookery, 168-69 

Bean soup, 14 

Beans. See Baked beans; Vegetables 

Bear paws, 130 

Beef. See Meats 

Beer bread, 120 

Beer cabbage salad, 119 

Beer sauce, 119 

Beets. See Vegetables 

Berliner buns, 120 

Berry flummery, 21 

Bienmesabe, 271 

Biscuit glace, 217 

Biscuits. See Bread 

Bishop's bread, 15 

Bisques. See Soups 

Black bean soup, 149 

Black cake, 57 

Black walnuts: 

ice cream, 203 

sorghum taffy, 208 

sponge cake, 99 
Blety kuchen, 30 
Blueberry muffins, 14, 222 
Blueberry pie, 218 
Blueberry pudding, steamed, 20 
Bluefish. See Fish and shell fish 
Boeuf a la Gardette, 68 
Boiled dinner, New England, 11 
Bops, 67 

Boston baked beans, 13, 221 
Boston brown bread, 15 
Boston cream pie, 18 
Boysenberry sherbet, 273 
Brabant potatoes, 88 
Brain souffle, m 
Brandy sauce, 48 
Brazilian chocolate, 282 



297 



298 



INDEX OF RECIPES 



Bread crumb batter cakes, 29 

Bread pudding, 152; with coconut, 51 

Bread stuffing, 35 

Breads: 

almond, 121 

baking, temperatures and times, 294 

beer, 120 

biscuits, 176 

beaten, 48-49, 51 
buttermilk, 240 
cheese, 118 
cream, 52 
orange, 162 
bishop's, 15 
Boston brown, 15 
buttermilk corn, 73 
corn, 24, 52 

old-fashioned sour milk, 106 
rolls, 132 
spoon, 267 
sticks, 205 
crackling, 98 
dough, icebox roll, 242 
muffin loaf, 65 

muffins, blueberry, 14, 222, 276 
cracked-wheat, 206 
wheat germ, 273 
onion rye, 130 
orchard grower's, 162 
pone. See Breads — quick 
quick: 

bannocks, Indian meal, 24 

biscuits, beaten, 48-49, 51 

corn-cake, skillet or spike, 19 

corn dodgers, 52, 91 

corn-meal hoecake, 98, 174 

cream biscuits, 52 

dabs, breakfast meal, bops, zephyri- 

nas, 66-67 
johnnycake, 262 
pone, pumpkin, 188; steam, 52; sweet 

potato, 92 
scones, 29 
raisin and nut, 163 
rolls, butterscotch, 69; corn, 132 
salt-rising, 28, 130 
Scotch shortbread, 28 
short'nin', 101 
spoon (corn-meal), 267 
thirded, 24 
Breakfast meal cakes, 67 
Breakfast schnecken, 36 
Broth for poaching fish, 3 
Brown-sugar pie, 107 
Brownies, 267; pecan, 100 
Brussels sprouts. See Vegetables 
Buck and breck pickle, 66 
Buckwheat cakes. See Pancakes 
Buffalo berry jelly and butter, 265 



Buns, cinnamon, 36; New York baked 

apple, 29 
Burgoo, Kentucky, 53; for small parties, 

90-91 
Butter, buffalo berry, 265 
Buttercakes, mush, 58 
Buttermilk biscuits, 240; corn bread, 73 
Butternut cake, 19 
Butterscotch rolls, 69 

Cabbage. See Vegetables 

Cabbage salad, beer, 119 

Cabin cheese, 116 

Cactus candy, 178-79 

Cakes (see also Cookies; Pancakes): 

almond rolls, 118 

angel food, chocolate, 136 

apfelstrudel, 37 

baking times and temperatures, 294 

batter. See Pancakes 

bishop's bread, 15 

black, 57 

black walnut sponge, 99 

blety kuchen, 30 

breakfast meal, 67 

buns, Berliner, 120; cinnamon, 36 

butter (bops), 67 

butternut, 19 

calas (rice cakes), 86 

cherry, fresh, 108; maraschino, 247 

chocolate angel food, 136 

cinnamon buns, 36 

cinnamon kuchen, 252 

cocoa, 131 

coffee, 37, 115 

coffee fruit, 71 

dabs, 66 

date, 70 

fastnacht kucka, 40 

filling, 49; cream, 18; peanut, 124 

frosting, caramel, 139; coconut-orange, 
39; coffee and cocoa, 132; for 
chocolate angel food, 136; for spice 
cake, 138; maple sugar, 19 

fruit, 209; black, 57; rich, 64; white, 50 

ginger, sour cream, 73 

gingerbread, maple sugar, 19 
, hickory nut, 70 

honey, 278 

icing. See Cakes — frosting 

Lady Baltimore, 49 

Lee, 64 

Manitou black, 123 

maraschino cherry, 247 

marmalade, 63 

moss rose, 39 

pancakes. See Pancakes 

pecan nut, 99 

plantation marble, 101 



INDEX OF RECIPES 



299 



poppy seed, 122 

prune coffee, 164 

red chocolate, no 

rice (calas), 86; Alabama, 92 

shoo-fly, 38 

small: 

apple turnovers, 166 
bear paws, 130 
crullers, rice, 261 
goetter speise, 121 
kreuznach horns, 124 
prune bars, 163 
raisin wheels, 163 
schnecken, breakfast, 36 
snickerdoodle, 116 
spice, and icing, 138; Greenville, 175 
strawberry shortcake, 165 
strudel, apfel, 37 
sunshine, 115 
sweet potato pone, 92 
torte, schwarzbrod, 123 
Washington, 50 
wedding, 64 
zephyrinas, 67 
Calas (rice cakes), 86 
Calf's liver, stuffed, 61 
Canapes, French Lick, 202 
Candied persimmon leather, 207 
Candied sweet potatoes (yams). See 

Vegetables 
Candy, black walnut sorghum taffy, 208 
cactus, 178-79 
temperatures, 295 
Cantaloupe pickle, 66 
Canvasback duck. See Game 
Caper sauce, 22 
Capers, substitute for, 26 
Caracas eggs, 157 
Caramel icing, 139 
Caramel pie, 70 
Caraway seed, 286 
Cardamon seed, 286 
Carrot pudding, 100 
Carrots. See Vegetables 
Cassia and buds, 287 
Catfish. See Fish 
Cayenne, 287 

Celery and cheese casserole, 117 
Celery salad, vinaigrette, 247 
Celery seed, 287 
Celery stuffing for turkey, 198 
Cereal, grits, baked, 87; hominy, 47 
Chalupas, 142 
Chambord sauce, 82 
Charlottes. See Puddings 
Chaurice, 83 
Cheese: 

biscuits, 118 
cabin, 116 



celery and cheese casserole, 117 

chile con queso, 143 

dressing, 226 

pimiento, salad, 158 

sauce, with noodle ring, 35 

scalloped, 117 

smierkase, 36 

vegetable salad with cheese, 159 

welsh rabbit, 117; Minnesota, 124 
Cheese straws, 174 
Cheesets, 277 

Cherry (fresh) cake, 108; maraschino, 247 
Cherry ice cream, 199 
Cherry tarts, 278 
Chicken terrapin, 94 
Chickens. See Poultry 
Chicory. See Vegetables — endive 
Chile con carne, 143 
Chile con queso (cheese), 143 
Chile peppers, 287 
Chile powder, 288 
Chinese cookery, 153-56 
Chitterlings, 93 
Chocolate, Brazilian, 282 
Chocolate angel food, 136 
Chocolate drink, Southwestern, 150 
Chokecherry jelly, 232, 279 
Chop suey, 153-54 
Chow mein, 154 
Chowder, clam, 2, 220; fish, I 
Christmas dinner, Kentucky, 208 
Christmas relish, 139 
Cinnamon, 288 
Cinnamon buns, 36 
Cinnamon kuchen, 252 
Cinnamon orange slices for baked ham, 75 
Cinnamon sterne, 122 
Citrus fruits, recipes, 75-77 
Clams. See Fish and shell fish 
Cloves, 288 
Cob apple pie, 25 
Cocktail sauce, 22 
Cocktails, lobster and oyster. See Fish and 

shell fish 
Cocoa cake, 131 
Coconut: 

bienmesabe, 261 



bread pudding, 51 

iked 
preserve, 256 



custard with baked papaya, 97 



pudding, Hawaiian, 194 
Coconut-orange frosting, 39 
Codfish. See Fish and shell fish 
Coffolate, iced, 282 
Coffee, 280-82; old recipe, 222; Puerto 

Rican, 256; Spanish cream, 281 
Coffee cake, 37, 115 
Cold meat sauce, New England, 22 



300 



INDEX OF RECIPES 



Coleslaw, 224, 245; Mississippi, 96 
Conserves. See Preserves 
Consomme. See Soups 
Cookies: 

black walnut, 39, 99 

brownies, 267 

macaroons, hickory nut, 132 

maple sugar, 17 

peanut, 207 

pecan brownies, 100 

raisin, rolled, 163 

Swedish nut wafers, 123 

wafers, nut tea, 106 

zimmetsterne, 122 
Coquilles, fish, 172 
Coriander, 288 
Corn. (See also Vegetables) : 

(green) and chicken pie, 58 

bread. See Breads 

cakes. See Breads — quick 

fritters, 30 

okra, Creole, 151 

pickle, 113 

puree, 272 

pudding, 271 

scallop, 25 
Corn-meal fritters, 257 
Corned beef hash, 12 
Cotton boll russe, 175 
Cowboy sauce, 231 
Crabs. See Fish and shell fish 
Crackling bread, 98 
Cranberry ice, 278; jelly, 247 
Crawfish. See Fish and shell fish 
Cream, raspberry, 167 
Cream and curds, 97 
Cream filling, 18 
Cream of mushroom soup, 225 
Cream of vegetable soup, 277 
Cream pie, Boston, 18 
Creole cookery, 78-90 
Crisp, apple, 277 

Crullers (ole kooks), 28; Connecticut, 16; 
Dutch, 252; elephants' ears, 115; 
rice, 261 
Cucumber mangoes, sweet, 137 
Cumin, 289 
Curds and cream, 97 
Currants, spiced, 23 
Curry powder, 289 
Custards: 

almond rice, 150 

baked honey, 243 

berry flummery, 21 

coconut, with baked papaya, 97 

frozen, with fruit, 55 

grapefruit, 76 

maple syrup, 119 



pineapple, 260 
tipsy parson, 56 
Cutlets, New Mexico, 144 

Dabs, 67 

Dandelion greens, 87 
Date cake, 70 

Desserts. See specific entries in the Index; 
for examples, Pies; Puddings; 
Custards 
Deviled crabs, 5 
Diamond-back terrapin, 220 
Dill seed, 289 
"Dip" sauce, in 
Dobe, okra, 174 
Dodgers. See Breads — quick 
Dough. See Breads 
Doughnuts. See Crullers 
Dressings: 

bread, 35, 242 

for salmon loaf, 114 

for stuffed pork chops, 206 

Hochessin mushroom, 187 

hot slaw, 23 

oyster, 247; for baked haddock, 8 

peanut, 124 

Pennsylvania Dutch, 250 

salad. See Salads 

turkey, 242 

vinaigrette, hot, for wilted lettuce, 245 

water chestnut, 273 
Drinks: 

chocolate, Southwestern, 150 

coffblate, iced, 282 

eggnog, 208 

planter's punch, 102 

regent's punch, 68 

scuppernong cocktail, 170 
Ducks. See Game; Poultry 
Dulce de coco, 256 

Dumplings (spatzen), 126; (spaetzle) and 
pot roast, 249 

potato (kartoffel kloesse), 250 

with ham (schnitz un knepp), 33 

with pepperpot, 35 

with spareribs and sauerkraut, 34 
Dutch, Pennsylvania, cookery, 248-52 

Egg sauce for boiled halibut, 4 
Eggnog, 208; frozen, 56 
Eggs: 

Caracas, 157 

fried, ranch style, 147 

omelets, Chinese, 156; Creole, 85; 
family, 107 

poached, ranch style, 146 
Egyptian beans, m 
Eldorado sauce, 205 



INDEX OF RECIPES 



301 



Elephants' ears, 115 

Elk. See Game 

Enchiladas, 142 

Endive. Set Salads; Vegetables 

Fastnacht kucka, 40 

Fennel, 289 

Fig preserves, 172 

File powder, 78 

Filling, cake, 49; cream, 18 

Fillings. See Dressings 

Fines herbes, 289 

Finnan haddie. See Fish and shell fish 

Fish and shell fish: 

abalone steak, with butter sauce, 183 
baked: 

Buzzard's Bay bluefish, 3 
grouper, 82 

haddock, with oyster stuffing, 8 
shad, 4 
trout, 113 
bluefish, Buzzard's Bay, baked, 3 
boiled, halibut, with egg sauce, 4 
broiled: 

mackerel, 11 
pompano, 81 
trout, 63 

wall-eyed pike, 226 
cakes (coquilles), 172; cod, and codfish 

balls, 2, 3 
catfish, curry of, 62; saute, 205; sour, 

130 
chowders. See Chowder 
clams: 
bake, 10 
Duxberry, 9 
pie, 9 

razor, bisque of, 246 
steamed, 9 
cod, salt, New England dinner, 223 
codfish cakes and balls, 2, 3 
coquilles, 172 
crabs: 
baked, 43 

cakes, Baltimore, 42 
Chesapeake, 41 
cocktail, with Pass Christian sauce, 

212 
deviled, 5 
imperial, 42 
Mobile, 172 
recipes, 41-43 
soft, 41 
souffle, 72 

soup, 72; family style, 78 
crawfish, baked, a la Creole, 80; bisque, 

79 
fillet, Waikiki, with pineapple sauce, 

195 



finnan haddie, 262 

fried, shad roe, 5 

grill, mixed, 237 

grouper, baked, 82 

haddock, baked, with oyster stuffing, 8 

halibut, boiled, with egg sauce, 4 

herring, salad, 126; sour, 129 

kedgeree, 10 

lawalu, 193 

lobster: 

cocktail, 6 

live broiled, 6 

stew, 235 
mackerel, broiled, Boston, 11 
oysters: 

and chicken, 53; casserole, 8 

and meat sausages, 68 

baked in shell, 7 

Boston baked (Alexander; Casino), 7 

broiled, New Orleans, 81 

cocktail, and sauce, 272 

curried, 80 

escalloped, 6 

grilled, 43 

loaf, 43 

pickled, 8 

pie, 7 

recipes, 43-44 

Rockefeller, 214 

stew, 44 

stuffing, 247; for baked haddock, 8 

with steak, 157 
pickled, 259 

pike, wall-eyed, broiled, 226 
poaching, broth for, 3 
pompano, broiled, 81; with shrimp 

stuffing, 96 
rockfish, smothered, 44 
salad, herring, 126 
salmon, chops, 114; loaf and dressing, 

114; lomi, 194; pudding, 118 
sauces. See Sauces 
scallops, buttered, 5 
shad, baked, 4 
shad roe, fried, 5 
shore dinner, New York, 32 
shrimp: 

and bamboo, 155 

gumbo file, 78 

remoulade, with sauce remoulade, 
211 

stew, 72 

with Spanish peppers, 161 
trout, baked, 113; boned, on watercress, 

233; broiled, 63 
turbot, 53 
Flummery, 65; berry, 21 
Fort Deposit pie, 175 
French dressing, with cheese, 226 



302 



INDEX OF RECIPES 



Frijoles, 149 
Fritters: 

corn, Albany, 30 

corn-meal, 257 

ham, 152 

pineapple sauce for, 196 

Vermont maple, 16 
Frogs' legs, 45; Brandy wine, 188 
Frostings. See Cakes 
Frozen dishes, 55-56 
Fruit cake, 209; black, 57; rich, 64; white, 

50 
Fruit salad, dressing for, 165 

Fruit slump, 21 

Game: 

dinner, Arkansas menu, 181 
ducks: 

canvasback, 44 
marsh, with onion sauce, 59 
New England style, 11 
ranger style, 145 
elk steak, 198 
groundhog, roast, 133 
hare, stewed with onions, 84 
opossum, baked, 95; roast, with sweet 

taters, 173 
partridge, 45 
pheasant, roast, 198 
prairie chicken, 127 
quail, roasted in grape leaves, 84; wire 

grass, 174 
rabbits, sour, 129 
venison: 

Grand Canyon, 179 
Green Mountain, 11 
haunch, 113 
pepper sauce for, 85 
roast, 218 
wine sauce, 22 
Garlic salt, 289 
Geese. See Poultry 
Georgia pudding, 190 
German toast, 124 
Giblet hash, 46 
Ginger, 290 

Gingerbread, maple sugar, 19 
Ginger cake, sour cream, 73 
Glace, biscuit, 217 
Glaze for baked ham, 75 
Goat, barbecued, 138 
Goetter speise, 121 
Gold rush souffle, 160 
Goldenrod dressing, 174 
Gooseberry jam, 243 
Goulash, beef, 115 
Grape conserve, 32 
Grape juice sherbet, 108 



Grapefruit: 

baked, 75 

custard, 76 

pie, 151 

salad dressing, 76 

sauce for hot pecan pudding, 268 
Green peas. See Vegetables 
Green salad, Idaho, 153 
Greens, dandelion, 87; poke, boiled, 48 
Grits, baked, 87 
Groundhog. See Game 
Grouper. See Fish 
Gruetze, rothe, 125 
Guava jelly, 254 
Guinea hen. See Poultry 
Gumbo, shrimp, file, 78 
Guspachy salad, 96 

Haddock. See Fish 

Halibut. See Fish 

Ham. See Meats 

Ham pops, 152 

Hamburger vegetable soup, 109 

Hard sauce, 191 

Hare. See Game 

Hash, corned beef, 12; giblet, 46; red 

flannel, 12 
Haupia (coconut pudding), 194 
Herbes, fines, 289 
Herring. See Fish 

Hickory nut cake, 70; macaroons, 132 
Hochessin mushroom dressing, 187 
Hoecakes. See Breads — quick 
Hominy, 47; puffs, 55 
Honey apple pie, 239 
Honey cake, 278 
Hopping John, 97 
Horns. See Cakes — small 
Hot slaw dressing, 23 
Huckleberry pancakes, 15 

Ice, cranberry, 278; pomegranate, 180; 

strawberry, 210 
Ice cream: 

black walnut, 203 

cherry, 199 

Palisade, 185 

sorghum-flavored, 267 

strawberry, 227 
Icing. See Cakes — frosting 
India relish, 40 
Indian meal bannock, 24 
Indian pudding, baked, 20 

Jagasee, 13 

Jambalaya, Creole, 85 
Jams. See Preserves 
Japanese cookery, 156 
Jellies. See Preserves 



INDEX OF RECIPES 



303 



Jerked beef (pipikaula), 192 
Johnnycake. See Breads — quick 
June dinner, Arkansas, 182 

Kaffee kuchen, 37 
Kartoffel kloesse, 250 
Kedgeree. See Fish 
Kid cooked with blood, 144 
Kidney beans. See Vegetables 
Kloesse, kartoffel, 250 
Knabrus, 251 
Kreuznach horns, 124 
Kuchen. See Cakes 
Kumquats, sweet pickled, 77 

Lady Baltimore cake, 49 

Lamb. See Meats 

Lawalu fish, 193 

Lechoza (pawpaw) preserve, 258 

Lee cake, 64 

Lentil soup, 148 

Lettuce. See Salads 

Lettuce, wilted, with hot vinaigrette 

dressing, 245 
Lima beans. See Vegetables 
Liver. See Meat 

Lobsters. See Fish and shell fish 
Loganberry charlotte, 167 
Love and tangle, no 
Lumberman's toast, 30 

Macaroons. See Cookies 

Mace, 290 

Mackerel. See Fish 

Mandelkraenze, 122 

Manitou black cake, 123 

Maple-butternut sauce, 270 

Maple fritters, Vermont, 16 

Maple sugar cookies, 17; gingerbread, 16, 

17, 19; frosting, 19; pie, 17 
Maple syrup custard, 119; pudding sauce, 

l l 
Maraschino cherry cake, 247 

Marble cake, plantation, 101 

Marjoram, 290 

Marmalade. See Preserves 

Marmalade cake, 63 

Mary Rowden's dinner menu, 182 

Masa spread for tamales, 141 

Meats (See also Game): 

bacon, with peas, 251 

balls, 112; Southwestern, 144 

beef: 

a la Gardette, 68 

a la mode, 54 

and oysters, in sausages, 68 

barbecued, 231 

chile con carne, 143 

goulash, 115 



Indiana sphagetti, 109 

jerked (pipikaula), 192 

loaf, 114 

olives, 61 

porterhouse, kitchen barbecue, 134 

pot roast and spaetzle, 249 

sauerbraten, 33; Nebraska, 128 

spiced, rancho, 145 

steak, baked, 107 

steak with oysters, 157 

sukiyaki, 156 

tenderloin, 129 
cold, New England sauce, 22 
ham: 

and dumplings (schnitz un knepp), 
33, 250 

baked, 47, 73, 209; bluegrass, 54; 
Missouri, 1 34; Pennsylvania Dutch, 
249; with orange slices, 75 

fillet, 273 

fresh, roasted like wild pig, 128 

fritters, 152 

okra dobe, 174 

pops, 152 

slice, Oregon, 166 

Smithfield, 271 

stuffed, 47 

with red beans and rice, 87 
hamburger vegetable soup, 109 
kid cooked with blood, 144 
lamb: 

barbecued, with sauce, 94 

roast, 269 

roast leg, 128; with apricot sauce, 197 
larded, with potatoes, 257 
liver, calf's, stuffed, 61 
liver, stuffed, 34 
mutton, roast, 54 
pasteles (Puerto Rico), 260 
pepperpot, Philadelphia, 35 
picadillo, 61 
pork: 

barbecued, 173 

chaurice, 83 

chops, stuffed, and dressing, 205 

jambalaya, 85 

jowl with turnip greens, 48 

roast, 245 

rosettes, 132 

salt, with string beans, 264 

scrapple, 34 

suckling pig, roast, 95 

shote, barbecued, 62 

spareribs and sauerkraut, 34 

tamales, 141, 142, 143 
sauce, cowboy, 231 
sausage, with baked apples, 167 
schnitz un knepp (ham with dumplings), 
33 



304 



INDEX OF RECIPES 



Meats — Continued 
steiner, pickled, 129 
veal: 

cutlets, New Mexican, 144 

escallops, with beer sauce, 119 

loaf, jellied, 112 

ragout, 61 

roast leg, 128 

schnitzel, cream, 273 
Meringue Rock Arbour pie, 31 
Mexican cookery, 140 
Mexican sage, 291 
Miami grill, 75 
Mincemeat, 24 
Mixed whole spice, 290 
Molasses pie, 38, 186; shoo-fly pie, 252 
Moss rose cake, 39 
Mousse, strawberry, frappe, 217 
Mousse loaf, chicken, 134 
Muffins. See Breads 
Muscadine pie, 175 
Mush batter cakes, 58 
Mushroom, cream of, soup, 225 
Mushroom dressing, Hochessin, 187 
Mushrooms and wild rice, 98; savory, 185 
Mustard, 290 
Mutton. See Meats 

Nasturtium seeds, pickled, 26 

New England boiled dinner, 11 

Noodle ring with cheese sauce, 35 

Noodles for soup, 249 

Nut and raisin bread, 163 

Nut and vegetable pie, 136 

Nut pie, in 

Nut tea wafers, 106 

Nut wafers, Swedish, 123 

Nutmeg, 291 

Nutmeg sauce, 21 

Oklahoma pudding, 138 
Okra, corn, Creole, 151 
Okra dobe, 174 
Okra fritters, 73 
Okra soup, 170 
Ole kooks, 28 
Omelets. See Eggs 
Onion salt, 291 
Onion sauce, 60 
Onion soup, paysan, 212 
Onions. See Vegetables 
Opossum. See Game 
Oranges: 

biscuits, 162 

recipes, 75-77 

salad dressing, 159 

salads, with onion, mint or raisins, 158 

slices, for baked ham, 75 

soup, chilled, 161 



Orchard grower's bread, 162 

Oregano, 291 

Ovens, temperatures, 294 

Oysters. See Fish and shell fish 

Oysters, mock (Dutch welshkorn), 251 

Ozark Mountain menu, 182 

Palisade ice cream, 185 

Pancakes: 

bannocks, Indian meal, 24 
bread crumb batter cakes, 29 
buckwheat, 16, 235, 238, 239 
corn cakes, skillet or spider, 19 
French, 89 

griddle, mush batter, 58 
huckleberry, 15 
love and tangle, no 
tortillas, 140 

Pandowdy, apple, 222, 263; Empire State, 

31 . 
Paoli persimmon pudding, 202 

Papayas: 

baked, 97; with coconut custard, 97 

canapes, 97 

cocktail, 97 
Paprika, 291 
Partridges. See Game 
Pass Christian sauce, 212 
Paste, 62 

Pasteles (Puerto Rican), 260 
Pastry. See Cakes, Pies, etc. 
Pawpaw preserves, 258 
Peaches: 

baked, 210 

cream, 74 

honey, 200 

ice cream, Palisade, 185 

pie, 169 

spiced, 199 
Peanut, cookies, cimarron, 207 
Peanut filling, 124, 190 
Peanut soup, 135 

Pears, baked, 168; croquettes, 168 
Peas. See Vegetables 
Pecan nuts: 

brownies, 100 

cake, 99 

pie, 100, 183, 191; Fort Deposit pie, 175 

pudding, hot, with grapefruit sauce, 268 
Pendennis turtle soup, 95 
Pennsylvania Dutch cookery, 248-52 
Pepper sauce for venison, 85 
Pepperpot, Philadelphia, 35 
Peppers: 

chili, 287 

green and red, Christmas relish, 139 

Spanish. See Vegetables 

sweet, black and white, 291 



INDEX OF RECIPES 



305 



Persimmon leather, candied, 207 
Persimmon pudding, 183, 202 
Pheasants. See Game 
Philadelphia pepperpot, 35 
Picadillo, 61 
Pickled fish, 259 
Pickles: 

buck and breck, 66 
cantaloupe, 66 
corn, 113 

currants, spiced, 23 
Kennebunk, 23 
kumquats, sweet, 77 
nasturtium seed, 26 
peach, 199 
plums, sweet, 32 
watermelon, 57 
Pieplant. See Rhubarb 
Pies: 

Boston cream, 18 
brown sugar, 107 
caramel, 70 
fish: 
clam, 9 
oyster, 7 
fruit: 

apple, cob, 25; deep-dish, 235; pan- 
dowdy, 31, 222, 263 
blueberry, 218 
cherry tarts, 278 
grapefruit, 151 
honey apple, 239 
muscadine, 175 
peach, 169 

pieplant (rhubarb), 266; custard, 279 
pumpkin, 136 
raisin crumb, 38 
Rock Arbour, 31 
squash, 18 
maple sugar, 17 
meat: 

chicken, 69; and green corn, 58 
mincemeat for pie, 24 
sea pie, and paste, 62 
meringue, Rock Arbour, 31 
molasses, 38, 186; shoo-fly, 252 
nut, in 

pecan, 100, 191, 183; Fort Deposit, 

*75 

nut and vegetable, 136 

pudding, 50 

shoo-fly (molasses), 252 

sweet potato custard, 89 

tamale, 160 

transparent, 274 
Pig, roast suckling. See Meats — pork 
Pigeons. See Poultry — squabs 
Pike. See Fish 
Pimiento cheese salad, 158 



Pineapples: 

and strawberry sauce, 165 
custard, 260 
sabayon, 195 
sauce, 196; for fish, 195 
Pipikaula (jerked beef), 192 
Plantains. See Vegetables 
Plantation dinner, Arkansas, 181 
Plantation marble cake, 101 
Planters punch, 102 
Plums, sweet pickled, 32 
Poaching fish, broth for, 3 
Poke greens, boiled, 48 
Pomegranate ice, 180 
Pompano. See Fish 
Pone. See Breads — quick 
Poppy seed, 292; cake, 122 
Pork. See Meats 
Porterhouse. See Meats — beef 
Possum. See Game 
Pot likker and dodger, 91 
Pot roast. See Meats — beef 
Potatoes. See Vegetables 
Potatoes, sweet. See Vegetables 
Poultry: 

bean-hole cookery, 169 
chicken: 

a la tartare, 93 
and green corn pie, 58 
and oyster casserole, 8 
barbecued, 151 

fried, Kansas, 204; Kentucky, 53; 
Maryland (two recipes), 45; 
Missouri, 228; Southern, 227; 
oven-fried, 203; with puffs, 173 
hen roast, Pennsylvania Dutch, 249 
mousse, loaf, 134 
pie, 69; potpie, 93 
pudding, 58 

ranchero, with peanut sauce, 145 
roast, Georgia, 189; Pennsylvania 

Dutch, 249 
salad, California, 159 
salmagundi, 60 

saute, aux champignons (mush- 
rooms), 215 
shortcake, 92 
terrapin, 69 
with oysters, 53 
with rice, 259 

with spinach and coconut, 193 
ducks: 

dinner, Arkansas, 182 
salad, 76 

shredded, Chinese, 155 
stewed, with turnips, 83 
with orange, 60 
geese, Virginia, 59 
giblet hash, 46 



306 



INDEX OF RECIPES 



Poultry — Continued 
guinea hen, 127; with sauce, 133 
squabs: 

a la crapaudine, 215 

pot-roasted, 129 

roast, with rice pilau, 92 
stuffing, peanut, 190 
turkeys: 

a la duabe, 59 

boneless, 46 

mole, Mexican, 146 

roast, with celery stuffing, 196; with 
mushroom dressing, 187; with wild 
rice dressing, 226 

stew, 72 

stuffing, 242 
Prairie chickens. See Game 
Preserves, conserves and jellies: 
buffalo berry jelly and butter, 265 
chokecherry, 232, 279 
coconut, 256 
cranberry, 247 
fig, 172 

gooseberry, 243 
grape conserve, 32 
guava , 254 
lechoza (pawpaw), 258 
peach, 74; peach honey, 200 
plum, wild, 206 
quince, chopped, 26 
rhubarb, 132; marmalade, 116 
sherry, 101 

sweet cucumber mangoes, 137 
tangerine, 77 
Prune bars, 163 
Prune coffee cake, 164 
Prune salad, 166 
Puddings: 

apple pandowdy, 31, 222, 263 

black, 56 

blueberry, steamed, 20 

bread, 152 

carrot, 100 

charlotte, loganberry, 167 

chicken, 58 

coconut (Hawaiian), 195 

coconut bread, 51 

corn, 271 

Indian, baked, 20 

Iowa, 131 

noodle ring, with cheese sauce, 35 

Oklahoma, 138 

pecan, hot, with grapefruit sauce, 268 

persimmon, 183, 202 

pie, 50 

pineapple sabayon, 195 

rice and meal, 25 

rothe gruetze, 125 

salmon, 118 



sauces: 

apricot, 197 
brandy, 48 

for Iowa pudding, 131 
for salmon pudding, 118 
grapefruit, 268 
hard, 191 
Hyannis, 21 
maple syrup, 17 
steamed, m 
tansy, 65 
Yorkshire, 20 
Puffs, hominy, 55 
Pumpkin pie, 136 
Pumpkin pone, 188 
Punch, planters, 102; regent's, 68 
Purees. See Soups 

Quail. See Game 
Quenelles, potato, 213 
Queso (cheese) chile con, 143 
Quick breads. See Breads 
Quinces, chopped, 26 

Rabbits. See Game 
Ragout of veal, 61 
Raisin and nut bread, 163 
Raisin crumb pie, 38 
Raisin rolled cookies, 163 
Raisin wheels, 162 
Ranchman's soup, 147 
Raspberry cream, 167 
Red chocolate cake, no 
Red flannel hash, 12 
Red pineapple sauce, 165 
Regent's punch, 68 
Relishes: 

Christmas, 139 

coleslaw, 223 

India, 40 
Remoulade sauce, 212 
Rhubarb: 

conserve, 132 

custard pie, 279 

marmalade, 116 

pie, 266 
Rice. See Vegetables 
Rice and meal pudding, 25 
Rice cakes (calas), 86; Alabama, 92; 

crullers, 261 
Rice custard, almond, 150 
Rinktum tiddy, 13 
Rock Arbour pie, 31 
Rockfish. See Fish 
Rolls. See Breads 
Rosemary, 292 
Rothe gruetze, 125 
Russe, cotton boll, 175 



INDEX OF RECIPES 



307 



Sabayon, 195 

Saffron, 292 

Sage, 292; Mexican, 291 

Salads: 

apple, with dressing, 274 

avocado, in the half shell, 158; avocado 

and tomato, 150 
beer cabbage, 119 
celery, vinaigrette, 247 
chicken, California, 159 
dressings: 

apple salad, 274 

cheese, 226 

cream, for coleslaw, 245 

French, with cheese, 226 

fruit salad, 165 

golden, 160 

goldenrod, 174 

grapefruit, 76 

orange, 159 

saline, 206 
duck, 76 
endive, 215 
fruit, dressing for, 165 
green, Idaho, 153 
guspachy, 96 
herring, 126 
home garden, 267 
jellied, 270 
lettuce, 221 
molded, Florida, 76 

orange, with onion, mint or raisins, 158 
pimiento cheese, 158 
potato, cream, 125 
prune, 166 
Spanish, 149 
spinach, 206 

sweet pepper, Creole, 213 
tomato and avocado, 150 
vegetable, with cheese, 159 
watercress, 159 
Salmagundi, 60 
Salmon. See Fish 
Sancocho (vegetable stew), 254 
Sauces: 

a la crapaudine, for pigeons, 216 

anchovy, for broiled trout, 63 

apple, with spearmint, 269 

beer, 119 

brandy, 48 

caper, 22 

Chambord, 82 

cheese, with noodle ring, 35 

cocktail, 22 

cold meat, New England, 22 

cowboy, 231 

"dip," in 

egg, for boiled halibut, 4 

Eldorado, 205 



for baked trout, 113 

for barbecued lamb, 94 

maple-butternut, 270 

nutmeg, 21 

onion, 60 

Pass Christian, 212 

pepper, for venison, 85 

pineapple, 195, 196; and strawberry, 

\ 6 S 

pudding. See Puddings 

red pineapple, 165 

remoulade, 212 

tomato, a la crapaudine, for pigeons, 216 

wine, 48; for game, 22 
Sauerbraten, 33; Nebraska, 128 
Sauerkraut with spareribs, 34 
Sausage. See Meats 
Savory, 292 

Scallop, apple and sweet potato, 30 
Scallop, corn, 25 
Scalloped cheese, 117 
Scallops. See Fish and shell fish 
Schnecken, breakfast, 36 
Schnitz un knepp, 33, 250 
Schnitzel. See Meats — veal 
Schwarzbrod torte, 123 
Scones. See Breads — quick 
Scotch shortbread, 28 
Scrapple, 34 

Scuppernong cocktail, 170 
Sea pie and paste, 62 
Seminole soup, 68 
Sesame seed, 292 

Shad and shad roe. See Fish and shell fish 
Shell fish. See Fish and shell fish 
Sherbets: 

apple, 199 

boysenberry, 108 

tropical, 196 
Sherry jelly, 101 
Shoo-fly cake, 38; pie, 252 
Shore dinner. See Fish and shell fish 
Shortcake, 92 
Short'nin' bread, 101 
Shote, barbecued, 62 
Shrimps. See Fish and shell fish 
Slaw, cole. See Coleslaw 
Slaw, hot, with dressing, 23 
Slump, fruit, 21 
Smierkase, 36 
Smithfield ham, 271 
Snickerdoodle, 116 
Snowballs, sweet potatoes, 190 
Sorghum-flavored ice cream, 267 
Souffle, gold rush, 160 
Soups: 

almond, and whipped cream, 126 

bama, 170 

bean, 14 



308 



INDEX OF RECIPES 



Soups — Continued 

bisque of razor clams, 246 

black bean, 149 

chowders. See Chowder 

clam, razor bisque, 246 

consomme supreme, 213 

crab, family style, 78 

crawfish bisque, 79 

lentil, 148 

mushroom, cream of, 225 

noodles, homemade, for soup, 249 

okra, 170 

onion, paysan, 212 

orange, chilled, 161 

peanut, 135 

puree, corn; yautia, 258 

ranchman's, 147 

Seminole, 68 

shrimp gumbo file, 78 

tripe (Chinese), 155 

turtle, Pendennis, 95 

vegetable, hamburger, 109; victory, 232 

vegetables, cream of, 277 

victory vegetable, 232 
Sour cream ginger cake, 73 
Spaetzle (dumplings) and pot roast, 249 
Spaghetti, Indiana, 109 
Spanish salad, 149 
Spareribs and sauerkraut, 34 
Spatzen, 126 
Spice, mixed whole, 290 
Spice cake, Greenville, 175 
Spice shelf today, the, 284-93 
Spinach. See Salads 
Spoon (corn meal) bread, 267 
Sprouts, Brussels. See Vegetables 
Squabs. See Poultry 
Squash. See Vegetables 
Squash pie, 18 
State menus, 170-279 
Steak. See Meats — beef 
Steam pone, 52 
Steamed pudding, in 
Steiner, pickled, 129 

Stew, burgoo, for small parties, 91; vege- 
table, with beef and pork, 254 
Strawberries: 

and pineapple sauce, 165 

ice, 210 

ice cream, 227 

mousse, frappe, 217 

shortcake, 165 
String beans. See Vegetables 
Strudel, apfel, 37 
Stuffings. See Dressings 
Succotash. See Vegetables 
Suckling pig. See Meats — pork 
Sukiyaki, beef, 156 
Sunshine cake, 115 



Swedish nut wafers, 123 

Sweet basil, 293 

Sweetbreads, chicken terrapin, 94; in 

nests, 107; with orange, 59 
Sweet pepper salad, Creole, 213 
Sweet potatoes (See also Vegetables) : 

and almond croquettes, 135 

and apple scallop, 30 

custard pie, 89 

pone, 92 
Syllabub, 68, 220 

Taffy, black walnut, sorghum, 208 

Tamale pie, 160 

Tamales, 141, 142, 143 

Tangerine jam, y/ 

Tansy pudding, 65 

Tapioca pudding, rothe gruetze, 125 

Taquitos, 143 

Tarts, cherry, 278 

Tea, 282-83 

Temperatures and times for baking and 

cooking, 294-95 
Terrapin, diamond-back, 220 
Terrapin chicken, 69 
Terrapin stew, 71 
Thirded bread (corn meal), 24 
Thyme, 293 
Times and temperatures for baking and 

cooking, 294-95 
Tipsy parson, 56 

Toast, German, 124; lumberman's, 30 
Tomato sauce for pigeons, a la crap- 

audine, 216 
Tomatoes. See Salads; Vegetables 
Torte. See Cakes 
Tortillas, 140 
Transparent pie, 274 
Trifle, apple, 31 
Tripe, Philadelphia pepperpot, 35; with 

onions, casserole, 12; soup, 155 
Trout. See Fish and shell fish 
Turbot. See Fish 
Turkeys. See Poultry 
Turmeric, 292 
Turnips. See Vegetables 
Turnovers, apple, 166 
Turtle soup, Pendennis, 95 

Veal. See Meats 
Vegetable and nut pie, 136 
Vegetable salad with cheese, 159 
Vegetable soup, victory, 232 
Vegetable stew, with beef and pork, 254 
Vegetables: 

artichokes a la barigoule, 216; in vine- 
gar, 148 

beans: 

a la Egyptienne, 112 



INDEX OF RECIPES 



309 



and corn, 25 

Boston baked, 13, 221 

frijoles, 149 

red, and rice, 87 
beets, Harvard, 221; piquante, 214 
Brussels sprouts au beurre, 214 
cabbage, knabrus, 251 
carrots a la Bryan, 233; California, 161 
corn and beans, 25; Dutch welshkorn 

(mock oysters), 251 
endive (chicory), with cream sauce, 88 
green peas, Creole style, 88 
kidney bean stew, 257 
knabrus (cabbage), 251 
lima beans Schwenkfelder, 251 
loaf, 108 
onions, cooked, whole, 199; French 

fried, 275 
peas and bacon, 251 
peppers, Spanish, 161 
plantains, ripe, stewed, 260; stuffed, 

255 
poke greens, boiled, 48 
potatoes: 

a la diable, 89 

Brabant, 88 

in half shell, 205 

kloesse, 250 

quenelles, 213 

rolls, 137 

salad, cream, 125 

sweet. See Vegetables — sweet pota- 
toes 
rice: 

and red beans, 87 

and chicken, 259 

boiled, 258 

stewed, 148 

wild, and mushrooms, 98 

with pigeon peas, 255 



squash, baked, 135; gold rush souffle, 

160; whole, glazed, 242 
string beans, with salt pork, 264 
succotash, no, 223 
sweet potatoes: 

and almond croquettes, 135 
balls, 236 

candied (glace), 174, 205, 240, 267 
Golden State, 161 
snowballs, 190 
Southwestern, 149 
tomatoes, stuffed, 191 
turnip greens and hog's jowl, 48 
yams. See Vegetables — sweet potatoes 
Venison. See Game 

Vinaigrette dressing, hot, for wilted let- 
tuce. 245 

Wafers. See Cookies 

Waffles, in; sourdough, 177, 178; Vir- 

ginia, 98 
Washington cake, 50 
Water chestnut dressing, 273 
Watercress salad, 159 
Watermelon, frozen, 55 
Watermelon cocktail, 137 
Watermelon pickle, 57 
Wedding cake, 64 
Welsh rabbit, 117; Minnesota, 124 
Wheat germ muffins, 273 
White fruit cake, 50 
W T hole spice, mixed, 290 
Wine sauce, 48; for game, 22 

Yams. See Vegetables — sweet potatoes 
Yautia puree, 258 
Yorkshire pudding, 20 

Zephyrinas, 6j 
Zimmetsterne, 122 



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